ESP PPT : GROUP 3 SYLLABUS AND COURSE DESIGN IN ESP

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ESP PPT : GROUP 3 SYLLABUS AND COURSE DESIGN IN ESP

  1. 1. Syllabus andCourse Design in ESP NUR NADIEYANA ABDUL RAHMAN PAMELA MANDY MONOK ANAK ATAR LEE KUNG YEN ZUR LAILA KADIR
  2. 2. OVERVIEW • COURSE DESIGN • SYLLABUS • QUESTION REGARDING SYLLABUS • CONCLUSION • Q/A10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 2
  3. 3. COURSE DESIGN What is a course design? •interpretation on learning needs data to produce an integrated series of teaching- learning experience. What is the aim of course design? •Lead learner to a particular state of knowledge10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 3
  4. 4. TYPES OF COURSE DESIGN: • Language-centered course design • Skill-centered course design • Learning-centered approach10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 4
  5. 5. Language-Centered Course Design Simplest kind •Drawing connection between analysis of target situation and the content of ESP courses •Seems logical10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 5
  6. 6. Language-Centered Course Design (2) • Weaknesses : – Not learner centered approach – Static and inflexible – Appears to be systematic – No acknowledgment to data analysis. – Only at the surface level of learning10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 6
  7. 7. Language-centered approach to course design: Procedure10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 7
  8. 8. Skill-Centered Course Design •SCA are founded on two principles - Theoretical - Pragmatic10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 8
  9. 9. Theoretical Principle: Iceberg theory - Underlying any language are skills and strategies used by learners to produce or understand discourse - Thus, SCA will combine the performance and competence when presenting its learning objective10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 9
  10. 10. • Pragmatic Principle : Based on goal oriented and process oriented course ( Widdowson, 1981) Problem : - Time : Not enough time to master intended subject - Experience : 1st year student have little experience10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 10
  11. 11. SCA in General :• SCA is not about achieving set of goals.• It lets the learners achieve what they can with own experience and time constraint• It is a (continuum process) which means there is no cut of point of success and failure.• Learner will simultaneously learn and develop degree of proficiency10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 11
  12. 12. SCA: Conclusion•Take more of learners into account than LCA•Still take the learner as the user of language instead of a learner•Still concern with the process of language use notof language learning 10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 12
  13. 13. Skill-centered approach to course design: Procedure10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 13
  14. 14. Comparison of Learner- and Learning-centered approaches •(Other factors)10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 14
  15. 15. LEARNING-CENTRED APPROACH • Focuses on students’ learning. • Determined by the learner. • Builds on prior knowledge and skills.10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 15
  16. 16. Diagram 1 : Learning-centered approach to course design Theoretical Analyse Analyse Theoretical Views of Learning Target views of Learning Situation Situation language Identify attitudes/ wants/ potential of learners Identify skills and knowledge needed Identify needs/ potential/ to function in the constraints of learning/ target situation teaching situation Write syllabus/ materials to exploit the potential of Evaluatio the learning situation in Evaluation n the acquisition of the skills and knowledge required by the target situation
  17. 17. 5 practices that need to be changed to achieve learning-centered approach (Weimer, 2002) : The functions of content The role of the teacher The responsibility for learning The processes and purposes of evaluation The balance of power10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 17
  18. 18. SYLLABUS10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 18
  19. 19. SYLLABUS: DEFINITION • An expression of opinion on the nature of language and learning • Acts as a guide for teachers and learners by providing goals to be attained10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 19
  20. 20. TYPES OF SYLLABUS: • Evaluation syllabus • Organizational syllabus • Materials syllabus • The Teacher syllabus • The Classroom syllabus • The Learner syllabus10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 20
  21. 21. EVALUATION SYLLABUS • To put on record the basis on which success or failure will be evaluated. • To reflect an official assumption as to the nature of language and linguistic performance.10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 21
  22. 22. ORGANIZATIONAL SYLLABUS • A list of what should be learnt will be organized • Factors which depend upon a view of how people learn will be considered in order to determine the order of terms.10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 22
  23. 23. MATERIALS SYLLABUS • Additional assumptions about the nature of language in terms of : i. Contexts of language ii. Relative weightings and integration of skills iii.Number and type of exercises iv.Degree of recycling or revision will be decided by the author.10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 23
  24. 24. THE TEACHER SYLLABUS • Teacher influence the clarity, intensity and frequency of any item, and thereby affect the image that the learners receive10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 24
  25. 25. THE CLASSROOM SYLLABUS • Is a planned lesson done by the teacher. • Although it is well planned by the teacher, it can be affected by all sorts of unexpected conditions while conducting the lesson.10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 25
  26. 26. THE LEARNER SYLLABUS • Also known as the internal syllabus. • The network of knowledge that develops in the learner’s brain, enables learner to comprehend and store the later information.10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 26
  27. 27. QUESTIONS REGARDING SYLLABUS10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 27
  28. 28. WHY IS A SYLLABUS REQUIRED?10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 28
  29. 29. Why is a syllabus required? According to Parkes and Harris(2002); • As a contract • As a permanent record • As a learning tool10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 29
  30. 30. Why is a syllabus required? (2) According to Hutchinson and Waters(1987); • Better management of study time, assessments, and reading materials • Provides moral support • Reassures sponsors and students • Acts as a road maps10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 30
  31. 31. Why is a syllabus required? (3) • Emphasizes the most important aspect of language • A set of criteria in selecting and producing materials • Assures uniformity • Basis for evaluating students10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 31
  32. 32. ON WHAT CRITERIA SHOULD A SYLLABUS BE ORGANIZED?10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 32
  33. 33. Criteria of organising syllabus• Focus- To identify which and what materials to be focused on• Select- To select materials to be taught• Subdivide- To puts things into subtopics• Sequence- To decide which comes first and what comes next 10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 33
  34. 34. TYPES OF SYLLABUS • Topic/theme syllabus (e.g. health/pollution) • Notional/functional syllabus (e.g. notional: time/space; functional: request/apology) • A situational syllabus (e.g. classroom/post office/night market) • A skill-based syllabus (e.g. negotiation/being interviewed/interviewing) • A task-based syllabus (e.g. organizing an event/writing a report) • A content-based syllabus (e.g. English for air traffic control/ english for banking)10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 34
  35. 35. WHAT ROLE SHOULD A SYLLABUS PLAY IN THE APPROACHES TO COURSE DESIGN?10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 35
  36. 36. Approaches to course design • A Language-centred approach • A Skills-centred approach • A Learning-centred approach • A Learner-centred approach10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 36
  37. 37. A LANGUAGE-CENTRED APPROACH- Generates teaching materials1. analyse target situation2. write syllabus3. write/select texts to illustrate items in syllabus4. write exercises to practise items in syllabus5. devise tests for assessing knowledge of terms in syllabus 10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 37
  38. 38. SKILLS-CENTRED APPROACH (Holmes, 1981) - Presents opportunities for students to practise and evaluate skills and strategies 1. analyze target needs 2. select interesting and representative texts 3. devise a hierarchy of skills to exploit the texts10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 38
  39. 39. SKILLS-CENTRED APPROACH (Holmes, 1981) (2) 4. order and adapt the texts as necessary to enable a focus on the required skills 5. devise activities/techniques to teach those skills 6. devise a system to assess the acquisition of the skills10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 39
  40. 40. A LEARNING-CENTRED APPROACH - Focus on learning process - instead of a linear approach, divides the design process into two levels L1. analysis – a)actual learning situation, b)target situation10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 40
  41. 41. A LEARNING-CENTRED APPROACH (2) L2. generation of : c) language syllabus based on (a) d) skills syllabus based on (b) e) complement results of each analysis to form new syllabus10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 41
  42. 42. A LEARNER-CENTRED APPROACH- Focus on the learners1. identify the purpose of the course2. develop learner-centered objectives3. structure course according to objectives - course outline4. structure course according to goals - build lessons5. calendar6. support pieces 10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 42
  43. 43. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. What is course design? 2. What is a syllabus? 3. In your opinion, which one is the best approach in the course design mentioned previously? 4. Briefly describe the criteria of how a syllabus should be organized in general.10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 43
  44. 44. Summary • COURSE DESIGN • SYLLABUS • QUESTIONS REGARDING SYLLABUS • CONCLUSION • Q/A10/31/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com 44

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