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Network administration and Support

UNIT STRUCTURE
 Managing network accounts
 Managing network performance
 Managing n...
Introduction
A Network Administrator is an individual that is responsible for the maintenance of computer
hardware and sof...
Duties of a Network Administrator
The role of the Network administrator can vary significantly depending on an organizatio...
Managing network accounts
Accounting management involves tracking each individual user's utilization of network resources
...
The most likely place where accounting management is needed is within a large organization
such as a business or governmen...
Managing Access and Accounts:

•

Setting up user accounts is less complicated than assigning access rights

•

Every OS h...
•

If the passwords are too difficult to remember, users will probably write them down and
may even post them

•

A weak p...
components, the error rates for packets traversing the network are down and response times are
shortened.

•

As your netw...
The Event Viewer

•

Allows auditing certain events

•

The Event Viewer maintains three log files:
– One for system proce...
Network securitymanagement

Security management deals with ensuring overall security of the network, including protecting
...
passwords, but it does not contain the same amount of confidential information as a network in a
major government agency. ...
knows the risks, he can configure the network in such a way that the network is more secure
against those particular issue...
Protecting Data and Systems

•

Backing up data is critical

•

Off-site copies of data allow recovery in case an entire f...
a) Topologies
b) Buses
c) Protocols
5. While installing NT server as a member server in Corp domain you get the
message "C...
a) 65,435

b) 16,384

c) 16,483

d) 65,534

10. What Class of Address has a 0 as the Most Significant Bit in the first oct...
15. You have installed Windows NT Server 4.0 and now want to set up fault tolerance
on your hard disk.
Which of the follow...
that can't communicate with an NT server at 160.110.4.17. The subnet mask on
everything is 255.255.252.0.
There are also s...
b) naming the BDC as the PDC
c) using server manager
d) 2 & 3
22. For connectivity to UNIX systems connected to your Windo...
a) Change the subnet mask to 255.255.240.0
b) Change the subnet mask to 255.255.248.0
c) Place the problem workstation on ...
b) a 32-bit octal number separated into 4 bytes.
c) a 32-bit number normally written as a 4-decimal number with each numbe...
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Network administration and support

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Managing network accounts
 Managing network performance
 Managing network data security

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Network administration and support

  1. 1. Network administration and Support UNIT STRUCTURE  Managing network accounts  Managing network performance  Managing network data security What you will learn  You will learn how to install, configure and maintain computer hardware, protocols, operating systems, software and internet-working devices, with special emphasis on developing troubleshooting skills.  Instructors with business and industry experience lead classes and cover key topics such as network administration, client/server installation and support, Web server management, database implementation and network security.  You will have the chance to work in groups with other class members to learn valuable teamwork and communication skills that reflect the real-world soft-skill requirements.
  2. 2. Introduction A Network Administrator is an individual that is responsible for the maintenance of computer hardware and software systems that make up a computer network including the maintenance and monitoring of active data network or converged infrastructure and related network equipment. Network Administrators are generally mid-level support staff within an organization and do not typically get involved directly with users. Network Administrators focus upon network components within a company's LAN/WAN infrastructure ensuring integrity. Depending on the company and its size, the Network Administrator may also design and deploy networks.
  3. 3. Duties of a Network Administrator The role of the Network administrator can vary significantly depending on an organizations size, location and socio-economic considerations. Some organizations work on a user-to-technical support ratio.] whilst others implement many other strategies. Generally, in terms of reactive situations (i.e.: unexpected disruptions to service, or service improvements), IT Support Incidents are raised through an Issue tracking system. Typically, these issues work their way through a Help desk and then flow through to the relevant technology area for resolution. In the case of a network related issue, an issue will be directed towards a Network Administrator. If a Network Administrator is unable to resolve an issue, a ticket will be escalated to a more senior Network Engineer for restoration of service or a more appropriate skill group. Network Administrators are often involved in proactive work. This type of work will often include:  Network monitoring  Testing the network for weakness  Keeping an eye out for needed updates  Installing and implementing security programs  In many cases, E-mail and Internet filters
  4. 4. Managing network accounts Accounting management involves tracking each individual user's utilization of network resources for the purposes of allocation of resources and billing for their use of the network. This type of information helps a network manager allocate the right kind of resources to users, as well as plan for network growth. With the same information, the cost of transmitting messages across the network can be computed and billed to the user if the traffic was revenue bearing. This type of management involves monitoring the login and logoff records, and checking the network usage to determine a user's use of the network. In addition, access privileges and usage quotas can be established and checked against actual for accounting information. Accounting management is an applied field that deals with actual money moving in and out of a system. In many ways, it is the applied form of economics, although the vast majority of accounting management applies to a single business or system rather than an entire economy. This form of management has two main functions: it oversees project planning from an economic standpoint and it deals with the banking and the accounting aspects of the company.
  5. 5. The most likely place where accounting management is needed is within a large organization such as a business or government. In these larger organizations, the accounts are usually managed by an entire department that does nothing but work through monetary information. Smaller structures typically have an accounting system, but do not require the all-encompassing systems commonly found in accounting management. These smaller accounting systems typically have a small staff or may even outsource their accounting to a local firm. The first main duty of accounting management is overseeing the money used by the organization. As a result, the accounting department is typically involved in nearly every aspect of the organization’s dealings. The accountants assist with every phase of a project from planning to implementation. The accounting system will often determine the monetary viability of a project before it is even started, essentially deciding if the organization can afford the money it will need to spend. The work of this department is often more behind-the-scenes than others. The planning and analysis phases of a new project are often done by accounting before they are given over to the rest of the company. If the accountants determine that the project isn’t worth the expenditure, it is often terminated before the rest of them company is even fully aware of it. In approved projects, accounting management is used to keep the spending on track. This means that the department is constantly overseeing the actions of other departments in order to keep costs down. This, plus the initial approval phases, gives this department a great deal of power in a standard organization. As a result, most large-scale accounting departments perform rigorous internal audits to keep the department on track. The second duty of an accounting management department is handling the money as it flows through the organization. It handles corporate bank accounts, payroll, invoicing and receiving. For the most part, if the process involves the movement of money, whether in or out of the company, the accountants are usually part of it.
  6. 6. Managing Access and Accounts: • Setting up user accounts is less complicated than assigning access rights • Every OS has procedures and/or an interface for setting up accounts • It is better to add privileges than to take them away from users • Start with fairly restrictive account policies User Accounts: • A user account holds information about the specific user • It can contain basic information such as name, password, and the level of permission the user in granted • It can also contain much more specific information such as the department the user works in, a home phone number, and the days and hours the user is allowed to log on to specific workstations Managing Groups: • Groups are created to make the sharing of resources more manageable • A group contains users that share a common need for access to a particular resource • Even though the connotations may differ with each operating system, all of these terms still refer to the access that a user or group account is granted Administrator Account : • All operating systems have an administrative account • The administrative account should be used only for the purpose of administering the server • Granting users this type of access is a disaster waiting to happen • Most operating systems set up the administrative account during installation Passwords: • Allowing users to create simple passwords produces an unsecured environment
  7. 7. • If the passwords are too difficult to remember, users will probably write them down and may even post them • A weak password might be very short or only use alphanumeric characters or contain information easily guessed by someone profiling the user Strong Passwords: • Strong passwords can be derived from events or things the user knows • For example, the phrase "Going to the Bahamas on June 6, 2006 with Jean” can be converted to gtB6606@J • This creates a complex password that is easy for the user to remember Password Policies: • Password policies help protect the network from hackers and define the responsibilities of users who have been given access to company resources • All users should read and sign security policies as part of their employment process • Many times it is necessary to restrict logon hours for maintenance purposes. Performance Management Performance management involves measuring the performance of a network and its resources in terms of utilization, throughput, error rates, and response times. With performance management information, a network manager can reduce or prevent network overcrowding and inaccessibility. This helps provide a more consistent level of service to users on the network,without overtaxing the capacity of devices and links. This form of management looks at the percentage of utilization of devices and error rates to help in improving and balancing the throughput of traffic in all parts of a network. Typically, some devices are more highly utilized than others. Performance monitoring give qualitative and time relevant information on the health and performance of devices so that underutilized devices are more fully utilized, and overtaxed devices are rebalanced. In a well-utilized network with healthy
  8. 8. components, the error rates for packets traversing the network are down and response times are shortened. • As your network changes, its performance must be monitored and improved • A measure of normal activity is known as a baseline • Baselines must be updated on a regular basis, when the network has changed, or new technology has been deployed Monitoring Tools • After baselines are established, the network needs to be monitored • Many tools can be used to monitor the performance on the network: – Event Viewer – Performance Console – Network Monitor – Task Manager
  9. 9. The Event Viewer • Allows auditing certain events • The Event Viewer maintains three log files: – One for system processes – One for security information – One for applications The Task Manager • Task Manager can be used to end processes or applications that get hung up without having to reboot the machine • It also gives you an instant view of CPU and memory usage • It should be one of the first places to check when something seems awry The Network Monitor • Network Monitor is a protocol analyzer • It can be used to capture network traffic and generate statistics for creating reports • Network Monitor is not installed by default in Windows 2000 • It must be added as an optional Windows component
  10. 10. Network securitymanagement Security management deals with ensuring overall security of the network, including protecting sensitive information through the control of access points to that information. Sensitive information is any data that an organization wants to secure, such as research documents, payroll data, and sales and inventory figures. Protecting sensitive data from unauthorized access is a common requirement. Security concerns can be assuaged with a well-designed and implemented security management system. Security management controls access to the network devices and sensitive information through the use of devices such as passwords. This management also controls the form of sensitive data using methods such as encryption. There are many encryption techniques available for sensitivedigital data such as public and private key encryption that have been in use for some time. Each area of management in this five-part model is not exclusive of the others. It is typical for performance management to work in conjunction with fault and configuration management. For example, a monitored device interface that exhibits a slowly increasingerror rate can be verified by an alarm query, and could then be reconfigured and bypassed before the fault affects traffic. Using these five management categories as guide lines, a more critical review can be made of any product's ability to manage or be managed as a network device. security is that the security an organization needs largely determines exactly how professionals manage the network. Each part of the security system also has to be organized well to ensure efficiency of control, with managers identifying the threats present for the network. When managers find breaches of policy or law that relate to the system, it is their responsibility to turn individuals over to the proper authorities or take appropriate business action. The amount of security necessary in a network varies from person to person and business to business. For instance, a home network may contain some personal information such as
  11. 11. passwords, but it does not contain the same amount of confidential information as a network in a major government agency. The more sensitive the information on the network is, or the larger the amount of data, the more closely managers have to manage the network, putting more heavyduty security measures in place. Understanding that the need for network management and security varies, network managers must formalize their network management and security policies. For example, they might write a specific policy that explains the specific software or user authentication procedure the company will use, or what a person has to do for permission to connect a portable device such as a flash drive. Within the policy, they must be specific about the penalties or consequences of policy breach, such as suspension, loss of pay, dismissal or alert of police. Just as police officers have to identify threats such as violence, people in network security and management have to identify the threats to the network in order to develop a management policy and keep the network at the right level of access. Examples of threats to network management and security include hacking, viruses and denial-of-service attacks. Once the network manager
  12. 12. knows the risks, he can configure the network in such a way that the network is more secure against those particular issues. Identifying risks involves investigating both the hardware and software a person or company uses. Network management and security personnel are not law enforcement agents. When they have evidence of an electronic or Internet crime, however, they are obligated to report the problem. This is a matter of both company and social stability. This obligation leads network managers to serve as liaisons between their company or client and law enforcement agents as needed, providing evidence of legal breaches and testifying about the network in question. If an employee is dismissed or disciplined for breach of company policy rather than law, the network manager might have to help defend the company's decision in the instance the dismissed or disciplined employee files a lawsuit. Network Security Components: • The security components of a network fall into the following three areas: – physical – data – system Physical Security • identifies threats to the hardware and buildings that store system data • Threats include unauthorized access as well as natural disasters • As new physical security systems are deployed users must be trained on how to use them Protecting Data and Systems • Backing up data is critical • Off-site copies of data allow recovery in case an entire facility is destroyed • If backup function is outsourced, be sure the company is reputable and the employees are bonded
  13. 13. Protecting Data and Systems • Backing up data is critical • Off-site copies of data allow recovery in case an entire facility is destroyed • If backup function is outsourced, be sure the company is reputable and the employees are bonded Questions: 1. Twisted pair cabling uses an RJ-11 connector. a) True b) False 2. Which cable type offers the most security? a) Coaxial b) Shielded twisted pair c) Fiber optic d) Twisted pair 3. Which statement is not true about a repeater? a) It regenerates network signals so they can travel farther. b) They are primarily used in linear cable systems. c) Every node on the network must have the same address. d) All segments must have the same access address. 4. Ethernet,Token ring, and Arcnet are_____?
  14. 14. a) Topologies b) Buses c) Protocols 5. While installing NT server as a member server in Corp domain you get the message "Could not locatePrimary Domain Controller for CORP domain". What do you do? a) Install the member Server in a workgroup and join the domain later. b) Install the memeber server as a PDC. c) Install the server as a BDC in a workgroup and join the domain later. d) Stop installation 6. Three network model types are centralized, distributed and a) constructed b) administrative c) managed d) collaborative 7. Which address is valid for Class C? a) 33.114.17.24 b) 199.45.283.24 c) 202.67.13.87 d) 155.23.94.2 8. The IP address consists of ________ octets. a) 2 b) 4 c) 8 d) 16 9. How many hosts can a Class B network have if the default subnet mask is used?
  15. 15. a) 65,435 b) 16,384 c) 16,483 d) 65,534 10. What Class of Address has a 0 as the Most Significant Bit in the first octet? a) Class A b) Class B c) Class C d) Class D 11. What is the default subnet mask for a Class C address? a) 255.0.0.0 b) 255.255.0.0 c) 255.255.255.0 d) 255.255.255.255 12. EtherNet can support up to ................... nodes on a network. a) 256 b) 1024 c) 2000 d) 100 13. Which levels of RAID does Windows NT support? a) 1 to 5 b) 0 to 5 c) 1, 5 d) 0, 1, 5 14. (True/False) RAID level 5 uses a dedicated drive that holds parity information for fault tolerance. a) True b) False
  16. 16. 15. You have installed Windows NT Server 4.0 and now want to set up fault tolerance on your hard disk. Which of the following fault-tolerance methods can the system files be part of? a) mirror set b) stripe set without parity c) stripe set with parity d) volume set 16. You are installing a multiboot system containing Windows 95, Windows NT Server and Windows NT Workstation. You want to be able to share files and data among the three operating systems. What file system should you choose? a) NTFS b) FAT c) HPFS d) FAT32 17. What is the minimum requirement for Disk Duplexing ? a) 1 hard disk controller and 2 physical disks b) 1 hard disk controller and 3 physical disks c) hard disks controllers and 2 physical disks d) hard disks controller and 4 physical disks 18. You are given a diagram of a subnetted class B network. In the middle there is a router at 160.110.4.1, there is a workstation at 160.110.7.100
  17. 17. that can't communicate with an NT server at 160.110.4.17. The subnet mask on everything is 255.255.252.0. There are also some printers, and other workstations placed in there to throw you off track. a) Change the subnet mask to 255.255.240.0 b) Change the subnet mask to 255.255.248.0 c) Place the problem workstation on the same subnet as the NT server d) Some lame answer about changing the IP of one of the bogus workstations. e) Change the default gateway of the problem workstation to 160.110.4.1. 19. You have 5 class C blocks given to you by Internic. You need to implement these on you network. You have 3 segments with 300 clients each. Minimize number of subnets on each segment. What do you do? a) Leave the default subnet mask in place b) Implement a subnet mask borrowing 3 bits. c) Implement a subnet mask borrowing 4 bits. d) Something else 20. To view all computer roles in the domain you would run _____ on the PDC a) server manager b) computer manager c) domain manager d) shift manager 21. A BDC is promoted by ________ a) reinstalling Windows NT
  18. 18. b) naming the BDC as the PDC c) using server manager d) 2 & 3 22. For connectivity to UNIX systems connected to your WindowsNT network, you would use: a) TCP/IP b) NetBEUI c) NetBIOS d) UNC 23. Disk striping without parity requires _____ physical hard drives a) 2 b) 3 c) 4 d) > 4 24. When a hard drive that is part of the mirror set dies, the easiest and quickest way to get backup up and running is to: a) replace the drive with an exact match b) Reboot c) Remove the drive and reboot d) break the mirror set, replace the drive, reset the mirror set 25. You are given a diagram of a subnetted class B network. In the middle there is a router at 160.110.4.1, there is a workstation at 160.110.7.100 that can't communicate with an NT server at 160.110.4.17. The subnet mask on everything is 255.255.252.0. There are also some printers, and other workstations placed in there to throw you off track. The answers (choose two)?
  19. 19. a) Change the subnet mask to 255.255.240.0 b) Change the subnet mask to 255.255.248.0 c) Place the problem workstation on the same subnet as the NT server d) Some lame answer about changing the IP of one of the bogus workstations. e) Change the default gateway of the problem workstation to 160.110.4.1 26. What is the protocol used in windows 95 for peer-to-peer networking? a. TCP/IP b) NetBIOS c) NetBEUI d) IPX.SPX 27. You have an Ethernet network and a Tokin Ring network. When you send a file from Token Ring to Ethernet it takes 2 minutes. When you send the same file from Ethernet to Token Ring it takes 30 seconds.What is the cause? a) The Ethernet packet size is larger than the Token Ring packet size b) The Token Ring packet size is larger than the Ethernet packet size. c) The Token Ring network is slower 28. How many ohms is used for termination of a 10Base5 network? a. 45 ohms b) 50 ohms c) 100 ohms 29. Which type of cabling is able to handle speeds up to 100Mbps. a) CAT 3 b) Category 5 c) Category 100 30. An IP address is: a) a 16-bit number written as a 4-decimal number with each 8 bits representing a byte.
  20. 20. b) a 32-bit octal number separated into 4 bytes. c) a 32-bit number normally written as a 4-decimal number with each number representing 8 bits of theaddress.

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