BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games Design
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Pro...
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  1. 1. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games Design
  2. 2. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Products
  3. 3. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsUnderstand how media producers define audiences for their productsUnderstand how media producers create products for specific audiencesUnderstand how media audiences respond to media productsBe able to develop responses to media products
  4. 4. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsYou need to understand how your audience responds to theproduct:
  5. 5. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory
  6. 6. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience TheoryAudience theory provides a starting point for many MediaStudies tasks. Whether you are constructing a game or analysingone, you will need to consider the destination of that media text(i.e. its target audience) and how that audience (or any other)will respond to that media text.
  7. 7. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience TheoryAudience theory provides a starting point for many MediaStudies tasks. Whether you are constructing a game or analysingone, you will need to consider the destination of that media text(i.e. its target audience) and how that audience (or any other)will respond to that media text.Remember that a media text in itself has no meaning until it isread or decoded by an audience.
  8. 8. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience TheoryAudience theory provides a starting point for many MediaStudies tasks. Whether you are constructing a game or analysingone, you will need to consider the destination of that media text(i.e. its target audience) and how that audience (or any other)will respond to that media text.Remember that a media text in itself has no meaning until it isread or decoded by an audience.You’ve learned how audience is described and measured. Nowyou need a working knowledge of the theories which attempt toexplain how an audience receives, reads and responds to a mediatext.
  9. 9. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience TheoryThe Hypodermic Needle Model
  10. 10. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience TheoryThe Hypodermic Needle ModelThe Inoculation Model
  11. 11. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience TheoryThe Hypodermic Needle ModelThe Inoculation ModelThe Two-Step Flow Model
  12. 12. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience TheoryThe Hypodermic Needle ModelThe Inoculation ModelThe Two-Step Flow ModelThe Uses & Gratifications Theory
  13. 13. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience TheoryThe Hypodermic Needle ModelThe Inoculation ModelThe Two-Step Flow ModelThe Uses & Gratifications TheoryThe Reception Theory
  14. 14. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsThe Hypodermic NeedleModel
  15. 15. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Hypodermic Needle ModelDating from the 1920s, this theory was the first attempt toexplain how mass audiences might react to mass media.
  16. 16. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Hypodermic Needle ModelDating from the 1920s, this theory was the first attempt toexplain how mass audiences might react to mass media.
  17. 17. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Hypodermic Needle ModelDating from the 1920s, this theory was the first attempt toexplain how mass audiences might react to mass media.The audience receive anintravenous injection of amedia text, either positiveor negative and arestimulated into a response.
  18. 18. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Hypodermic Needle ModelDating from the 1920s, this theory was the first attempt toexplain how mass audiences might react to mass media.The audience receive anintravenous injection of amedia text, either positiveor negative and arestimulated into a response.This is a short-term effectand the audience is seen aspassive and maleable.
  19. 19. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsThe Inoculation Model
  20. 20. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Inoculation ModelThis theory suggests that the long-term exposure to repeatedmedia messages makes audiences immune to them.
  21. 21. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Inoculation ModelThis theory suggests that the long-term exposure to repeatedmedia messages makes audiences immune to them.The audience is desensitised by the media text and can no longerbe shocked by it.
  22. 22. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Inoculation ModelThis theory suggests that the long-term exposure to repeatedmedia messages makes audiences immune to them.The audience is desensitised by the media text and can no longerbe shocked by it.Someone sensitised is more likely to commit a violent act as it isnot seen as an extraordinary action. Again, the audience is seenas passive.
  23. 23. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsThe Two-Step Flow Model
  24. 24. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Two-Step Flow ModelPaul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet conducted astudy in 1940 during the presidential election. They found that50% of voters had made up their minds six months before theelection and did not change their minds despite the influence ofmedia debates and coverage.
  25. 25. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Two-Step Flow ModelPaul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet conducted astudy in 1940 during the presidential election. They found that50% of voters had made up their minds six months before theelection and did not change their minds despite the influence ofmedia debates and coverage.In addition, it was found thatindividual views were most affectedby opinion leaders who played a keyrole in the communication process,filtering the message.
  26. 26. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Two-Step Flow ModelPaul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet conducted astudy in 1940 during the presidential election. They found that50% of voters had made up their minds six months before theelection and did not change their minds despite the influence ofmedia debates and coverage.In addition, it was found thatindividual views were most affectedby opinion leaders who played a keyrole in the communication process,filtering the message.
  27. 27. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - The Two-Step Flow ModelPaul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet conducted astudy in 1940 during the presidential election. They found that50% of voters had made up their minds six months before theelection and did not change their minds despite the influence ofmedia debates and coverage.In addition, it was found thatindividual views were most affectedby opinion leaders who played a keyrole in the communication process,filtering the message.The audience is semi-active.
  28. 28. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - Passive and Semi-Passive Models
  29. 29. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - Passive and Semi-Passive ModelsThe Hypodermic Model Two-Step Flow
  30. 30. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory - Passive and Semi-Passive ModelsThe Hypodermic Model Two-Step Flow
  31. 31. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsUses & Gratifications Theory
  32. 32. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryDuring the 1960s, as the first generation to grow up withtelevision became grown ups, it became increasingly apparent tomedia theorists that audiences made choices about what theydid when consuming media texts.
  33. 33. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryDuring the 1960s, as the first generation to grow up withtelevision became grown ups, it became increasingly apparent tomedia theorists that audiences made choices about what theydid when consuming media texts.Far from being a passive mass, audiences were made up ofindividuals who actively consumed media texts for differentreasons and in different ways.
  34. 34. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryDuring the 1960s, as the first generation to grow up withtelevision became grown ups, it became increasingly apparent tomedia theorists that audiences made choices about what theydid when consuming media texts.Far from being a passive mass, audiences were made up ofindividuals who actively consumed media texts for differentreasons and in different ways.Move away from what media does to people and think of whatpeople do with media.
  35. 35. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryResearchers Blulmer and Katz expanded this theory andpublished their own in 1974, stating that individuals mightchoose and use a media text for the following purposes:
  36. 36. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryResearchers Blulmer and Katz expanded this theory andpublished their own in 1974, stating that individuals mightchoose and use a media text for the following purposes:Information
  37. 37. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryResearchers Blulmer and Katz expanded this theory andpublished their own in 1974, stating that individuals mightchoose and use a media text for the following purposes:InformationPersonal Identity
  38. 38. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryResearchers Blulmer and Katz expanded this theory andpublished their own in 1974, stating that individuals mightchoose and use a media text for the following purposes:InformationPersonal IdentityIntegration and Social Interaction
  39. 39. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryResearchers Blulmer and Katz expanded this theory andpublished their own in 1974, stating that individuals mightchoose and use a media text for the following purposes:InformationPersonal IdentityIntegration and Social InteractionEntertainment
  40. 40. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryInformationThe need to be informed – press, broadcast and online news.Seeking advice on practical matters – how to fix the toilet.Satisfying curiosity and general interest – pub quiz.Learning; self-education – formal learning e.g. An OU course
  41. 41. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryPersonal IdentityComparing our own roles and values with similar roles and valuesrepresented in the media – buying Loaded to be one of the lads orreferencing a soap opera to see how other teenagers behave inrelationships. Seeing yourself in the game.
  42. 42. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryIntegration and Social InteractionThe need for companionship and interaction with others:Identifying with others and gaining a sense of belongingHaving a substitute for real-life companionshipEnabling one to connect with family, friends and societyThis can be through viewing fictional characters as friends, havingthe radio on all day for company or social media like Facebook.
  43. 43. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Uses & Gratifications TheoryEntertainmentFantasy, escaping, or being diverted, from problemsRelaxingFilling timeEmotional release
  44. 44. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsReception Theory
  45. 45. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Active ModelsReception TheoryExtending the concept of an active audience still further, in the1980s and 1990s a lot of work was done on the way individualsreceived and interpreted a text, and how their individualcircumstances (gender, class, age, ethnicity) affected theirreading.
  46. 46. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Active ModelsReception Theory
  47. 47. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Active ModelsReception TheoryThis theory points out that meaning of any media text is createdby the audience - not the producer. Meaning is encoded intothe media text but it is up to the audience what they take fromit depending how they decode the signs within the text.Broadly speaking the audience can arrive at one of threereadings:
  48. 48. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Active ModelsReception TheoryThe Preferred Reading - Audience understands and accepts theideology offered.
  49. 49. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Active ModelsReception TheoryThe Preferred Reading - Audience understands and accepts theideology offered.The Negotiated Reading - Audience understands the ideologyoffered, accepts some aspects of it but rejects other aspects.
  50. 50. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media ProductsAudience Theory – Active ModelsReception TheoryThe Preferred Reading - Audience understands and accepts theideology offered.The Negotiated Reading - Audience understands the ideologyoffered, accepts some aspects of it but rejects other aspects.The Opositional Reading - Audience interprets the ideologyoffered in the opposite way than it is intended.
  51. 51. BTec Level 3Extended Diploma in Creative Media Production – Games DesignUnit 6 - Critical Approaches to Creative Media Productshttp://www.mediaknowall.com/as_alevel/alevkeyconcepts/alevelkeycon.php?pageID=audiencehttp://gottolovealex.wordpress.com/2010/11/02/uses-gratifications-understanding-and-reflecting/http://coleshillmediasite.weebly.com/g322---audience-theory.htmlhttp://www.communicationandculture.co.uk/Effects.pdf

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