Spanish grammer book

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Spanish grammer book

  1. 1. Grammar Book Diego Taylor
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Ser </li></ul><ul><li>Estar </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs Like Gustar </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs in the Preterit </li></ul><ul><li>Preterit Trigger Words </li></ul><ul><li>-Car, -Gar, -Zars </li></ul><ul><li>Spock Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Cucaracha Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Snake Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Snakeyes </li></ul><ul><li>Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular Commands </li></ul><ul><li>DOP </li></ul><ul><li>IOP </li></ul><ul><li>Only time OPs can Hook onto Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Se Impersonal </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ser <ul><li>To be </li></ul><ul><li>Used for: </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Origin </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Possessions </li></ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul><ul><li>Dates </li></ul>
  4. 4. Estar <ul><li>To be </li></ul><ul><li>“ How you feel and where you are is when you use estar.” –Sra. Rodriguez </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Present Condition </li></ul><ul><li>I </li></ul><ul><li>N </li></ul><ul><li>G </li></ul>
  5. 5. Verbs Like Gustar <ul><li>Gustar verbs only conjugate into the Usted, Ustedes and in some cases the tú forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Gustar Gusta Gustas Gustan </li></ul><ul><li>Faltar Falta Faltas Faltan </li></ul><ul><li>Doler Duele Dueles Duelen </li></ul><ul><li>Fascinar Fascina Fascinas Fasinan </li></ul><ul><li>Molestar Molesta Molestas Molestan </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hacer Expressions <ul><li>Hacer expressions are used to express time </li></ul><ul><li>Hace + Time + Que + Verb </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Hace tres dias que trabajo aquí </li></ul><ul><li>I have been working here for three days </li></ul><ul><li>Hace tres dias que empec é a trabajar aquí </li></ul><ul><li>I started working here three years ago </li></ul>
  7. 7. Verbs in The Preterit <ul><li>The preterit is used when an action has a definite beginning and/or end. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Preterit Trigger Words <ul><li>Words or phrases that are used to call for the use of a preterit verb </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>Ayer=yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>El otro dia=the other day </li></ul><ul><li>El dia anterior=the day before </li></ul><ul><li>Va a vez=one time </li></ul><ul><li>Ayer por la mañana=yesterday morning </li></ul>
  9. 9. Preterit Triggers cont. <ul><li>El fin de samana passado=last weekend </li></ul><ul><li>Entonces=then </li></ul><ul><li>En ese memento=in that moment </li></ul><ul><li>Hace dos dias=two days ago </li></ul>
  10. 10. Preterit irregulars, -Car, -Gar, -Zar <ul><li>First grouping of irregular preterit verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Only conjugated differently in the “yo” form </li></ul><ul><li>Car -> qué Tocar-> toqué </li></ul><ul><li>Gar -> ué Jugar-> jugué </li></ul><ul><li>Zar -> cé comenzar-> comencé </li></ul>
  11. 11. Spock Verbs <ul><li>Spock verbs are the second grouping of irregular verbs in the preterit </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer: hice hiciste hizo hicimos hicieron </li></ul><ul><li>Ir/ser: fui fuiste fue fuimos fueron </li></ul><ul><li>Dar: di diste dio dimos dieron </li></ul><ul><li>Ver: vi viste vio vimos vieron </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cucaracha Verbs <ul><li>Third grouping of irregular preterit verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Only the base of verb changes while preterit endings stay same </li></ul><ul><li>Andar=anduv- </li></ul><ul><li>Estar=estuv- </li></ul><ul><li>Poder=pud- </li></ul><ul><li>Poner=pus- </li></ul><ul><li>Querer=quis- </li></ul><ul><li>Saber=sup- </li></ul><ul><li>Tener=tuv- </li></ul><ul><li>Vener=vin </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cucaracha Verbs cont. <ul><li>Conduceir=conduj- </li></ul><ul><li>Producir=produj </li></ul><ul><li>Traducir=traduj- </li></ul><ul><li>Decir=dij- </li></ul><ul><li>Traer=traj- </li></ul><ul><li>If verb conjugation ends in a j drop the “I” in the ending if it follows the j. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Snake Verbs <ul><li>Change the root of the verb in the preterit only in the usted and ustedes forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Snakeys <ul><li>Only change in usted and ustedes </li></ul><ul><li>Add “y” to beginning of suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs like leer, creer, and oír </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Commands <ul><li>Affirmative commands in the “tu” form are formed by simply dropping the “s” at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Affirmative commands in the usted and ustedes forms change the verb to the “yo” form and change to opposite vowel </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite vowel means if verb is –ar change the “o” to “e” and if an –er verb change “o” to “a” </li></ul><ul><li>A Direct object, DO, can be added to an affermitive </li></ul>
  17. 17. Commands cont. <ul><li>For negative commands in the “tu” form put in “yo” for, change to opposite vowel and add an “s” </li></ul><ul><li>For the negative usted and ustedes form follow same rule as above but place “no” before the verb </li></ul><ul><li>Warning: DOP and IOP do not connect to negative verb commands </li></ul>
  18. 18. Irregular Commands <ul><li>For the negative “tu” form the irregulars are different then the other irregulars </li></ul><ul><li>Di </li></ul><ul><li>Haz </li></ul><ul><li>Ve </li></ul><ul><li>Pon </li></ul><ul><li>Sal </li></ul><ul><li>Se </li></ul><ul><li>Ten </li></ul><ul><li>Ven </li></ul>
  19. 19. Irregular Commands cont. <ul><li>For all other forms of commands the irregulars are the “TVDISHES” </li></ul><ul><li>T=tenga </li></ul><ul><li>V=venga </li></ul><ul><li>D=dé </li></ul><ul><li>I=ir=vaya </li></ul><ul><li>S=sea </li></ul><ul><li>H=haga </li></ul><ul><li>E=esté </li></ul><ul><li>S=sepa </li></ul>
  20. 20. DOP <ul><li>A DOP answers the question who or what </li></ul><ul><li>The DOPs are: me, te, lo/la/se, nos, and los/las/se </li></ul><ul><li>“ se” is used when two objects that start with “L” are together </li></ul><ul><li>Can exist without an IOP </li></ul>
  21. 21. IOP <ul><li>IOPs can only be used with a DOP present in the setence </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the question to whom or for whom </li></ul><ul><li>Me, te, le/se, nos, los las </li></ul><ul><li>Is the receiver of action </li></ul><ul><li>Se lo di= I gave it to her </li></ul><ul><li>The se is actually a le but changes to se </li></ul>
  22. 22. Only time Object Pronouns can Hook onto a Verb <ul><li>1: if the verb is in the un-conjugated infinitive form </li></ul><ul><li>2: in affirmative commands </li></ul><ul><li>3: if the verb is in gerund form </li></ul>
  23. 23. Se Impersonal <ul><li>“ se” is used to not specify the person who is committing the action </li></ul><ul><li>It is only used when the verb is in the “usted” form </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in all tenses of the verb </li></ul><ul><li>Se habla español aquí. => An unspecified person speeks spanish here. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Grammer Book Part 2
  25. 25. Grammar Book part 2. <ul><li>Past Participles as Adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>  El Futuro and ir + a+ infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>  Demonstrative Adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Informal + irregulars verbs </li></ul><ul><li>  Formal + irregulars verbs </li></ul><ul><li>  DOP + IOP placement in verbs </li></ul><ul><li>  Modal Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexives </li></ul><ul><li>Saber vs. Conocer </li></ul>
  26. 26. Past Participles <ul><li>when conjugating a verb, take off the ending and attach –ado or –ido </li></ul><ul><li>Ar -ado </li></ul><ul><li>Ir/Er -Ido </li></ul>
  27. 27.   El Futuro and ir + a+ infinitive The future tense is used to describe an action that has not occurred yet but will occur É emos ás á an
  28. 28. Demonstrative Adjectives <ul><li>Agree in both gender and number with the noun they modify </li></ul><ul><li>Always in front of noun they modify </li></ul><ul><li>Este/Esta (this) </li></ul><ul><li>Ese/Ese (that) </li></ul><ul><li>Estos/Estas (these) </li></ul><ul><li>Esos/Esas (those) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Demonstrative Pronouns <ul><li>Add an accent over the first “e” of the demonstrative adjectives to make it a pronoun </li></ul>
  30. 30. Informal + irregulars verbs The irregulars are TVDISHES
  31. 31. Formal + irregular verbs
  32. 32. DOP + IOP placement in verbs <ul><li>1: if the verb is in the un-conjugated infinitive form </li></ul><ul><li>2: in affirmative commands </li></ul><ul><li>3: if the verb is in gerund form </li></ul><ul><li>Negative commands the DOP/IOP is placed in front of verb </li></ul>
  33. 33. Model Verbs <ul><li>Model Verbs pair with another verb to get a new meaning </li></ul>Ir+a+infinitive Going to do something Poder+infinitive Are able to do something Querer+infinitive Want to do something Deber+infinitve Should do something Tener que+infinitve To have to do something
  34. 34. Reflexive Verbs <ul><li>Reflexive Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive verbs reflect the action back to the doer of the action </li></ul>Me nos te os se se
  35. 35. Reflexive Verbs cont. <ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>to bathe </li></ul><ul><li>bañarse </li></ul><ul><li>to get up </li></ul><ul><li>levantarse </li></ul><ul><li>to be happy </li></ul><ul><li>alegrarse </li></ul><ul><li>to go to bed </li></ul><ul><li>acostarse </li></ul>
  36. 36. Saber Vs. Conocer <ul><li>Saber </li></ul><ul><li>To know informative facts </li></ul><ul><li>Mental </li></ul><ul><li>Conocer </li></ul><ul><li>To know places, people, things </li></ul><ul><li>physical </li></ul>

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