Eacd European Communication Monitor 2009

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The European Communication Monitor 2009 reveals that 73% of Communication professionals are taken serious by senior management, internal communication and change management + CSR and sustainability are the disciplines to be increased, linking business and communication (47,3%) and coping with digital evolution and social web (45%) are the most strategic issues for 2010, online communities (7%) and online videos (11,6%) are leading the field...

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Eacd European Communication Monitor 2009

  1. 1. EUROPEAN E U R O P E A N C O M M U N I C AT I O N M O N I T O R 2 0 0 9 C O M M U N I C AT I O N MONITOR 2009 TRENDS IN COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC RELATIONS R E S U LT S O F A S U R V E Y I N 3 4 C O U N T R I E S PARTNERS: SPONSOR:
  2. 2. EUROPEAN C O M M U N I C AT I O N MONITOR 2009 TRENDS IN COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT AND PUBLIC RELATIONS R E S U LT S O F A S U R V E Y I N 3 4 C O U N T R I E S A n s g a r Z e r f a s s , A n g e l e s M o r e n o , R a l p h Te n c h , D e j a n V e r č i č & P i e t V e r h o e v e n A study conducted by the European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA), the European Association of Communication Directors (EACD) and Communication Director Magazine
  3. 3. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 4 IMPRINT PUBLISHED BY: EACD European Association of Communication Directors, Brussels EUPRERA European Public Relations Education and Research Association, Brussels CITATION OF THIS PUBLICATION (APA STYLE): Zerfass, A., Moreno, A., Tench, R., Verčič, D., & Verhoeven, P (2009): . European Communication Monitor 2009. Trends in Communication Management and Public Relations – Results of a Survey in 34 Countries. Brussels: EACD, EUPRERA. September 2009 All rights reserved. © Helios Media GmbH, Berlin 2009 ISBN: 978-3-9811316-2-8 Helios Media GmbH Friedrichstraße 209 D-10969 Berlin Brussels Office Square de Meeûs 37 B-1000 Brussels Tel. +32 (0)2 219 22 90 Fax +32 (0)2 219 22 92 info@helios-media.com Coordination: Grit Fiedler, EACD Design and layout: Steffi Butter, Marcel Franke, Melanie Schröder, Kamila Kedzior Print: Print & Media, Merten Schmidt, Möllerdamm 3 D-18337 Dänschenburg, Tel. +49 (0)3 822 44 42 96 Please contact any member of the research team or the advisory board in your country/region if you are interested in discussing the insights of this survey or in joint research projects. Questions regarding the overall research, including sponsorship opportunities for future surveys, may be directed to the lead researcher, Prof. Dr. Ansgar Zerfass.
  4. 4. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 5 CONTENT CONTENT FOREWORD AND INTRODUCTION 6 INTERNAL COMMUNICATION TRENDS 76 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 8 SALARY AND QUALIFICATION NEEDS 80 RESEARCH DESIGN AND DEMOGRAPHICS 17 REFERENCES 92 ROLES AND CONTRIBUTION TO ORGANISATIONAL AUTHORS, RESEARCH TEAM AND OBJECTIVES 26 ADVISORY BOARD 93 PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MANAGEMENT PARTNERS AND SPONSOR 94 DECISIONS 35 IMPACT OF THE RECESSION AND MEDIA CRISIS 41 DEVELOPMENT OF DISCIPLINES AND COMMUNICATION CHANNELS 49 INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION: OVERALL TRENDS AND ONLINE COMMUNITIES 58 STRATEGIC ISSUES 65 EVALUATION AND COMMUNICATION PERFORMANCE 69
  5. 5. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 6 FOREWORD FOREWORD While our economic world is facing enormous challenges and adjustments in the course of the global crisis, the com- munication profession is experiencing tremendous change. Communication, with all its facets and features, is playing an increasingly strategic role within corporations. This has been proven, in addition to other fascinating insights, in the European Communication Monitor 2009. Despite heavy budget cuts, staff reductions, and other changing frameworks, European PR professionals are still optimistic for 2010. Communication strategies and tools are being implemented accordingly. They are gaining im- portance and relevance. Communication disciplines such as Internal Communication, Change Management, CSR, Sustainability, and channels like Online Media and Social Media will become even more essential in the coming years. Although this is an important step towards successful communication, the implementation of these methods bears various challenges for communication management in Europe. Even more challenging, as the results show, is the link between business strategy and communication. A clear prioritisation is necessary for implementing communication that helps to survive the recession. I strongly believe that rebuilding trust and confidence by being authentic is a key factor for successful communications and running a success- ful corporation. With the communications world currently in a volatile period, this intent seems to be indispensable for getting the focus back on growing prosperous businesses. The EACD has joined forces with EUPRERA, the organisation of European communication researchers, and Communication Director magazi- ne to conduct this extensive survey. A truly international group of renowned professors from 11 countries has gained valuable insights into the structure of the field and the future of the profession. I hope you find this report as interesting and useful as I do. Dr. Herbert Heitmann President European Association of Communication Directors (EACD)
  6. 6. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 7 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION
  7. 7. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 8 SUMMARY SUMMARY OF FINDINGS RESEARCH AIMS AND DESIGN • Challenges for communication management during the recession and the media crisis. Throughout the last years, research into communication management, strategic • Strategic issues, development of the discipline and instruments. communication and public relations (which are used as synonyms here) has • Trends in internal communication, measurement/evaluation and interactive evolved as a broad and strong discipline in Europe. Original theories and con- communication. cepts have been developed – ranging from overall frameworks based on socio- • Communication executives’ roles and influence on management decisions. logical theories (Ihlen, Van Ruler, & Fredriksson, 2009) to advanced theories of • Salaries and qualification needs. corporate communication and integrated communication (Zerfass, Van Ruler, When comparing the survey presented here to previous editions, it has to be & Sriramesh, 2008), complemented by a range of research traditions linked noted that we have experienced an extraordinary year. Without any hyperbo- to different cultures and regions (Van Ruler & Vercic, 2004). However, sever- le, it is true to say that the worlds of business and politics have been turned al barriers have limited the possibility to draw an overall empirical picture of upside down. Furthermore, the technological and media landscapes have seen the structure and developments of public relations in Europe. While national further evolution and transformation. As a consequence, this year’s survey has surveys, some of them based on Anglo-American frameworks such as the Excel- great importance in monitoring and tracking the activities and insights of senior lence Study (Grunig, Grunig, & Dozier, 2002), provide a detailed insight into re- communication practitioners across Europe. At the same time, we are pleased gional developments, the overall picture needs to be based both on a theoretical to report that the third annual ECM survey is building on its past strengths and framework and interpretations that cross cultural boundaries. developing an ever more clear understanding of the communication landscape The European Communication Monitor (ECM) has been designed to match across European countries. This year’s findings are based on a sample of more these requirements. It was initiated in 2007 (Zerfass et al., 2007) and repeated than 1,850 professionals from 34 European countries, making this one of the in 2008 (Zerfass et al., 2008; Moreno et al., 2009; Tench et al., 2009) and 2009 most comprehensive transnational studies ever conducted in the field of public (this report), with the intention of becoming a permanent and annual snapshot relations and communications worldwide. of communication management in this part of the world. The aim of the research is to identify current challenges and future develop- ments of public relations in Europe by evaluating the experiences and percep- SURVEY METHOD, SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS tions of communication professionals working in communication departments The European Communication Monitor is an extended quantitative research and consultancies. More specifically, the study highlights: based on a multi-dimensional theoretical framework (see page 18). The survey
  8. 8. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 9 SUMMARY was conducted in English and included a questionnaire with 17 sections. Hypo- DEMOGRAPHICS theses and instruments have been derived from previous research and literatu- As with previous versions of this research, the 1,863 respondents of ECM 2009 re. The questionnaire was developed by the international research team and has are characterised by a high level of experience with an average age of 42 ye- been evaluated by the advisory board. After conducting a pre-test with 50 practiti- ars. Almost 60% have more than 10 years of experience in the communication oners in ten European countries, more than 20,000 communication professionals field. 83.6% are senior professionals working as head of a communication de- throughout Europe were personally invited via E-Mail, using databases provided partment, unit leader or agency CEO. The respondents are also well educated by the European Association of Communication Directors and Communication with 68% holding a Masters or MBA or a doctorate. Only 7% held no graduate Director Magazine. This is the most comprehensive collection representing the qualification. This level of experience and seniority is significant in ensuring profession in Europe known to us. Additional invitations to participate were sent that the survey findings are based on a solid foundation for identifying major via national branch associations and networks (partly self-recruiting). The online developments in strategic communication. survey was collected over four weeks in May 2009. The report is based on findings Within the sample, female and male practitioners are almost equally divided from this data. (50.7% versus 49.3%). In terms of corporate culture, most participants (66%) The analysis is based on thorough empirical research and analysis. For examp- work in organisations that are characterised by participative people-orientation le, only fully completed questionnaires have been taken into account. Moreover, and proactive responses towards their environment. Different types of organi- replies from participants not currently working in communication management sational culture have been identified using an instrument proposed by Ernest (academics, students) and from non-European countries have been removed. (1985). More than two thirds of the respondents (72.2%) work in communica- 1,863 fully completed surveys by participants identified as part of the population tion departments within joint stock companies, private companies, government- (communication professionals in Europe) were evaluated. Despite this quality of owned/political organisations or non-profit associations, while 27.8% have a input, it is important to recognise that the lack of knowledge and information background in agencies or as consultants. In line with the development of the about the population of communication departments and agencies in Europe communication profession within Europe, most participants are based in Wes- means that the findings presented here can not claim representativeness. It is also tern and Northern Europe, but countries in Southern and Eastern Europe are necessary to note that economies, communication landscapes and PR professions also represented in the study. Assignment of countries to regions is based on are in rather different stages of development throughout Europe. Consequently, the United Nations Standard Classification (United Nations Statistics Division, this survey is especially useful to identify relevant patterns and trends in the field, 2008). which may stimulate qualitative discussions.
  9. 9. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 10 SUMMARY ROLES AND CONTRIBUTION TO ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES Monitor 2008. However, only 64% say that their considerations are factored into When looking at the different professional roles practitioners take inside their strategic decision making and planning processes. organisations, the findings suggest many of them do not exploit the full poten- The advisory influence of PR professionals does not differ much between joint tial of strategic communication. The survey empirically proves insights from stock companies, non-profit organisations, governmental organisations or priva- theory (Van Ruler & Vercic, 2002, 2005; Lurati & Eppler, 2006; Zerfass, 2008) te companies. The executive influence (the influence on strategic decision ma- that PR professionals can foster business goals basically in two distinct ways: a) king and planning) also does not differ very much between professionals in the by solving problems deriving from business or functional strategies that can various organisations either. In joint stock companies the executive influence (probably) be solved by communication activities, i.e. selling goods by marke- of PR professionals is descending, as is the advisory influence. The executive ting communication, motivating employees through internal communication influence in private-owned organisations is on the rise, compared to 2008. In etc.; b) by helping to define organisational objectives by adding the communi- general, the status discrepancy between advisory and executive influence is de- cative dimension to strategy formulation, i.e. by reporting results from issues scending and the lowest discrepancy is reported in non-profit organisations. In management and stakeholder research, by managing reputation risks etc. This both dimensions, European professionals fall behind their counterparts in the combines listening and reflection, as well as dissemination strategies and acti- United States, as reported in comparable surveys (Swerling et al., 2008). vities. Overall, an 85% majority of practitioners in Europe focus on supporting Communication executives enacting the “strategic facilitator” role are more in- organisational goals by addressing stakeholders; only 61% feel responsible for fluential than the average, 84% of them have advisory influence and 79% also shaping the strategy. 56% declare that they use both ways to contribute to over- have executive influence. Of the professionals working as “operational suppor- all goals, thus enacting the “strategic facilitator” role. This auspicious role is ters”, 69% report having advisory influence and 53% executive influence. “Busi- prevalent among heads of communication; in private companies; in NGOs; and ness advisers” have more executive influence than the “operational supporters”, in Northern Europe. Another 29% are “operational supporters” concentrating 57%, but their advisory influence on senior management is less, at only 53%. on addressing stakeholders, whereas a minority of 5% primarily see themselves A large portion (53%) of those working as “isolated experts” report that their as “business advisers” helping to adjust organisational strategies. A surprising PR advice is not taken seriously, and only one third of this group report having number (10%) of respondents are “isolated experts” who do not seem to be- executive influence. The advisory influence is lowest in Southern Europe com- lieve in a clear link between what they are doing and what their organisation pared to Northern, Western and Eastern Europe. In Southern Europe 63% of wants to achieve. the professionals think they are taken seriously by senior management, compa- red to 76% in Northern Europe, 75% in Western Europe and 68% in Eastern Europe. The executive influence is also biggest in Northern Europe; 69% of the PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MANAGEMENT DECISIONS PR professionals in that region have influence on the strategic decisions of the All over Europe, PR professionals are trusted advisors, with 73% reporting that organisation and the planning that results from those decisions. their recommendations are taken seriously by senior management. This is a In general, the data shows that influence depends on the geographical location small 2% increase compared to the results of the European Communication of the organisation as well as on practitioners’ experience and position, but not
  10. 10. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 11 SUMMARY on their age and professional or academic education. Moreover, practitioners vesting in new instruments or tools. Following this approach, three out of four with a solid track record in the field report a smaller status discrepancy – they practitioners think that communication management will adapt to new routines are not only able to catch the eye of senior management, but also to affect evolving in journalism in times of the media crisis. Furthermore, 33% state that business decisions. communication professionals will help the media to survive, i.e. by providing Summarising we can say that, on the basis of the results of the European Com- free content. Speaking in terms of the intereffication theory (Bentele & Noth- munication Monitor 2009, the overall influence of European PR professionals haft, 2008), media relations shows strong adaptations to journalism, compared depends on the roles the professionals take (“strategic facilitator” is most influ- to significantly less inductions. ential), their geographical basis (in Northern European PR professionals are most listened to), their hierarchical position in the organisation and the years of practice they have in the field. DEVELOPMENT OF DISCIPLINES AND COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Respondents expect a changing relevance of the various disciplines within the broad range of public relations and strategic communication. For the first time IMPACT OF THE RECESSION AND MEDIA CRISIS in the series of ECM surveys, corporate communication has taken the lead as The qualitative and quantitative findings suggest that communicators are facing the most important discipline in 2009, followed by the long-time forerunner up to the current worldwide economic downturn and media crisis with identi- marketing/brand and consumer communication. European PR professionals fiable defensive strategies. For example, both the economic recession and the expect corporate communication to stay in first position until at least 2012. Cri- crisis of the mass media sector have changed the framework for communication sis communication, internal communication/change management and public management in Europe. The long-term upswing of the occupational field has affairs/lobbying currently rank third, fourth and fifth respectively. This order of come to an end. 47% report budget cuts and 22% report that staff numbers ranking is expected to change in the coming years. Internal communication/ have been reduced. This is especially true for joint stock and private companies, change management is expected to take over second position from marketing/ whereas governmental and non-profit organisations are less under pressure. brand and consumer communication until, at least, 2012. Corporate social re- Anecdotal evidence claiming budget shifts from marketing communications to sponsibility/sustainability is expected to rise in relevance, and by 2012 this field public relations could not be verified on a large scale. Nevertheless, more than is expected to rank as the fourth most important discipline. 80% of respondents are optimistic for the next year. Both internal communication/change management and social responsibility/ A clear 60% majority claim they will respond to the recession by focusing on the sustainability are predicted to be the fastest-growing fields of practice until 2012. “most relevant issues and stakeholders”. Another 40% see a stronger demand This is consistent with the results of previous ECM surveys and can be consi- for evaluation. This means that PR strategies have not been managed up to the dered a trend. Personal coaching of management and other employees of the highest standards until now – strategic priorities and transparent measurement organisation on communication skills by PR professionals is also expected to be methodologies should already be a part of communication management. Only a growth area in the coming years. Reduced importance is most expected for in- one third of the respondents say that they will take a proactive approach by in- vestor relations/financial communication, which is predicted to be 12% below
  11. 11. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 12 SUMMARY the average in 2012, followed by crisis communication, which will be down 8% INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION: OVERALL TRENDS AND ONLINE on the average in 2012. The importance of issues management is also expected COMMUNITIES to decrease. Only three out of ten professionals in Europe think that online communities Regarding communication channels and instruments, social media such as (social networks) and online videos are important for public relations today. blogs, podcasts, online communities and addressing online journalists are on a 25% say that weblogs – a much-discussed platform in the field – are relevant. clear upswing. Predicted growth until 2012 is 35% over the average, compared RSS feeds, podcasts, wikis and virtual worlds are considered of even less im- to 26% in 2008. Today press relations addressing print media is still the most portance. However, PR professionals think that the importance of interactive important communication channel for PR professionals, but it is expected to communication channels will change dramatically in the coming years. 70% decline by 35% below the average in 2012, even more dramatically than was say that online videos and communities will be of established importance by expected last year (25% below the average). Online communication, ranking 2010. Although every social media platform is predicted to see an upswing in second today is expected to take over the lead in communication channels and importance, predictions differ for the various types. For instance, web-videos instruments by 2012. The relevance of social media such as blogs, podcasts and and social networks will grow at above the average rate, while wikis, weblogs communities has almost doubled compared to 2007, but other online instru- and RSS feeds will also develop at an average rate along with social media more ments, like the more traditional ones such as websites and intranets are still generally. Podcasts, microblogs (Twitter) and especially virtual worlds are expec- way ahead. Relations with print media will be reduced in importance in the ted to gain importance, although at a below-average rate. Despite strong reports coming years. Steadily ranking third today, and expected to remain there in in the media, micro blogging with Twitter is only considered important by 14% 2012, is face-to-face-communication, showing that PR professionals do not think of communication professionals in Europe at present, although 39% state that it that the rise of the new social media will negatively affect the importance of in- will be important next year. The Twitter platform is a long way from being well- terpersonal communication. Furthermore paid information, sponsoring, events known or accepted, and is still lagging behind podcasts and wikis. and corporate publishing/media are expected to diminish in importance as The results of the 2009 monitor show no specific patterns of motives for using communication channels and instruments by 2012. online communities in communication management. Professionals state a For the first time the European Communication Monitor 2009 has taken or- variety of reasons ranging from demonstrating openness to establishing new ganisational culture into account. The results show that the valuation of com- relationships. Monitoring opinion building and exploring digital cultures are munication instruments is linked to the culture of an organisation. Whether less prevalent. This reinforces the finding that most participants are sticking an organisation has an integrated, interactive, entrepreneurial or systemised to speaking about the organisation, and that listening to the outside world and culture seems to be meaningful for the use of communication channels and reflecting on the position of the organisation in the environment are still con- instruments. sidered less important. A clear majority of 85% of PR professionals in Europe are themselves members of social networks, with LinkedIn heading the number of professional profiles. 41% of the respondents have a professional and a private profile, 27% have a
  12. 12. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 13 SUMMARY professional profile only and 17% manage only a private profile. In the private EVALUATION AND COMMUNICATION PERFORMANCE realm, Facebook is the most widely used. In accordance with the results of the ECM 2008 survey, communication mana- gers in Europe mainly rely on monitoring clippings and media responses (84%), as well as internet/intranet usage (64%) when evaluating their activities. About STRATEGIC ISSUES half of the respondents mention that evaluating the satisfaction of internal cli- The European Communication Monitor 2009 identifies two main issues of ma- ents, monitoring financial aspects of communication projects and understan- jor importance for communication professionals throughout Europe. Half of ding key messages are also important. Stakeholder attitudes and behavioural the respondents state either that linking business strategy and communication change are mentioned by almost 40% of the professionals. Only one third of and/or coping with digital evolution and the social web are most relevant for the respondents state that tracking business goals and reputation or brand value themselves within the near future. Whereas the business link issue has been the plays a role. Taking into account that self-reporting in this much-discussed area number one issue for the past three years (with a 2% rise since 2008), questions tends to be rather optimistic, the results of the evaluation of communication regarding the social web have been intensified (+7%) and now rank second, one performance are a strong hint that measurement practice is far from ideal: large place higher than last year. Social responsibility and sustainable development is parts of the field are still dominated by a narrow view on measurement. still important, but has lost ground (-3%) since 2008, whereas more professio- Comparing the empirical data of the monitor with the up-to-date framework nals state that building and maintaining of trust is a major issue (+4%). This may for communication measurement issued by PR associations and controller asso- resemble the crisis in business and society. Companies and senior management ciations (DPRG & ICV, 2009), a predominance of external output evaluation is have lost credibility, reputation and trust. At the same time, many CSR activities obvious, followed by exploring the direct outcome on stakeholder’s perception still have to prove that they are really linked to the core activities and legitimacy or knowledge. Measures that catch the far ends of the overall process, i.e. evalu- of the organisation. It is also plausible that budget cuts affect voluntary activities ating resources invested by the organisation and value creation that pays off for in this area. the organisation, are utilised at a substantially lower rate. Vis-à-vis the 84% of the Dealing with the demands of new transparency and active audiences is also con- European PR professionals that evaluate impact on the media, only one third of sidered important and ranks fifth in the list of strategic issues for the profession; the professionals track effects upon their own organisation. This shows that the 31% of the respondents mention this issue. Supporting organisational change, so-called output monitoring, based on the availability of messages/offerings in establishing new methods of communication, the globalisation of communica- clippings and media response, is most popular, followed by outcome monitoring tion, advancing public affairs and political communication, issues management such as the effects on stakeholders and understanding of key messages (54%). and corporate foresight are all mentioned by between 10-20% of the respon- Input monitoring ranks third (47%), including monitoring of the initiation of dents. Of least importance to public relations professionals is the development communication and financial costs for projects, and at the bottom of the list is of communication policies to present the CEO in the public realm and to sup- outflow monitoring of effects on their own organisation and on business goals port intercultural integration, which were mentioned by only 11% and 6% of (34%). When we compare the different types or organisations, it becomes clear the respondents respectively. that joint stock companies and private enterprises are forerunners in the moni-
  13. 13. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 14 SUMMARY toring of costs of communication and measuring the business impact. nals enacting the “strategic facilitator” role tend to be at the top of the salary This narrow view on measurement and the lack of measures on the outflow level rankings, whereas a large portion of the “isolated experts” are rather more is coherent with the strong search for clear links between communication and poorly paid. However, there are also some respondents with a high level of organisational goals identified in this survey. income who report that they neither support organisational goals by executing communication nor by advising the strategy process. The survey supports previous findings (EACD, 2008) that salaries of commu- INTERNAL COMMUNICATION TRENDS nication professionals differ widely throughout Europe. Countries with a well- Overall the ECM 2009 survey presents two strong priorities for internal com- established occupational field in Western and Northern Europe lead the field munication over the next 12 months which are firstly to link internal commu- in terms of salary and remuneration. At the same time, women are under-re- nication to corporate strategies (69%) and secondly to support organisational presented in the higher bands of annual income, which indicates that a glass change and restructuring (66%). With some irony for communicators, 55% of ceiling still exists. Membership in international communication associations respondents believe that information overload is a key issue within organisati- such as the EACD correlates positively with a basic salary of 100,000 Euros or ons and they place a priority on dealing with this. more. Somewhat surprisingly, one third or even less say that dealing with the social Consistent with the data presented in other sections of the survey, there are web both proactively and defensively (avoiding reputation risks through online three main areas for training and development: dealing with online channels word-of-mouth) is one of the top issues in internal communication today. At the (referred to by 26%), developing communication plans linked to business stra- same time, 54% think that using online communities for internal dialogue will tegies (21%) and coaching peers and consulting top managers (20%). be important within the next three years. An interesting internal strategic issue is that an overwhelming 74% of respondents suggest that training managers to act as communicators is the most relevant future action in internal communi- CONCLUSIONS cation, followed by spreading authentic content instead of polished messages. The European Communication Monitor 2009 reveals deep insights into the Both aspects are a sharp contrast to the everyday practice of most communicati- structure of the field, highlighting the most important issues for communicati- on departments and agencies, which rely on communicating themselves with an on professionals in different regions and organisations, as well as specific con- ever expanding arsenal of tools and channels. cerns such as strategic impact, evaluation and online channels. Some of the most important findings are: • A clear majority of professionals in Europe execute communication based on SALARY AND QUALIFICATION NEEDS organisational goals, but far fewer are helping to define the overall strategies Regarding remuneration, the most significant but predictable finding is that of organisations. salary correlates with hierarchy and the professional role within organisations • PR professionals are trusted advisers across Europe, with 73% reporting that and agencies. Respondents were grouped into four roles and those professio- their recommendations are taken seriously by senior management and 64%
  14. 14. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 15 SUMMARY saying that their considerations are factored into strategic decision making and 2009, p. 3). Along this line, most organisations try to implement strategic com- planning processes. munication, meaning that they use communication purposefully to fulfil their • The overall influence of European PR professionals depends on the roles that mission (Hallahan et al., 2007). This survey shows that this is still based on a the professionals take (“strategic facilitators” are most influential), their geo- large amount of wishful thinking. Many professionals in communication depart- graphical base (Northern European PR professionals are the most influential), ments and agencies are still trying to find ways to link communication strategies their hierarchical position in the organisation and the years of practice they to organisational goals. Narrow conceptions of measurement, as well as role have in the field. enactments that concentrate either on planning and executing communication • Corporate communication has overtaken marketing/consumer communicati- or only on helping to define business strategies are obstacles. While the full on as the predominant field of practice. Runner up in the ranking of disciplines potential of strategic communication is not exploited, most professionals have is the field of corporate social responsibility/sustainability. recognised the challenges. Those with profound academic qualifications, senior • Internal communication and change management is becoming increasingly positions or engagements in professional associations show the way. The most important, but linking those efforts to organisational strategies is a major chal- successful professionals are acting as “strategic facilitators”, systematically com- lenge. bining outbound (“dissemination”) activities with inbound (“listening and re- • Professionals predict a strong growth of online channels and social media, flection”) activities. Until now, this role is practised only by 56% of practitioners with a clear favourability for online communities and videos on the internet, in Europe. Both the strategic facilitator role and the trends identified in this followed by weblogs. Other platforms like RSS feeds, podcasts, wikis and Twitter survey are consistent with advanced theories of corporate communication and are valued by less than 20% of the respondents. communication management. While corporate communication is aimed in the • European PR professionals have a sceptical view of Twitter. Despite strong re- first instance at informing and constructing meaning, its most obvious task is in- ports in the media, micro blogging with Twitter is only considered important by fluencing stakeholders, thereby serving both to support the ongoing provision 14% of communication professionals in Europe at present, and 39% state that of goods or services and to create intangible assets within companies (Zerfass, it will be important next year. 2008, p. 66). In order to reach these goals, communication management should • Linking business strategy and communication, and coping with the digital include (1) counselling the members of an organisation on matters of values, evolution and the social web are the most relevant issues for European PR pro- norms and issues important to society, (2) coaching the members of an orga- fessionals. nisation to respond communicatively to societal demands, (3) conceptualising • Large sections of the field are dominated by a narrow view on measurement of and planning communication with important publics to gain public trust and the effectiveness of communication activities. While many monitor the output (4) executing communication plans (Van Ruler & Vercic, 2005, p. 265). and some the outcome of communication, often neither the input in terms of Although there is still a long way to go, the profession of communication ma- finances and resources nor the effects on organisational goals are tracked. nagement and public relations in Europe has gained a strong position. It is a In the global information society “power relies on the control of communica- major asset in times of trouble and can help to develop new routes to success in tion, as counterpower depends on breaking through such control” (Castells, a complex and changing world of business, culture and technology.
  15. 15. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 17 RESEARCH DESIGN AND DEMOGRAPHICS RESEARCH DESIGN AND DEMOGRAPHIC S
  16. 16. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 18 RESEARCH DESIGN AND DEMOGRAPHICS >> Research framework and questions A Person (Communication Manager) B Organisation Demographics Job status Education Self-perception Structure Culture Country Age, Q17 Experience, Q17 Academic, Q17 Professional role, Q7 Type of organisation/ Characteristics of organisational European homebase, Q17 Gender, 17 Hierarchy, Q17 Communicative, Q17 Optimism, Q16 agency, Q17 culture, Q15 Association Member, Q17 Social Network C Situation D Perception Member, Q17 Present Future Communication objectives, Q8 Disciplines and fields of practice, Q4 Evaluation practice, Q9 Communication channels, Q5 Economic recession, Q1 Strategic issues, Q6 / Impact of the media crisis, Q2 Emerging interactive channels, Q1 Online communities, Q11 Internal communication, Q12, Q13 Needs for training and qualification, Q14 E Position Advisory/executive influence, Q3 Personal income, Q17
  17. 17. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 19 RESEARCH DESIGN AND DEMOGRAPHICS >> Demographic background of participants (1,863 communication professionals from 34 European countries) POSITION ORGANISATION Head of communication/Agency CEO 53.8% Government-owned/Political organisation Responsible for single communication 29.8% 12.7% Private company discipline/Unit leader 18.4% Team member/Consultant 12.7% Non-profit organisation/ Other 3.7% Association 11.5% JOB EXPERIENCE Up to 5 years 14.8% 6 to 10 years 26.9% More than 10 years 58.3% Joint stock company Communication consultancy, 29.7% PR Agency, Freelance Consultant GENDER / AGE 27.8% Female 50.7% Male 49.3% 72.2% Communication department, Press office Age (on average) 41.7 yrs 27.8% Communication consultancy, PR Agency, Freelance Consultant www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 European countries; Q 17.
  18. 18. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N IIC A T IIO N M O N IIT O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 20 R E S EAAN I C H T D O N I G N D A N A D E M O G R A P H I C S ORG R SA I ES AL ATD >> Gender: Within the whole sample, women and men are equally divided - but the higher positions are still male-dominated POSITION Female 50.7% All respondents 49.3% Male 45.8% Head of communication/Agency CEO 54.2% Responsible for a single communication 55.2% Male discipline/Unit leader 44.8% 58.1% Team member, Consultant 41.9% www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 European Countries; Q 17.
  19. 19. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 21 R E S E A R C H D E S I GO R A N D I D E MIO G R A P D A C A N GAN SAT ONAL HI T S >> Countries and regions represented in the study RESPONDENTS ARE BASED IN 34 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND FOUR REGIONS NORTHERN EUROPE 31.3% WESTERN EUROPE 41.4% EASTERN EUROPE 8.5% SOUTHERN EUROPE 19.0% (N=579) (N=772) (N=158) (N=354) Denmark Austria Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Finland France Hungary Greece Ireland Germany Poland Italy Latvia Luxembourg Romania Macedonia Lithuania Netherlands Russia Malta Norway Switzerland Slovakia Portugal Sweden Serbia United Kingdom Slovenia Spain Turkey www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR professionals from 34 European countries; Q 17. Classification according to United Nations Statistics Division (2008).
  20. 20. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N IIC A T IIO N M O N IIT O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 22 R E S EAAN I C H T D O N I G N D A N A D E M O G R A P H I C S ORG R SA I ES AL ATD >> Personal background of respondents COMMUNICATION QUALIFICATIONS 41.4% Academic degree in communication (Bachelor, Master, Doctorate) Professional certificate in public relations/communication management 26.4% Professional certificate in another communication discipline 17.3% HIGHEST ACADEMIC EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION Doctorate (Ph.D., Dr.) 7.4% Master (M.A., M.Sc., Mag., M.B.A.), Diploma 60.2% Bachelor (B.A.) 25.1% No academic degree 7.4% www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 European countries; Q 17.
  21. 21. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N II C A T II O N M O N II T O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 23 R E S E A R C H D E S I GO R A N D I D E MIO G R A P D A C A N GAN SAT ONAL HI T S >> Affiliation of respondents (Membership in professional associations) % .4 60 % 55 40 % 2% . % 16 .7 12 20 % ci a io n AC of ia t al oc on (E n so at n D) n r s a t io s s ati t io io a s u nic n a ern c t o ci m ir e s s o t io in t m nD nA co ic a h e r t io e a or Ot ic a r o p R lP Eu un na m t io m Na un co m m Co www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR professionals from 34 European countries; Q 17.
  22. 22. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N IIC A T IIO N M O N IIT O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 24 R E S EAAN I C H T D O N I G N D A N A D E M O G R A P H I C S ORG R SA I ES AL ATD >> Organisational cultures: Most participants work in people-oriented and responsive environments People orientation participative INTERACTIVE INTEGRATED CULTURE CULTURE 13.9% 66.4% Response to the environment Response to the environment reactive proactive ENTREPRENEURIAL SYSTEMATISED CULTURE CULTURE 15.6% 4.1% People orientation non-participative www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 782 PR Professionals; Q 15: How would you perceive your organisation regarding the following dimensions? participative/non participative, proactive/reactive; considered scale points 1-2 and 4-5; scale derived from Ernest (1985).
  23. 23. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 25 R E S E A R C H D E S I GO R A N D I D E MIO G R A P D A C A N GAN SAT ONAL HI T S >> Types of culture in different types of organisation JOINT STOCK GOVERNMENTAL NON-PROFIT PRIVATE COMPANIES COMPANIES ORGANISATIONS ORGANISATIONS INTEGR ATED CULTURE 64.5% 67.8% 58.8% 76.4% (PARTICIPATIVE – PROACTIVE) INTER ACTIVE CULTURE 11.5% 10.4% 24.4% 15.0% (PARTICIPATIVE – REACTIVE) ENTREPRENEURIAL CULTURE (NON-PARTICIPATIVE – 4.5% 4.7% 3.1% 3.1% PROACTIVE) SYSTEMATISED CULTURE (NON-PARTICIPATIVE – 19.5% 17.1% 13.7% 5.5% REACTIVE) www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 782 PR Professionals; Q 15: How would you perceive your organisation regarding the following dimensions? participative/non participative, proactive/reactive; considered scale points 1-2 and 4-5; scale derived from Ernest (1985). Green figures highlight positive variations to the average.
  24. 24. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N IIC A T IIO N M O N IIT O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 26 O R G A N I A N T I O N A L R IA TU T I O N T O O R G A N I S A T I O N A L O B J E C T I V E S ROLES SAD CONT D B A ROLES AND CONTRIBUTION TO ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES
  25. 25. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N II C A T II O N M O N II T O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 27 R O L E S A N D C O N T R I B U T I O N T O O R G A N I O A T IA N I A L TOI B J E C T DV E S S RG ON SA ONAL I ATA >> Strategic orientation: A clear majority execute communication based on business strategies, but only 6 out of 10 tr y to define them 84.8% focus on supporting business goals by planning and executing communication 60.7% feel responsible for helping to define business strategies www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 European countries; Q 7: In your daily work, how much do you focus on sup- porting business goals by planning and executing communication? (1 = not at all; 7 = very much) / … how much do you feel responsible for helping to define business strategies? (1 = never; 7 = always); considered scale points 5-7.
  26. 26. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N IIC A T IIO N M O N IIT O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 28 O R G A N I A N T I O N A L R IA TU T I O N T O O R G A N I S A T I O N A L O B J E C T I V E S ROLES SAD CONT D B A >> Role-taking: PR Professionals enact different roles – this shapes and reflects their relationship with business strategies ALWAYS Helping to define business strategies BUSINESS STRATEGIC ADVISERS FACILITATORS Scale: 5-7 5.0% 55.7% NOT AT ALL VERY MUCH Supporting business goals by Scale: 1-4 Scale: 5-7 Supporting business goals by managing communication managing communication OPERATIONAL ISOLATED E XPERTS SUPPORTERS 10.2% Scale: 1-4 29.1% NEVER Helping to define business strategies www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 European countries; Q 7: In your daily work, how much do you focus on sup- porting business goals by planning and executing communication? (1 = not at all; 7 = very much) / … how much do you feel responsible for helping to define business strategies? (1 = never; 7 = always).
  27. 27. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N II C A T II O N M O N II T O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 29 R O L E S A N D C O N T R I B U T I O N T O O R G A N I O A T IA N I A L TOI B J E C T DV E S S RG ON SA ONAL I ATA >> Strategic facilitators concentrate on listening and reflecting, as well as on dissemination, to contribute to organisational objectives STR ATEGIC OPER ATIONAL BUSINESS ADVISERS ISOLATED EXPERTS FACILITATORS SUPPORTERS Help top management to adjust the organisation to demands from 63.2% 36.8% 43.0% 24.2% stakeholders and society Educate members of the organisation 59.0% 44.8% 54.8% 30.5% to behave more communicatively Listen systematically to voices outside 68.9% 53.4% 53.8% 44.2% of the organisation Inform stakeholders about the opinions 62.6% 58.2% 36.6% 38.9% of the organisation Develop communication plans that 84.8% 76.6% 61.3% 48.9% support the strategy of the organisation Shape the public image of the 83.0% 78.3% 67.7% 64.2% organisation www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 European countries; Q 7, Q 8, Green and red figures highlight positive/negative variations to the average.
  28. 28. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N IIC A T IIO N M O N IIT O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 30 O R G A N I A N T I O N A L R IA TU T I O N T O O R G A N I S A T I O N A L O B J E C T I V E S ROLES SAD CONT D B A >> 64% of top-level communicators are strategic facilitators, but 6% are not linked to business strategies in any way Head of communication/ 6.4% 4.7% 24.7% 64.2% Agency CEO Unit leader 13.1% 5.2% 33.9% 47.8% Team member 16.9% 3.4% 37.3% 42.4% Other 19.1% 13.2% 27.9% 39.8% Isolated Experts Business Advisers Operational Supporters Strategic Facilitators www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 countries; Q 7; Q 17.
  29. 29. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N II C A T II O N M O N II T O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 31 R O L E S A N D C O N T R I B U T I O N T O O R G A N I O A T IA N I A L TOI B J E C T DV E S S RG ON SA ONAL I ATA >> Strategic facilitators are more optimistic than any other role when thinking about the future of their function or agency STR ATEGIC OPER ATIONAL BUSINESS ADVISERS ISOLATED EXPERTS FACILITATORS SUPPORTERS Optimistic for 2010 87.3% 82.5% 82.8% 75.8% Pessimistic for 2010 12.7% 17.6% 17.2% 24.2% www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 European countries; Q 7; Q 16: Thinking of the communication function within your organisation or of your consultancy, are you optimistic or pessimistic for the next year? Green and red figures highlight positive/negative variations to the average.
  30. 30. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N IIC A T IIO N M O N IIT O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 32 O R G A N I A N T I O N A L R IA TU T I O N T O O R G A N I S A T I O N A L O B J E C T I V E S ROLES SAD CONT D B A >> Private companies show a strong combination of role sets Joint stock companies 48.1% 39.0% 3.1% 9.8% 55.0% Private companies 30.1% 6.7% 8.2% Governmental organisations 50.6% 25.7% 7.2% 16.5% 57.0% Non-profit organisations 23.8% 4.2% 15.0% Strategic Facilitators Business Adviser Operational Supporters Isolated Experts www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,346 PR Professionals in communication departments; Q7.
  31. 31. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N II C A T II O N M O N II T O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 33 R O L E S A N D C O N T R I B U T I O N T O O R G A N I O A T IA N I A L TOI B J E C T DV E S S RG ON SA ONAL I ATA >> Distribution of professional roles in European regions NORTHERN EUROPE WESTERN EUROPE SOUTHERN EUROPE EASTERN EUROPE Strategic Facilitators 57.5% 55.2% 54.5% 53.8% Operational Supporters 29.7% 29.9% 25.7% 31.0% Business Advisers 3.6% 4.3% 8.5% 5.7% Isolated Experts 9.2% 10.6% 11.3% 9.5% www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals; Q 7; Green and red figures highlight positive/negative variations to the average.
  32. 32. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N IIC A T IIO N M O N IIT O R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CAT ON MON TOR 2009 34 O R G A N I A N T I O N A L R IA TU T I O N T O O R G A N I S A T I O N A L O B J E C T I V E S ROLES SAD CONT D B A >> Overall, practitioners in Europe still rely on outbound activities to reach organisational goals – speaking dominates listening Shape the public image of the 79.0% organisation Develop communication plans that 77.6% support the strategy of the organisation Listen systematically to voices outside 61.1% of the organisation Inform stakeholders about the opinions 57.6% of the organisation Educate members of the organisation 51.7% to behave more communicatively Help top management to adjust the 50.5% organisation to demands from stakeholders and society www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 European countries; Q 8: How do you and your department/agency help to reach overall goals of (internal) clients and the organisation at large? (1 = rarely; 5 = very often; considered scale points 4 and 5).
  33. 33. E E U R O P E A N CC O M M U N CC A T OO N M OO N T T O R 2 2 0 0 9 UROPEAN OMMUNI I ATI I N M NI I OR 009 35 P U B L I C R E L A T I O N S A N D M A N A G E M ES A T I O N A S I D A T A ORGANI NT DECIL ONS PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MANAGEMENT DECISIONS
  34. 34. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 36 PUBLIC REL ATIONS AND MANAGEMENT DECISIONS >> Influence and status of the profession: PR Practitioners are trusted advisers, but only two-thirds are involved in management decisions 73.0% are taken seriously by senior management 64.4% are involved in decision making and planning Appraisal of the profession has risen slightly (+2% since 2008), yet executive influence is still as low as the year before (+0.4%). www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n max = 1,267 PR Professionals in communication departments; Q 3: In your organisation, how seriously are PR recommendations taken by senior management? (1-7); To what extent are PR and reputational considerations factored into strategic decision making and planning in your organisation? (1-7); considered scale points 5-7.
  35. 35. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N I IC A TTI IO N M O N I ITTO R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CA ON MON OR 2009 37 P U B L I C R E L A T I O N S A N D M A O R G A N IE N T ID E C IL ID AN S NA EM SAT ONA S O TA >> Professionals in private and non-profit organisations report a rise of influence since 2008, although US practitioners are still ahead EUROPE (2009) USA (2007) JOINT STOCK PRIVATE GOVERNMENTAL NON-PROFIT TOTAL COMPANIES COMPANIES ORGANISATIONS ORGANISATIONS ADVISORY INFLUENCE PR recommendations taken 5.21 5.07 5.04 5.13 5.13 5.67 seriously by senior management EXECUTIVE INFLUENCE 4.84 4.73 4.75 4.97 4.82 5.33 PR involved in decision making STATUS DISCREPANCY (difference between advisory -0.37 -0.34 -0.29 -0.16 -0.31 -0.34 influence & executive influence) www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n max = 1,267 PR Professionals in communication departments, Q 3; Zerfass et al. 2008 / n = 1,027; Q 1; USA: Swerling et al. 2008 / n = 518, Q 8, Q 10 (scale 1-7; average results). Green and red arrow symbols indicate positive/negative changes compared to ECM 2008 results.
  36. 36. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 38 P U B L IN I S A TLI A T I A L S A TN D M A N A G E M E N T D E C I S I O N S ORGA C RE ON ON D A A >> On average, professionals acting as strategic facilitators and those working in Northern Europe are more influential STR ATEGIC OPER ATIONAL BUSINESS ISOLATED FACILITATORS SUPPORTERS ADVISERS EXPERTS ADVISORY INFLUENCE 83.5% 68.6% 52.5% 46.9% EXECUTIVE INFLUENCE 79.0% 52.8% 57.4% 34.7% NORTHERN WESTERN SOUTHERN EASTERN EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE ADVISORY INFLUENCE 76.4% 74.6% 63.0% 67.8% EXECUTIVE INFLUENCE 68.9% 63.4% 59.3% 60.9% www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n max = 1,267 PR Professionals in communication departments; Q 3; Q 16; Q 17 Green and red figures highlight positive/negative variations to the average.
  37. 37. E U R O P E A N C O M M U N I IC A TTI IO N M O N I ITTO R 2 0 0 9 EUROPEAN COMMUN CA ON MON OR 2009 39 P U B L I C R E L A T I O N S A N D M A O R G A N IE N T ID E C IL ID AN S NA EM SAT ONA S O TA >> Influence correlates significantly with hierarchical position Head of corporate or 79.0% organisational communication 72.0% Unit leader 67.6% 58.3% Team member 64.1% 52.1% Other 65.4% 51.1% Taken seriously by senior management 64.4% 73.0% Average Involved in decision making and planning www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n max = 1,267 PR Professionals in communication departments; Q 3: In your organisation, how seriously are PR recommendations taken by senior management? (1-7); To what extent are PR and reputational considerations factored into strategic decision making and planning in your organisation? (1-7); considered scale points 5-7.
  38. 38. EUROPEAN COMMUNICATION MONITOR 2009 40 PUBLIC REL ATIONS AND MANAGEMENT DECISIONS >> With more years of experience in the field, the gap between advisor y influence and executive influence becomes smaller More than 10 years 77.1% 71.4% 6 to 10 years 71.5% 59.7% Less than 5 years 62.9% 50.4% Taken seriously by senior management Involved in decision making and planning www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n max = 1,267 PR Professionals in communication departments; Q 3: In your organisation, how seriously are PR recommendations taken by senior management? (1-7); To what extent are PR and reputational considerations factored into strategic decision making and planning in your organisation? (1-7); considered scale points 5-7.
  39. 39. E U R O P E A N NC O M M M N IN I A T IT I N NM M N IN IO R R2 0 0 9 9 EUROPEA CO MU U C CA O O O O T TO 200 41 I M P A C T O F T H E R E C E S S I OO R A N D I MA T IIO N C R I D AS A N GAN S ED A AL SI T IMPACT OF THE RECESSION AND MEDIA CRISIS
  40. 40. EEUURROOPPEEAANN CCOOM M UUNNI ICCAATTI IOONN M OONNI ITTOORR 22000099 MM M 42 O R G A N IT A T I O N A L RD A T A S I O N A N D M E D I A C R I S I S I M PA C S O F T H E E C E S >> How the global downturn influences PR practice in Europe “Focus on value to the core mission” “Projects delayed until things get better” “Costs” “PR has to be more of a tool – more sell than tell” “Reduce travel costs” ”Delaying important decisions” “In no way” “Enforced focus on internal communication” “Budget shift from image to marketing” “Move to digital” “Harder to convince management to replace staff leaving” “Less big contracts, but more small ones“ “More quality for less money” www.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2009 / n = 1,863 PR Professionals from 34 European countries; Q 1: How has the global downturn influenced your daily work? (open question).

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