Predictable patterns of physicaldevelopment in childhood years • The first two years are times of rapid physical development • In the early childhood (2-6 years) growth slows a little but physical and cognitive capabilities are very extended. • In the middle and late childhood (6-11) physical growth slows down further in preparation for puberty
Motor developmentIt is a lifelong process revealed principallythrough changes in movement behaviour infour phases:• Reflexive (foetus to 1)• Rudimentary (birth to 2)• fundamental (2 to 7)• specialised (7 to puberty)three sets of skills develop: locomotion,stability and manipulation.
theories of motordevelopment• Biological-maturation perspective: Views development as an internal process that is dictated by an individuals bodyclock.• Information-processing perspective: links motor development with decision making.• Ecological perspective: views development like the process that makes movements automated.• Linking motor and cognitive performance: neurobiological evidence links motor and cognitive performance by associating motor development with the beginning of certain perceptual and cognitive capacities.
Factors influencing motordevelopment• Motor development follows a universal sequence• Cultural variations: ● Genetic factors ● Customs and Different environments
Some differences • African and West Indian CulturesSitting and walking is very develop5 months difference with european babies • JamaicaFormal handling: Massage and stretching exercises soon after birth to stimulatebody and to prepare for those milestonesJamaican babies sit and walk earlier than European children • ParaguayAche people of paraguay actively discourage their infants from crawling away fromtheir mothers.• Cultural practices can slow down motor developmentMotor development is determined by both maturationand the environmental factors. "They will all get there in the end"
Differences between sexes onthe performance of motor skills • Before the age of girls on certainare minimal, although boys outperform 11, differences gross motor skills with the exception of balance. • Qualitative development in the performance of motor skills (such as hopping, throwing, running, etc.) across the school years for both sexes can be attributed to increases in body mass and height, physiological development and better neurological functioning. • The role of biological differences is much diminished in the primary school years in contrast to the secondary school years where differences in body mass composition, and strength levels highlight the differences between boys and girls even further.
The importance of playEnvironmental factors have a role to play in influencingdifferences in motor development. Some studies tell us that oldergirls‘ attitude towards sport can suffer if boys are allowed to joinin with their sporting activities.In order to motivate girls to participate in physical activities andsports, activities are oriented for both sexes separately. For girls-"female-oriented" (activities such as dancing andgymnastics are included) and for boys- "male-oriented"(they play games such as rugby and soccer).
The social environmentThe social environment in which children grow up impacts uponindividual motor skill proficiency by influencing values, knowledgeand skills. The first environment children are exposed to is the family.They can influence their children in such ways:• including the provision of toys and sports equipment from an early age;• messaging about value they attach to physical activity and sports;• saying words of praise that encourage participation.In the middle and childhood years, the influence of ones peers as asocialisation agent in sport and activity increases. A lack ofcompetency in motor skills becomes most obvious in these years andcan lead to some children being excluded.
Activities engaged in together that include fun andvariety promote positive attitudes and a hugevariety of physical skills.Unfortunately in many modern societies parentsharbour concerns about childrens safety whenplaying outdoors. But more and more spaces doexist where children can play outdoor safely, theyhave a lot of space to move with a range ofequipment that challenge growing bodies to climb,roll, swing, balance etc.,
CONTROVERSYIs outdoor play devalued in primary education practice? • In the UK in the last 25 years we have seen a decline in the emphasis placed upon learning and physical play. • Factors: 1. Focus on children´s literacy and numeracy development. 2. Narrowed view of the purposes of education. 3. Adoption of a model that valued classroom learning instead of outdoors learning.•. According to Geva Blenkin and Marian Whitehead: "the most misunderstood dimension dimension of the planned curriculum is the creation of an environment in which education is to take place".
Outdoor learningIt is essential because:1. Virtually all areas of the curriculum can beaccessed by outdoor learning.2. It builds confidence and self-esteem.3. It develops language in nursery children.4. It benefits physical development.5. It improve risks assessments.6. It develops the large muscle groups.7. It benefits heart and lung functioning and alsoimproves general health.
Outdoor learningWith these new evidences, the UK has seen arevival in outdoor play practice and now manyyoung children receive regular access to theoutdoor environment.However that happens only with children under5 years old, not with older children.
Influence of PE and sportPE provides many opportunities for children todevelop motor skills and sport coaches areimportant socialising agents for children.The school is the main institution in society forthe development of skills and physical activity.Many studies have shown that sport influencedfive main areas of education:Physical, affective, lifestyle, special andcognitive development.
Influence of PE and sportHowever the status of school sport has declinedand PE and sport are marginalised in the schoolcurriculum.
Theory in actionThe SpinED project: This investigation has been developed to show thebenefits of PE and sport on children.Over 50 countries worldwide participate in the research:• Asia: sumo lessons were seen to assist students’ social development by promoting courtesy and good manners and an awareness.• Europe: observation of fundamental motor skills provided feedback to teachers on movement development.• Australia: participation in school sport programs recorded significant improvements in retention and self-esteem for "at risk" students.Responses provided empirical data on how PE and school sport positivelyinfluenced students social behaviours, self-esteem, academic performanceand body awareness.
Theory in actionMain practical points:• School is the main environment for being physically active.• The health benefits of regular physical activity are well established.• There is a favourable relationship between physical activity and a host of factors affecting children’s physical health.• Those who have a strong foundation in fundamental movement skills are more likely to be active, both during childhood and later in life.