Forum: Migration and Development


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Presentation at Ateneo de Davao University
Davao City, Philippines

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Forum: Migration and Development

  2. 2. FORUMMigration and DevelopmentAteneo de Davao University<br />Leila Rispens-Noel<br />Senior Advisor, International Network of Alternative Financial Institutions (INAFI International)<br />President, Wimler Foundation<br />
  3. 3. Migration<br />What is Migration?<br />Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.<br />What are the main types of migration?<br />Migration can be permanent, temporary, voluntary or forced. It can be international or internal.<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Push Factors of Migration<br />Lack of jobs and Poverty<br />Climate Change/Environmental problems<br />Lack or under-employment at home<br />Market forces<br />Discrimination<br />Civil Strife/War/Political and religious persecution<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Pull Factors of Migration<br />Higher standards of living/Higher wages<br />Labor Demand<br />Political and/or religious freedom<br />Enjoyment/Greener pastures<br />Education<br />Better medical care<br />Security<br />Family links<br />5<br />
  6. 6. What do we know?<br />Migration can contribute to development<br />Remittances are twice more than official development aid, just little behind than foreign direct investments.<br />Migration is unstoppable<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Philippine International Migration<br />January 19, 2011<br />7<br />Global: in 2010, 214 million people work and live outside their countries of origin; nearly three percent of world’s population (IOM)<br />Philippines: estimated 8-10 million overseas Filipinos spread in 193 countries; 10% are irregular; 60% are women<br />
  8. 8. International Migration<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Top Destination Countries for Filipinos<br />1. United States<br />2. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia<br />3. Canada<br />4. United Arab Emirates<br />5. Australia<br />6. Malaysia<br />7. Japan<br />8. Qatar<br />9. United Kingdom<br />10. Singapore<br />11. Hong Kong<br />12. Kuwait<br />13. Italy<br />14. Taiwan<br />15. South Korea<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Social Cost of Migration<br />10<br />Dysfunctional families<br />Culture of migration<br />Culture of dependency<br />Abuses, violation of migrants’ rights<br />Exclusion<br />Abandoned children<br />Brain drain, brain waste<br />
  11. 11. Top 10 remittance recipient developing countries in US$ billion (WB)<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Philippine Remittances estimates <br />2010 - $440 billion<br />2009 - $316 billion <br /> Expected to increase by 7.1% in 2011<br />a faster pace of recovery in 2010 than The World bank earlier forecasts. <br />12<br />
  13. 13. Remittances Compared with other Resource Flows<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Uses of Remittances<br />About 80% on:<br />Food<br />Education<br />Health<br />Repayment of debts<br />Remaining amount for:<br />Savings<br />Investments<br />Diaspora Philanthropy –hometown associations<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Not only Remittances<br />Migrants also contribute social remittances: skills, knowledge, networks, new ideas (politics) – in some countries (peace building, democratization, good governance)<br />In time of disaster<br />In Host countries:<br />Economy, culture<br />15<br />
  16. 16. What should we do and who will do it?<br />16<br />Government<br />Migrants and Families<br />Development and international organizations<br />NGOs, trade unions, <br />Diaspora/Migrant Associations<br />Academes<br />Financial sector<br />Host Countries<br />
  17. 17. Recommendations for Academes, Students<br />1. Data and information gathering e.g.  thesis on causes, effects, and social costs of Migration in Mindanao and formulate recommendations based on their findings to be used as basis for government policies to improve situation of migrants and their families both at home and abroad.<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Recommendations (Cont.)<br />Research on the impact of migration to rural development<br />Research on the impact of remittances to the development of Mindanao<br />Research on the impact of collective remittances (Diaspora philanthropy to the development in Mindanao)<br />Research on how to promote and strengthen hometown associations as actors of development<br />Research on Gender, Migration and Development<br />18<br />
  19. 19. ADDU Migration and Development Center<br />Responds to lack of data on internal and international migration in Mindanao (research is usually done from Manila<br />Information (action-oriented research) and based on Mindanao context provided by the Center can influence government policy (ex. Leveraging remittances and Diaspora philanthropy for development<br />Future-oriented data gathering can help those who plan to work abroad make informed decision; plan for it (purpose of migration)<br />Should attract interest from ADDU alumni – (generate support from them)<br />19<br />
  20. 20. DAGHANG SALAMAT<br /><br /><br /><br />20<br />