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Resistance against Israeli Occupation in Palestine. — 02. Figures and Peace Builders 1900-1949

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Resistance against Israeli Occupation in Palestine. — 02. Figures and Peace Builders 1900-1949

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Resistance against Israeli Occupation in Palestine. — 02. Figures and Peace Builders 1900-1949

  1. 1. Peace builders and Figures of Resistance against Israeli Occupation in Palestine Étienne Godinot - 26.08.2019 Translation : Claudia McKenny-Engström
  2. 2. Précisions - The images selected in these slides have been provided by a variety of sources. As we cannot certify they are not object of copyright, we kindly ask their authors to contact us if they wish them not to be used. - Your suggestions to correct and complete the slides will be welcomed
  3. 3. Shalom Salam Peace The persons presented in this slide are in favour of a compromise in order to allow the peaceful coexistence between the two communities, and are opposed to anything that renders negotiations difficult or impossible, such as the creation of new colonies. Many of them are in favour of nonviolent action, in order to balance the situation by exercising a pressure that will make negotiations possible. - The persons whose name is in blue are Israeli or of Jewish descent - The persons whose name is in green are Palestinian - The persons whose name is both in blue and green are Palestinians of Israeli nationality - Those whose name is in black are neither Palestinian nor Israeli or Jewish, but are engaged in the promotion of peace and of Palestinian people’s rights.
  4. 4. Peace builders and Figures of Resistance against Israeli Occupation in Palestine 1 – 1900-1949
  5. 5. Folke Bernadotte (1895-1948), Swedish diplomat, Count of Wisborg, grandchild to King of Sweden Oscar II. Vice President of the Swedish Red Cross, negotiates the liberation of 15000 concentration camp prisoners during the Second World War. Following the 1947 Partition Resolution for Palestine, as confrontations erupt between Jews and Arabs, he is named mediator by the UN in Palestine, in may 1948. In June, and then September, suggests different partitions for Palestine. He criticises “Zionist mass pillaging and destruction of villages without necessity is evident.” He is assassinated on 17 September 1948 in Jerusalem by members of the Jewsih Zionist terrorist group Lehi, and with him French colonel André Sérot, UN Chief Observer in Jerusalem. “ It would be an offense to elementary principles but to impede innocent victims (Palestinians) of the conflict from returning to their homes, when Jewish immigrants flow in to Palestine, and what’s more, threaten to permanently replace Arab refugees, who have been living on this land for centuries.”
  6. 6. Yeshayahou Leibowitz (1903-1994) Israeli chemist, Science historian, philosopher, moralist and write, born in Latvia (then Russian empire ). He studied and wrote his PhD in Berlin and Basel. Emigrates to Palestine in 1934. Supervises the writing of the Encyclopaedia Hebraïca from 1956 to 1972. Religious and Zionist, he nonetheless fights the idea of a religious Zionism. Hostile towards the nuclear bomb, he is one the most influential Israeli intellectuals, nick-named the “Prophet of Anger”. Opposes rabbinate, “one of the most despiteful institutions in the history of the Jewish people.” During the invasion of Lebanon in 1982, he says that the exactions led by Jewish soldiers in Lebanon demonstrate the “existence of a Nazi-Jew mentality.”
  7. 7. Yeshayahou Leibowitz Fervently criticises Israeli politics, the system as much as the government (party coalitions, corruption, etc.), and the occupation of Palestinian territory, stating that occupation destroys the morality of the occupant. He supports conscientious objectors who refuse to serve in occupied territories. “ Israel is not a State of Judaism, Israel is the State of some contemporary Jews.” “ The occupation of Palestine causes the loss of the Jewish people’s soul.” “ If the State of Israel does not achieve peace with its Arab neighbours, with time, it will not be able to continue exiting. To last, it needs peace.” “ Violence has become the essence of the State of Israel. Violence has become, for us, commonplace. And we are used to living with it.”
  8. 8. Bruno Hussar (1911-1996) Born in Cairo of a Jewish Hungarian father and a French mother, he leaves the École Centrale de Paris (engineering) with the will to “build bridges between…men.” After becoming a Dominican monk he is sent to Israel in 1952 due to his Jewish origins, and founds in Jerusalem, the Saint-Isaie House, Dominican centre for the study of Judaism. He obtains Jewish nationality on 1966. In 1970, close to Latrun, between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, he founds the village of Neve Shalom - Wahat as Salam (“oasis of peace”) where live tens of Israeli Jewish and Arab families who work together towards the equality of rights and understanding of both people. Several Palestinian activists blame Neve Shalom - Wahat as Salam for being a window hiding Israel’s military occupation.
  9. 9. Yehudi Menuhin (1916-1999) American violinist of Jewish origin, then Swiss citizen. Fist violin of Lamoureux’s philharmonic orchestra in Paris at the age of 10. One of the greatest violinists of the XXth Century. Undesirable in USSR for his positions against the Soviet regime. Plays for Palestinian refugees and takes position in favour of a unique and secular Israeli-Palestinian State. “This devastating way of governing through fear, disregard of fundamental human dignity, this continues asphyxia of a dependent people should be the last methods employed by those who, themselves, know the horrible signification, the unforgettable sufferance of such an existence… This is not worthy of mu great people, the Jews.”
  10. 10. Stéphane Hessel (1917-2013) Diplomat and French political activist born German, his grand father is a Polish Jew. He graduated from the ‘Ecole normale’, he resisted during the Nazi occupation and was deported to Buchenwald. He was secretary of the Commission in charge of writing the ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’, led by René Cassin. He worked on development, cooperation and immigration. In the short book “Time for Outrage !” published in 2010, he explains that the situation of the 3 million Palestinians chased from their land by Israel and deprived of their fundamental human rights is his main subject of indignation in today’s world. “ In these occupied territories, Palestinians are constantly tested by the Israeli presence. I mean especially in the case of Gaza: never did the Nazi occupation encircle the French territory with such obstacles.”
  11. 11. Uri Avnery Helmut Ostermann (1923-2018). He families flees the Nazi regime and arrives in Palestine. In 1946, he founds the Eretz Yisrael Hatz'ira movement. During the 1948 Israeli-Arab war, he is a soldier in the Israeli army. Editorialist for daily newspaper Haaretz and later Haolam Hazeh, he is elected Member of Knesset (Israeli Parliament) from 1965 to 1973 and from 1979 to 1981, as member of the political party Haolam Hazeh. In 1993, he creates the movement Gush Shalom (“peace block”), which campaigns for the return to the 1967 borders, the partition of Jerusalem and the recognition of a Palestinian State under the slogan “Two peoples, two States.” “ Our role is only a little one in a global struggle for peace, justice and equality between Men and Nations, for the preservation of our planet. All this can be summarised in one word, which, both in Hebrew and in Arab, not only means peace, but also integrity, security and well-being : Shalom, Salam.”
  12. 12. Mattityahu Peled (1923-1995) Israeli General, Chief of Staff of the Army, crafter of the Six Day War victory in 1967, he is also director of the Arab Language and Literature department in Tel-Aviv University. First Israeli, together with Uri Avneri, to pave the way for a direct dialogue with the PLO, then forbidden by Israeli law, by meeting with Issam Sartaoui in 1976, representing the POL in Paris. President of the Israeli-Palestinian Peace Committee, he asks for the total retreat of Israel from occupied territories. He is also a member of a left party in the Knesset. After the signature of the Oslo Agreements in 1993, he participates, in Lyon, Marseille and Nice, in a series of public FTM meetings, side by side Dr. Ahmad Hamzeh, member of the Palestinian National Council, and Toufik Zayyad, poet and mayor of Nazareth. Father of Nourit Peled-Elhanan, who creates the “Forum for grieving families”. Grand-father to Elik from the Refuzniks movement, Israeli soldiers who refuse the occupation of Palestine.
  13. 13. Reuven Moskovitz Jewish, born in Romania in 1928, he survives the Holocaust. In 1947, he emigrates to Palestine, and cofounds a kibbutz. From 1967, denounces Israel’s disregard for, expropriations and imprisonment of Palestinians. In 1970, he founds with Bruno Hussar the Neve Shalom / Waha al-Salam (Oasis of peace) which brings together Jews and Palestinian Arabs, all Israeli citizens, and leads pedagogical work for peace, equality and understanding between both peoples. Co-organises the European Jews for a Just Peace association, network of 18 Jewish organisations in 10 European countries, that demand the end of Israeli occupation. In September 2010, he participates in the Irene catamaran operation against the maritime blockade of Gaza.
  14. 14. Taoufik Ziyad (1929-1994), Palestinian Arab, poet and author, politician. Studies literature in the USSR. Mayor of Nazareth and member of the Knesset from 1973 to 1994 under the Rakah list, communist party. He is the co-author of a report describing the detention conditions and use of torture against Palestinians in prison, report published in Israeli paper Al HaMishmar. Founder in the 1950’ of the nonviolent movement al-Ard (“The earth”), forbidden by Israel, which organises peaceful demonstrations claiming the right to land. The 30 March 1976 strike and demonstration which protest against land-grabbing in Galilee are violently repressed: 6 dead and a hundred wounded. Since then, the 30th March has become the “Day of the land” (Yom al-Ard), celebrated by Palestinians in Israel, Negev and occupied territories. He was killed on 5th July 1994 in a frontal collision in the Jordan valley, on the road back from Jericho, where he had hosted Yasser Arafat, president of the Palestinian Liberation Organisation, back from exile.
  15. 15. Abd el-Jawad Saleh Palestinian born in 1931, political economy graduate from the American University of Cairo in 1955. Former mayor of El Bireh, close to Ramallah. Activist within women movements, cultural centres and youth organisations. In 1974, is elected in to the executive committee of the PLO. Is one of the founders of the Palestinian Liberation Front; former minister for agriculture, he resigns after the Oslo agreements. Probably the best theorist of a nonviolent resistance strategy in Palestine. Already in 2001, denounces the militarisation of the Intifada. “To resist peacefully, leaders must be strong, but the Palestinian movement of nonviolent resistance also has a lot to say for itself. In 1973, the creation of the Palestinian National Front gave birth to a necessary central organisation, which brought together leaders from all occupied territories. Its objective ? Collectively oppose Israeli occupation using nonviolent means.”
  16. 16. Abd el-Jawad Saleh “The first Intifada succeeded because it stopped Israel from fully using its military force. Using armed weapons goes in favour of Israel, which can then impose its conditions and use terminology such as “war between two parties” and perpetuate a false image of the situation. Military action makes it easier for Israel to use force* in repressing a popular movement. It allows Israel to justify the complete destruction of the fragile economy of occupied territories and to re-draw the maps by temporarily or definitively displacing its population. Armed resistance also excludes certain groups, such as women.” *The use of the word “force” is here incorrect : it should have been written “violence”. The force that obliges an adversary to give in and negotiate is not a violence that destroys and kills. Nonviolent action is an exercise in which violence is excluded, where the battle is respectful, and that aims to achieve justice and reconciliation.”
  17. 17. Rima Tarazi Palestinian, born in 1932. She studies music in Paris and psychology in Beirut. Musician, pianist, singer and composer, she co- founds the Edward Said national Conservatory of Music. She is the President of the General Union of Palestinian Women in Palestine. Creates an association dedicated to the training of women, the In Ash et Usra, which sponsors orphans and children who live without their parents (dead, disappeared, imprisoned) and family, as well as 5 orchestras, one composed solely of wind instruments, one for children, and one for young pupils. “ In the time of the Ottoman Empire, and later the English one, Jews, Christians and Muslims were all Palestinians and lived in mutual understanding. In 1948, we put a religious State in the middle of Palestine, and thus began discrimination and division. (…) We are no longer allowed to go to Jerusalem or Gaza to visit our families and friends. ”
  18. 18. Michel Sabbah Palestinian, born in 1933, he studied in Beirut and Paris. Latin Catholic Patriarch of Jerusalem (Israel-Palestine, Jordan, Cyprus) from 1987 to 2008, he is the first Arab of Palestinian origin to have been nominated to this position. He is President of the Pax Christi International (1999-2007). He clearly condemns all forms of violence and terrorism, but observes that this violence is the consequence of a military occupation and the pursuit of colonisation. He takes position for the coexistence of the Palestinian and Israeli States, and the right to return for Palestinian refugees. He is critical of the separation wall and calls for the end of the occupation of Palestine. States that nonviolence is the best way for Palestinians to obtain recognition of their rights, but observes that this requires an education that hitherto, has not existed. “ We must believe in our ability to love, all of us, Israelis and Palestinians. We are capable of love and justice for ourselves and for others.”
  19. 19. Edward Saïd (1935-2003) American literature theorist, critique, intellectual and pianist of Palestinian descent, he is English and comparative literature professor at Columbia University in New York. Analyses colonialism and the history of colonial discourse on oriental populations placed under European rule. Defends the political legitimacy and philosophical authenticity of Zionist claims for the rights of a Jewish nation, but also for the inherent right to national auto-determination of the Palestinian people. Co-founds, with Daniel Barenboïm, the West-Eastern Divan Orchestra, Israeli-Palestinian orchestra.
  20. 20. Zeev Sternhell Born in 1935 into a Jewish family of Polish Galicia, he grows up in France. Israeli historian and political thinker, he graduates from the Institut d’ Etudes Politiques in Paris, and later teaches political science in the Hebraic University of Jerusalem. He wins the Israeli prize in 2008 for his research in political science. He is one of the founders of the Shalom Akhchav (“Peace now”) movement, arguing for un compromise of peace with Palestinians. “ There are two ways of seeing things. Some, like me, believe in universal rights. There are two peoples on the same land, and we must ensure both benefit from the same rights. The best way of reaching that goal, is to share the land. Others say that the Jews own the land because it was given to them by a divine decision.”
  21. 21. Lillian Rosengarten Born in Frankfurt in 1935, her parents, German Jews, flee to the USA. She becomes American, and works as psychotherapist in the Hudson valley. She is also a writer, poet and Buddhist. Pro-Palestinian rights activist, she denounces the land occupation and ethnical cleansing led by the Israeli State which declares itself owner of these territories by invoking verses from the Old Testament. In September 2010, she is a member of the crew aboard the Irene catamaran (under British flag) that protests against the maritime blockade of Gaza, captured between international and Israeli waters. “ Israel is now more and more isolated and cannot survive if it continues in this paranoia and racism.”
  22. 22. Abou Jihad Under his real name Khalil al-Wazir (1936-1988), he is a military chief and Palestinian politician. Born in Ramleh, exiled in the Al-Burei camp, on edge of Gaza. From his teen years, takes part in fedayin actions against Israeli border villages. Together with Yasser Arafat, clandestinely creates the Fatah, in 1959, following the model of the Algerian NLF. Leads Fatah’s external military operations. In 1982, establishes himself in Tunis, where the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) is granted permission to set up its headquarters. In 1987, understanding that armed conflict is not the right strategy, asks and commands that no fire weapon be used during the first Intifada in occupied territories, which has a double objective : 1- Take over vital sectors of activity neglected by Israeli authorities (hospitals, agriculture); 2 - Develop national awareness for a mass political mobilisation. The first Intifada, except from the throwing of stones, is essentially non-violent. He is assassinated under the eyes of his wife in April 1988 in Sidi Bou Said, in the North-East of Tunis, by a Mossad Israeli commando. The forensic counted 75 bullet impacts on his body.
  23. 23. Marek Halter Born in 1936, French writer of Polish Jewish descent. Mime, painter and writer, he campaigns in favour of human rights (USSR, Argentina), against racism and anti-Semitism, and for peace in the Middle East. In 1968, he founds with his wife Clara the review Elements, for which collaborate Israelis, Palestinians and Arabs. He is also co-founder of SOS Racism. In 1992, participates in the organisation of secret meetings between Palestinians and Israelis in Paris and then Oslo. “ As there are urges of evil in each of us, there are urges of goodness. Thus, we can do something against ideologies that prone intolerance. The ideal would be to talk to each individual separately, because opposite from the group, the individual has a conscience. If evil is contagious, so is goodness.”
  24. 24. Bernard Ravenel Born in 1936, he is a French historian and political activist. Directs his research work on Mediterranean questions. In 1960, co-founds the ‘Unified Socialist Party’ and within which he is responsible for international relations. Presides the ‘France-Palestine Solidarity Association’ (AFPS) between 2001 and 2009, and the French NGO ‘Platform for Palestine’ (2001-2011). He condemns all forms of anti-Semitism in the struggle in favour of the Palestinian people. He is one of the organisers of the Russell Tribunal for Palestine. « In 1987, the PLO exterior board established in Tunis and its strategist, Abu Jihad, asks and commands that no fire weapon be used. This historical decision was entirely respected during many months, thus proving the incontestable popular legitimacy earned by the Palestinian central. From that moment, a yet unseen civil insurrection develops within the Arab world. The real surprise was its lasting nonviolent nature (…). Using stones rather than fire weapons, proved to the world, and in particular to Israeli citizens, that the Palestinian “threat” ../..
  25. 25. Bernard Ravenel born from the Intifada did not question, even symbolically, the physical existence of Israel or its “security,” in the name of which it justified its wars. Before this new insurrection that is the second Intifada, the Israeli strategy is clear: avoid by all means the renewal of an Intifada according to the same model as the previous one, which was for a long time nonviolent and which led the international opinion to deligitimise Israel’s attempt to militarily repress it, thus allowing the political victory of Palestine. Hence, Israel’s decision to militarise the conflict by provoking a military reaction from the Palestinians, in order to be able to use weapons, including the heaviest (tanks, helicopters). Which is what actually happened. The current object of the Israeli authorities’ media and semantic battle is to assimilate and form of Palestinian resistance, in particular the nonviolent one, to terrorism and anti- Semitism.»
  26. 26. Naïm Ateek Born in 1937, Palestinian, Minister in the Anglican Church, founder of the Sabeel Ecumenical Liberation Theology Center (Sabeel : path, but also stream). Articulates liberation theology with the situation of occupied Palestine, denounces the occupation, violence, discrimination, violations of human rights, the separation wall, illegal colonies, checkpoints, confiscation and demolition of homes, refugee camps, environmental deterioration. Fights for justice and reconciliation. Sabeel organises trainings for young people, women, trips to holy places, a wave of prayers each week on Thursdays, edits the review Cornerstone, and is represented throughout the world (Europe, Scandinavia, USA, Canada, Australia).
  27. 27. Michael Nagler Born in 1937, he is an American literature professor and peace activist, ex-President of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program at Berkeley University, California, as well as President of the Blue Mountain Centre of Meditation. Member of consultative council of the Faculty for Israeli- Palestinian Peace-USA, network of Palestinian, Israeli and international professors and students, that campaigns for the end of the occupation of Palestinian territories by Israel and for a just peace. Founder and President of the Metta Centre for Nonviolence, dedicated to “promoting Gandhi’s legacy of nonviolence, through innovative projects, education and implementation of these principles.”
  28. 28. Violette Khoury Born in 1938, Violette Khoury is a Melkite Christian Palestinian Israeli. She was born and still lives in Nazareth, were she worked as a pharmacist. An all time activist, she denounces the injustices towards the Palestinian Israeli population (Palestinians who remained on Israeli territory after 1948 and their descendants). Founder and director of the Sabeel Centre in Nazareth. Sabeel is an ecumenical association that fights for the rights of all Palestinians and that grounds its action on Liberation Theology. “ Seeing the face of God in any human being does not mean consenting to any form of evil or oppression in his name. Love rather consists in correcting the evil and stopping oppression.” “ It is time for these discriminations, segregation and limitations to free movement to stop. It is time to honour those who suffered, Palestinians and Israeli.”
  29. 29. Elias Chacour Born in 1939, Elias Chacour is an Arab Palestinian, citizen of Israel, Archbishop of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church for Saint John of Acre, Haifa, Nazareth and Galilee. Originally from the village of Kafar Bire’m, from which he was chased at the age of 8, when the village was destroyed by the Israeli army of occupation*. He is the founder and animator of the Mar Elia University next to Haifa, first Arab University within Israel, open to over 2000 Jewish, Muslim, Christian and Druze students, which is now integrated to other structures. * 518 Palestinian villages have been destroyed since 1948.
  30. 30. Elias Chacour Elias Chacour has organised many marches and actions for peace, namely after the Sabra and Shatila massacres, and given conferences across the Globe on the conditions for peace in the Middle East. Relentless activist for peace and reconciliation between Israel and Palestine, he claims, as did his mother, that Jews and Palestinians are of the same blood. “ Israel responds to the bestiality of terrorism, which represents only a minimal proportion of the Palestinian population, with collective punishment. Gaza is locked up, and so is Palestine. Education, health care, work, freedom of movement, those are the antidotes against extremism. Peace without justice is only a void slogan.” The “Wall of Shame” around Palestine.
  31. 31. Amos Oz (1939-2018), birth name and pen name : Amos Klausner, Israeli poet, novelist and essayist born from Ukrainian parents. His mother commits suicide when he is 12, an event that will deeply mark his work. He joins the Houlda kibbutz at the age of 15 and takes the name “Oz” (“strength” in Hebrew). Literature professor at the Ben Gourion University in Beer Sheva, is the author of 18 publications. Co-founder of the “Peace Now” movement and fervent defender of a two-State solution. He joins the New Left (Israeli party in favour of a territorial partition) in November 2008 to fight the Likoud (right nationalist party). Denounces Netanyahu’s pro-colonisation policies, boycotts international official events organised by Israel to protest against “a growing extremism” within the government, but also denounces those who argue for the destruction of Israel. “ Without a fast two-State solution, it is very probable that, in order to stop the establishment of an Arab State stuck in between the Mediterranean and the Jordan, a dictatorship led by Jewish fanatics will temporarily be installed, a racist regime that will oppress both Arabs and its Jewish opponents.”
  32. 32. The inhabitants of Kafar Bire’m Kafar Bire’m is the village where Elias Chacour was born, in Upper Galilee, not far from the Lebanese border. The Israeli government evacuated the 1 050 inhabitants living in it in November 1948, and destroyed it in 1953. Since 1967, Kafar Bire’m expatriated villagers, spread across Israeli and foreign lands, have not ceased to bury their dead in the village. They claim a right to return to the unused 2 227 acres. They bring up their children to believe in this rights, and organise yearly summer camps in the village. Since 2013, at the week-end, 5 people sleep in tents in the only house that still has a roof.
  33. 33. Haïm Oron Israeli, born in 1940, his parents emigrated from Poland. During his youth, was a member of the Hashomer Hatzair movement (Jewish socialist scouts, act for brotherhood among peoples). Ex-secretary of the kibbutz national movement. Ex-minister of Agriculture, member of the Meretz in the Knesset (Parliament) until 2011. Is one of the founders of the Shalom Akhshav movement (Peace Now), and signatory of the Geneva Agreements. “ We need, today, to find an agreement in favour of all, because any other alternative is worse. I have two objectives: 1. Achieve a realistic solution that will allow to maintain a long term peace; 2. Hope it will be accepted by my people. (…). The idea behind Geneva was to put all cards on the table, start anew, leave no question open, and proceed following successive steps.” Photo below : Hashomer Hatzair logo.
  34. 34. Mahmoud Darwich (1941-2008) Palestinian Poet, he comes from a village destroyed by the Israeli army. Deeply involved in his people’s struggle for its existence, land, freedom and dignity. Imprisoned many time between 1961 and 1970 for his political activities, has nonetheless never ceased to believe in peace. “ More than ever, we need poetry. In order to recover our sensitivity, conscience in our threatened humanity (…). Beauty is freedom and freedom is beauty. That is how poetry that defends freedom becomes a form of resistance.” “ The long occupation has not succeeded in erasing our human nature, neither to dry up our language and feelings before the barriers erected in front of us (…). Hope is the incurable illness of the Palestinian people.”
  35. 35. Rafi Walden Born in France in 1942, he survived the hunt down of Jews. Emigrates to Israel with his family in 1951 following his father’s death. Studies medicine, is an Army doctor in a parachutist unit, and ends his military service as lieutanant-colonel. Later becomes surgeon at the Chaïm Sheba Medical Centre of Tel Hashomer, close to Tel Aviv. Member of the Physicians for Human Rights since 1992, he intervenes in occupied territories. “ I consider myself an Israel patriot, a Zionist. But I consider humanism an essential Jewish value. I cannot accept that people who claim to be Jewish – having suffered oppression and domination throughout generations – could do exactly the same to a people under their control.” .. /..
  36. 36. Rafi Walden “ We find ourselves in front of a demonisation and dehumanisation of the adversary, mainly because there is no interaction with them anymore.” “ The idea according to which we are going back to our ancestors’ lands is historically unrealistic.” “ The duties towards foreigners are mentioned 36 times in the Torah, much more often than the observance of Shabbat, respect of kosher rules, etc.” “ The consequences of domination are heavy to bear. There are two parallel catastrophes: the ones caused on Arabs, and the deep alteration suffered by the Israeli society.” “ In stead of leading the way, our leaders feed our fears.” Photos : Logo and picture of the Chaïm Sheba Medical Centre of Tel Hashomer.
  37. 37. Daniel Barenboïm Born in Buenos Aires in 1942 of Russian Jewish parents, he is a pianist and conductor of Argentine and Israeli nationality. Becomes a Spanish citizen in 2002 and carries a Palestinian passport. Founds, together with Edward Saïd, the Andalusian Barenboïm-Saïd Foundation for peace in the Middle East, Andalusia being a symbolic place where cultures and religions peacefully coexisted. Also with Saïd, creates the West Eastern Divan Orchestra, an Arab-Israeli orchestra, in 1999. “ There is military solution to the Israel-Palestine conflict, neither from a moral stand point, nor from a strategic one. Since it is another solution that must be found, I ask: What are we waiting for? (…). “ We do not seek political consensus. We seek to understand, especially when we disagree.”
  38. 38. Alain Michel Frenchman born in 1942, he directs for 15 the humanitarian NGO EquiLibre, present in 25 countries, denouncing the deadly embargo imposed on Iraq for 10 years. In 2001, founds the Swiss foundation Hommes de Parole, dedicated to resuming the dialogue between Men and to act on the root causes of conflict. He organises meetings between Imams and Rabbis in Brussels in 2005, in Seville in 2006 and Paris in 2008. “ Bringing together those who cannot meet in classic contexts. Giving them the possibility to get to know each other, to discover their common view points, their common needs, to find solutions to their issues, to build and act together.” “ Gathering around human values is a not a pious wish, it is the most achievable wish of all. Men of Faith can help negotiators formulate treaties of peace, fair for all of us.”
  39. 39. Mubarak Awad Palestinian born in 1943. When his house finds itself in the middle of a no man’s land separating enemy troops in 1948, he becomes a refugee in Old Town Jerusalem. After secondary school, goes to the USA as PhD candidate in psychology, and becomes an American national. Creates programmes to support handicapped or victim of abuse children. In 1983, states that “nonviolent action constitutes the most efficient resistance method against the occupier in Palestine and Gaza.” During a trip to Palestine in 1985, creates the Palestinian Centre for the Study of Nonviolence. Before the first Intifada, gives a conference and publishes articles about nonviolence as means to resist the Israeli occupation. Evicted by Israel in 1988, he returns to the USA. Is considered in the Middle East as the father of civil disobedience during the first Intifada.
  40. 40. Moubarak Awad “ My grandfather was killed, my father was killed. My mother told me : Never kill, never injure, never insult.” “ For whoever is under occupation, the first concern is to free oneself from this occupation. For that, you need to make it costly for the occupier. Whoever it is, you must make its life impossible on several aspects: political, economic, psychological, and moral.” “ Israeli Jews have the feeling no one is allowed to say anything against them because they carry the history of a persecuted people. What’s more, Western world Christians find it difficult to indicate the path for justice to Israelis because the Christian community, within its organised Church, was the origin of the persecution against Jews.” “ If Palestinians and Israelis cannot completely kill each other off, then we will have to find a solution. This solution will not be to love one another, nor to trust each other, but merely to work together.” “ If someone must save us or help us, is it only ourselves ! ”
  41. 41. Rafiq Khoury Born in 1943, Palestinian Catholic priest, liberation theologian. Patriarchal vicar of Jerusalem. General secretary of the Catholic pastoral. Ex-consultant for the ‘Interreligious Council for Dialogue with Muslims’ and during 5 years, for the dialogue with Jews. Co-author of the Kairos Palestine 2009 Declaration : a group of religious leaders, representing the main Christian confessions, asks that theologians do not legitimise the injustices made against Palestinians. They remind them of their duty to resist evil and call to boycott Israeli products. They also denounce the Jewish definition of the Israeli State and call for the respect of all. “ The three religions can use the answers to the questions “Who is God, who is the other, who am I ?” to develop a perspective in favour of peace, reconciliation and comprehension.”
  42. 42. Uri Davis Born in 1943 in Jerusalem of Jewish parents, English on his father’s side, Czech on his mother’s. Israeli professor, he is also an activist of the Palestinian situation. Co-founder of the Movement against Israeli Apartheid in Palestine, he gives conferences in Science of Peace at the University of Bradford. Marries a Palestinian activist and converts to Islam. He is elected as councillor of the Fatah in August 2009. Partisan of a bi-national State, in which all citizens would have equal rights. “ Racism is a popular form of xenophobia, and Israel is in the regard not more racist than the USA or the UK… The apartheid is a legal regulation of racial differences. Israel is simply more ingenious than South Africa: there are none of those ridiculous segregation laws. It is more subtle than that…”
  43. 43. Tanya Reinhart (1943-2007), Israeli linguist. Professor of linguistics in the Universities of Tel-Aviv and Utrecht. Anti-Zionist activist, takes position in various Israeli newspapers. Holds a regular column in Israeli daily paper Yediot Aharonot. Distinguishes two main axis of the Israeli strategy against occupied territories: the final expulsion of Palestinians, following what started in 1948, or the instauration of an apartheid system, which started with the Oslo “peace process”. “ I continue to believe that terrorism (which is profoundly wrong morally), but also armed struggle against the occupier, is a bad choice and must not be followed by the Palestinian population. The only hope, in these conditions, with all other options being closed, will always be the slow, painful and patient path of civil disobedience, of the whole society’s struggle.”
  44. 44. David Forman (1948-2010) Playwright, American rabbi engaged in the struggle for civic rights in the USA and against the war in Vietnam. After establishing in Israel in 1972, is dismayed by the fact that Israeli rabbis are less concerned by ethical questions and more by rituals. Founder in 1988 of the organisation Rabbis for human rights. He protects, among others, Palestinian farmers against Israeli colonisers, fights against the demolition of Palestinian houses. Today, the organisation brings together over 100 Israeli rabbis. “ Above all, he acts on the grounds of a deep and Jewish attachment to human rights, as stemming from the idea that we were all created in the image of God.” Rabbi Arik Asherman, executive director of Rabbis for human rights
  45. 45. Maired Corrigan-Maguire Born in 1944, she is an Ulster nonviolent activist. In August 1976, an Irish republican Army (IRA) car chased by British soldiers, runs over her sister’s 3 children. With Betty Williams, witness to the scene, she organises the Women’s Peace Movement, denouncing the violence on both sides. Both are awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1976 for their efforts of reconciliation in Ulster. In April 2007, supports the Palestinian’s nonviolent resistance in Bil’in, and in May 2010, is aboard the boat – intercepted by the Israeli army – denouncing the maritime blockade on Gaza. “ I believe that this country will know peace, but only if Israel puts an end to the apartheid and ethnic cleansing of the Palestinian people.”
  46. 46. Ami Ayalon Born in 1945, Israeli admiral, former commander of the military fleet, director of Shin Beth (Israeli secret services) from 1996 to 2000, and later, Labour member of the Knesset. Together with Palestinian philosopher Sari Nusseibeh (photo below), promotes the pacifist initiative The People’s Voice : it suggests the formation of two States, the retreat of the Israeli army from occupied territories, and the return of refugees to their land. The petition supporting this project is signed by 400 000 Israelis and Palestinians. “ I do not distinguish prisoners between those who have blood on their hands and those who don’t. I distinguish them between those with whom I have managed to reach an agreement and those with who I haven’t (…). On a boat, when you want to see if you are leading, you do not stand at the back of the boat, staring at the wake behind you. When I see that our ideas are today object of a national consensus, then I realise we are moving forward.”
  47. 47. Tzvia Greenfeld Israeli born in 1945. History student, she is doctor in philosophy, and lived for 11 years in the USA. Worked 4 years for Yad Vashem, Holocaust memorial, directed an institute specialised in Judaic teaching, and later Machon Mifne, an institute dedicated to the education to democracy of young clergymen. Political figure, she is a member of Meretz in the Knesset, and signatory of the Geneva agreements. In the name of her religious beliefs, is active against occupation and colonisation. “ We are the sole ones responsible for our morality and actions (…). There is here an important group of people who suffer enormously under our domination (…). In the end, I think the miracle that will get us to stand up and leave will be the result of internal and external pressures.” Photo below : Meretz party logo (left Zionists, secular, who support the principle : 2 people, 2 States).
  48. 48. Zahira Kamal Palestinian born in 1945, former physics and science professor at the Teacher’s Training College. Is imprisoned during 6 months in 1979 and under house arrest for 7 and half years due to her political activities. Secretary general of the Palestinian Democratic Union Party. Form executive director of the Palestinian Women’s Research and Documentation Centre, UNESCO project, former Minister for Women within the Palestinian government. Cofounder of the Jerusalem Chain, coordinating women’s associations for a fair peace. “ The population calls for a two State solution, both in Palestine and Israel, because the occupation kills Palestine physically and Israel morally (…). I am a realist, meaning I can compose with reality and react.”
  49. 49. Amram Mitzna Born in 1945 of Jewish parents who emigrated from Germany. Israeli soldier and politician. General, the Mayor of Haifa from 1993 to 2003, leads the Labour Party in 2002-2003. In December 2012, joins the centrist party Hathuah (logo below). Participates and signs the Geneva Agreements. “ How have we come to behave as a violent, cynical society, that no longer cares for anyone? The suffering of others no longer interests us, leading to threaten our country’s security. (…) I always told Yitzhak Shamir that we could, without too much difficulty, repress the Intifada, but never put an end to it (…). I told my soldiers that they should see their own mother’s in each Palestinian women demonstrating (…). We are responsible because we hold the power.”
  50. 50. Danny Rothschild Israeli reserve army general, born in 1946. Chief of military secret services and later military administrator of the occupied territories. Director of the Institute for Policy and Strategy (IPS), reflection group; President of the Herzliya Conferencen, and annual conference on Israeli security. Created the Council for Peace and Security, also a reflection group composed of reserve officers who argue for a political solution to the conflict, on the basis of two States. “ Peace is the best guarantee for security, but there are people against it (…). During the last seven years, Hamas shot over 3 800 rockets in the south of Israel.” Defends the operation Cast Lead against Gaza (bombed in Dec. 2008 and attacked on ground in Jan. 2009). The declared objective of the Israelis was to put an end to the Quassam rockets shot by the Hamas from Gaza, in particular onto the neighbouring town of Sderot. This military operation was largely criticised by the international public opinion, as deemed over-proportionate, leading to many deaths on the Palestinian side, and due to the use by the Israeli army of weapons whose use are restricted or even forbidden by international humanitarian law. Photo below : Quassam rocket
  51. 51. Jeff Halper Born in 1946, is a Jewish American anthropologist, author and political activist established in Israel since 1973. Cofounder and coordinator of the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions (ICAHD), to resist against Israeli policies systematically destroying Palestinian housing in occupied territories. The activists stand before the bulldozers and collect money to rebuild the demolished houses on their original grounds. “ Out of 28 000 houses demolished since 1997 in East Jerusalem and the Jordan valley, maybe only 600 were destroyed for security reasons (…). The situation is getting worse, but we have made of Palestine a question that concerns the entire world. I believe in the possibility of a bi-national State.”
  52. 52. Shlomo Sand Born in 1946 in Austria of Jewish parents, spends the two first years of his life living in a Polish Jew refugee camp in Germany. Grows up in Israel where his parents emigrate. During the Six Day War (1967) in which he is a soldier, witnesses, in Jericho, a barbaric act committed by his army on an old Arab man. Becomes active in the Israeli extreme left in favour of two republics (one Israeli, the other Palestinian) and in the perspective of a confederation. Finishes his studies in Paris. Israeli historian specialised in contemporary history, professor at Tel Aviv University. Defends the idea that Israel’s national construction is grounded on a founding myth that makes of Jewish populations one people, united by the same origin and by a common national history. ../..
  53. 53. Shlomo Sand In reality, until the advent of Zionism, these populations defined themselves through their common religion but did not perceive themselves as one people. Contrary to a spread idea, the diaspora was not born from the eviction of the Hebrews from Palestine, but due to successive conversions in North Africa, southern Europe and the Middle East. “ There is a tight link between the identification of the Jews as ethnic group or eternal people-race and Israeli politics regarding those of its citizens considered as non-Jews, namely immigrated workers from foreign countries, and of course, its neighbours deprived from their rights and submitted under a regime of occupation that has now lasted almost fifty years.”
  54. 54. Émile Shoufani Born in 1947, Arab Christian theologian and educator, of Israeli nationality. Is evicted with his family in 1948. Studies theology in France. Priest and director of the Saint Joseph College in Nazareth. To promote reconciliation and teach about the Holocaust, organises in 2003 the first Judeo-Arab trip to Auschwitz-Birkenau (500 persons). Archimandrite of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church in the Holy Land. “ This act of memory will signify our radical refusal of such inhumanity, it will testify of our capacity to understand another’s wounds (…). But this detour through the darkest abysses of humanity’s memory must never make us put another people’s sufferings into perspective, in other places, in other times. On the contrary, it can only make us face our own responsibilities in the present, and our vocation as human beings to live together.”
  55. 55. David Chemla French man of Jewish origin, born in Tunisia in 1948. IT consultant and writer, lived in Israel for 10 years, and did his military service in Tsahal. Lives in Paris, president of the French association Shalom Akhshav – Peace Now. Deeply attached to the existence of an Israeli State, this association founded in 1978 by 348 Israeli reserve officers and soldiers claims the imperative need to reach a compromise with the Palestinians and the Arab world. It refuses the pursuit of the occupation and domination of the Palestinian population, the prolonging of which corrupts Israeli society. Travelled Israel and Palestine in 2004-200 to meet men and women deeply rooted in their society, in favour of a compromise to end the conflict, recognising the existence of one another, conscious of the need to renounce part of the dreams of their own side, opposed to extremism on their own side. ../..
  56. 56. David Chemla “ Since 1967, the permanent places for both societies to meet are those of their confrontations: the battle field or prison.” “ It is not a simple border conflict (…). This conflict confronts each of these peoples to their own identity, obliging them to define – or redefine – the collective national project. And in both cases, it is built in reference to their respective pasts (…). The objective, for both, is to find a way to inscribe this identity in time and space.” “ Each side must abandon a part of its dreams and think of the effect of its position on the other. Thinking of the future, dealing together with common problems, finding a way to share resources, too rare in this region – land and water – those are the true stakes of tomorrow.” Photo : The Jordan river’s source in Banyas.
  57. 57. Saman Khoury Palestinian born in 1948. Imprisoned for two years in 1977 for his political activities within the FDPLP, and then for four years in 1988 as leader of the first Intifada. Founder of the Palestinian television. Signs the Geneva Agreements, Director of the Peace and Democracy Forum, co-President of the Palestinian Israeli Peace NGO Forum, member of Radio All for Palestine-Israel Journal. “ I was linked to the FDPLP because I never believed in an armed movement, in armed fighting. Standing up in front of the occupation is more productive. It brings together more people. Weapons lead nowhere. (…) The end of the occupation will liberate both Palestinians and Israelis from a burden of dehumanisation, of animosity (…). Weapons can make you win or lose, but the people cannot lose.”
  58. 58. Yasser Abd Rabbo and Yossi Beilin Y. A. R, born is 1944, is a Palestinian politician, former member of the executive committee of PLO. Form Minister in Mahmud Abbas’ government. He condemns suicide bombings during the second Intifada, which gave him the reputation of being a moderate man. Y. B, born in 1948, Israeli left-wing politician. Member of the Knesset and former Minister for Justice, he leads the Meretz-Yachad party. Is involved in the Oslo Agreements in 1993, in the Taba discussions in 2001, in the Geneva Agreements in 2003 and in the overall peace process between Israel and Palestine. Both are main negotiators in the 1st December 2003 Geneva Agreements.
  59. 59. Sari Nusseibeh Born in 1949, Palestinian, Doctor in Philosophy from the University of Harvard, Professor at the Bir-Zeit University. In 1987, meets Moshav Amirav, member of Likoud (right-wing Israeli party), a meeting that will lead to the latter’s exclusion from the party… Political and military chief of the Fatah during the first Intifada, he is imprisoned for two years by Israel. With Peace Now, condemns the missiles sent on Tel-Aviv. Is a member of the committee for the Madrid conference. Represents the PLO in Jerusalem in 2001. In September 2001, calls for “definitive peace between the two people” on the basis of their coexistence as “two neighbouring but distinct States”. In 2002, takes stand against an armed second Intifada, condemns the suicide bombings and calls for civil disobedience and for an non- militarised Palestinian State. ../..
  60. 60. Sari Nusseibeh In 2002-2003, writes and distributes, together with Israeli Ami Ayalon, the call of The people’s voice.* In 2010, chooses the option of a bi-national State, and in 2012 for a condominium, step towards a federal Israeli-Palestinian State. “ It will be difficult to forget the suffering we have inflicted on one another. But we learn from experience. Those who suffered know best what this means. They are therefore also those best prepared to make the world a place in which no one will ever have to suffer loss again.” * That suggests two States, with Jerusalem as capital of both, the retreat of Israel from occupied territories, and the return of refugees limited to occupied territories. The petition supporting the project is signed by 400 000 Israelis and Palestinians. Photo above : Ami Ayalon and Sari Nusseibeh.
  61. 61. Lynn Gottlieb Born in 1949, American. First women to become a rabbi in the Jewish Renewal Movement. At the age of 17, goes to Israel for a student exchange, is confronted to racist segregation, discriminations and massive incarceration of people based on their identity. For 45 years, is deeply involved in all sorts of efforts to achieve peace between Israelis and Palestinians : dialogue, education, delegations, direct action. Supports the BDS action. Member of the International Fellowship for Reconciliation (IFOR). “ Mountains of credible testimonies as well as thousands of eye witnesses including, in the last 6 decades, Palestinians, Israeli Jews, internationals and human rights organisations, leave no doubt as to Israel’s pursuit of politics that are an insult to Jewish history.”
  62. 62. Michel Warschawski Born in 1949, son of the Great Rabbi of Strasbourg. Journalist, editorialist, gives conferences and is an Israeli activist. Cofounder in 1984 and former President of the Alternative Information Centre (AIC) that gathers several Israeli and Palestinian peace organisations. His involvement for the Palestinian cause will lead him to a 20 months detention in 1989. The AIC is awarded, in 2012, the “French Republic Human Rights Prize,” by the National Consultative Commission for Human Rights. He is a member of the Russell Tribunal on Palestine committee. “ It is either the Jewish ethnic discrimination or democracy. Colonies or the hope of two people. The illusion of a barbed-wire wall, check points and kamikazes, or an international border mutually agreed on, and Jerusalem as common capital for both States.” .. / ..
  63. 63. Michel Warschawski “ All the institutions of this colonial regime, and I would say almost all political parties, are not only accomplices but also implicated without even knowing it.” Israel is “ on an agitated sea, more and more agitated, on a relatively fragile boat, with a captain who doesn’t know how to read a map, who cannot use a compass, and who is gradually getting drunk (…). I am preoccupied by the blindness of this government and its politics that are very, very sort term.” “ What should we do to allow Palestinians, today, to better resist, and tomorrow, to fight back? For me, the answer is to be found in three letters: B D S. I like to say S B D: Sanctions, sanctions, sanctions, and otherwise, Boycott and Disinvestment.”
  64. 64. Leïla Shahid Palestinian born in 1949. Studies sociology and anthropology at the American University in Beirut. From 1994 to 2005, is General Delegate of the Palestinian Authority in France. Since the recognition of Palestine by the United Nation General Assembly as Observer State, is Palestinian Ambassador for the European Union in Brussels. She is one of the three promoters of the Russell Tribunal on Palestine. “ Following Palestine’s admission to the UN General Assembly, Israel’s decision to build another 3 000 housings on Palestinian territory – Palestine and East Jerusalem – makes the viability of a future Palestinian State even more doubtable, Palestine thus being cut in half. This decision only proves Israel’s spite and arrogance towards the international community. Nothing will change unless the latter decides on sanctions.”
  65. 65. Nurit Peled-Elhanan Israeli born in 1949, daughter of General Matti Paled, Professor in Science of Education at the Hebraic University of Jerusalem. In 1997, her daughter Samarder, then aged 14, is killed in a suicide bombing perpetrated by a Palestinian in Jerusalem. She forbids Benyamin Netanyahu to attend the funeral and declares: “These attacks are the direct consequence of the oppression, slavery, humiliation and siege on Palestine such as imposed by Israel. These attacks are the answer to our own actions.” She denounces “blind politics that refuse to recognise the rights of others and that foment hate and conflicts.” Member of the Parents Circle Families Forum (PCFF), Israeli- Palestinian organisation that brings together parents who share grief and the will to transform their personal tragedies in a struggle for peace. She is a promoter of the Russell Tribunal on Palestine, awarded the Sakharov Prize for Human Rights in 2001. ■

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