Deterrence in singapore

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Deterrence in singapore

  1. 1. Deterrence in Singapore Citizen Armed Force Singapore was unable to afford large professional army in 1965 Population of less than 2 million needed for workforce o Limited manpower Build a citizen armed force though enlisting able-bodied men into army 1n 1967, NS was introduced Abled-bodied male citizens called up to serve full-time NS Singaporeans learnt to defend their country NS men bond together o Sharing common experience Build sense of loyalty, patriotism, shared destiny for Singapore Upon completion of full-time NS, they continue to serve as Operational Ready NS o 10 years for max 40 days per year Undergo refresher courses to maintain competence in handing new weapons and equipment Learn new tactics of war LINK: o Can now depend on ourselves to defend Singapore o Deter potential aggressors as they know they force a strong armed force o Less likely to attack us 3rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces Important for SAF to consistently enhance its capabilities and reviews its method of warfare through research and development SAF started a project with research institutes of MOD and local universities o To develop 3G SAF Maximizing defensive capabilities through modern technology Equips soldiers to fight decisively in war and respond flexibly in peacetime LINK: o Aims to create an intelligent defence force o Surveillance striker systems of the Air force, navy and Army would help to destroy the enemy before they locate us Singapore’s Defence industry Essential for an army to use latest technology and equipment o Develop into an effective fighting force Singapore build up its own defense industry to enable SAF to be self-reliant in essential defence weapons and equipment Defence industry started in 1967 when Chartered Industries of Singapore( CIS) was established to produce small arms ammunition o Now developed into a successful defence company
  2. 2. Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) was formed in 2000 o Provide cost effective and modern technology to SAF and MOD o Focuses on buying and upgrading weapons as well as developing new weapon systems o Conducts defence-related research and development activities with other countries and local tertiary institutions o LINK:  Improves capability and effectiveness of SAF  Enabled Singapore to develop a powerful defense  Overcome its constraints through innovations Total defence Civil Defence o Knowing what to do during civil emergencies o Being Vigilant and alert at all times o E.g. 15 March 1986, collapse of Hotel New World  Hundreds of personnel of Singapore civil Defence and trained Singapore volunteers worked together to rescue survivors  Many volunteers came forward to help, despite risk of injury  Many Civil Defence volunteers even without being mobilized Economic Defence o Singaporeans required to cope and adjust to changing demands o Constant need to upgrade skills of workers o Singapore Workforce development Agency (WDA) formed in 2003  Works with other agencies such as labour unions and professional associations to support industry growth and upgrades skills of workers o Allow Singapore to remain competitive o Remain employable in competitive economy Social Defence o Many organizations and community groups such as Community Development Councils (CDCs), schools and the Inter-Racial Confidence Circle (IRCC) are actively involved in strengthening social ties.  Emergency preparedness exercises, visits to places of worship of different faiths and inter-faith dialogues and workshops o LINK:  Ensures that unity will not be broken during testing situations such as terrorist attacks Psychological Defence o Having pride and loyalty and wanting to stand up to defend Singapore o Having the well and mental strength to overcome challenges o E.g. SARs period in 2003  Ordinary people managed to overcome the challenge of SARS and believed in Singapore.
  3. 3. General LINK for Total Defence: Total Defence is an effective deterrence measure because it provides a comprehensive and integrated response to all kinds of threats and challenges. When all Singaporeans believe that Singapore is worth defending, Total Defence will be effective. Potential aggressors will think twice about attacking us, knowing that they face the entire nation and not just the armed forces. Military co-operation with other countries Actively fosters friendly ties with the armed forces of other countries Conducted through bilateral and multilateral military agreements, joint military exercises, training programmes and participation in the UN peace missions Bilateral military agreements and exercises Military agreements with various countries to allow Singapore troops to train in their countries o France, Australia, New Zealand and India Conducts regular military training with neighboring countries o Malaysia and Indonesia o Increase cooperation and strengthen ties among participating countries Multi-lateral military agreements and exercises E.g. Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) established in 1971 o Singapore, Malaysia, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand o Conduct exercises each year to enhance cooperation and coordination LINK: o Members would consult one another on appropriate measure to deter aggressor in the event of an external threat o Deter potential aggressors from attacking the five nations General LINK for military exercises: Military exercises allow the SAF to gain more experience and become more powerful. Most importantly, cooperation and coordination between Singapore and other countries are strengthened. They would be willing to assist one another in the event of any external threats and can work together to combat terrorism. It is effective against aggression because the other countries would help Singapore when we face external threats. With such cooperation, potential aggressors are less likely to attack us. Possible conclusion: Factors: Total Defence, Citizen armed force, Military co-operation with other countries In conclusion, Total Defence is the most effective against aggression. This is because defence should not only involve the armed forces. By getting the entire nation to be involved in
  4. 4. Singapore’s defence efforts through Total Defence, Singaporeans will understand that our security cannot be granted and they would be resilient as a nation to combat any form of aggression. On the other hand, a citizen armed force only covers military defence, which is not enough because it does not involve all Singaporeans in the defence of their own country.

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