Values as Pillars inTourism Education Pauline J. Sheldon University of Hawai’i, USA
Values – what are they?• “Deeply held beliefs that drive activities” – Personal, social, public, cultural• Some universal; some culture-specific• Silent, implicit, unexamined• Bridge between past - present – future• Difficult to shift – maybe education can• Current Crisis of Values
Universal Values Innate dignity and development of human life Respect for Integrity and others and service environment Attitude of Quest for non-violence peace and happinessSource: Adapted from “International Association for Human Values”
Shift in Corporate ValuesProperty-Centered Life-Centered Corporation: Corporation:• Maximum growth • Organic growth• Maximum profits • Ethical profits• Creating wealth for • Serving variety of financial elite and CEO stakeholders• CORPORATION AS • CORPORATION AS PIECE OF PROPERTY LIVING SYSTEM.
Changing Societal Values• There are important values entirely apart from money. “Human rights.”• Prosperity is about money but also health, balance, family. “Quality of life.”• Long-term is more important than short- term. “Sustainability.”• Public goods take priority over private interests. “Protecting the commons.”
Shift in Tourist Values• OLD • NEW• Seek complexity of • Value simplicity and consumerism in authenticity destinations • Believe in engaged• Seek hedonistic action & service experiences ignoring • Concerned about local cultures ecology• Lack of interest in • Are altruistic, self environmental issues actualizing and spiritually engaged
Tourism Education?• Has there been a parallel shift in tourism education?• Shouldn’t educational institutions be leading this shift?• Don’t we have to prepare out students for a VERY different world?
Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI) Pauline Sheldon, University of Hawaii, USA Daniel Fesenmaier, Temple University, USA John Tribe, University of Surrey, UK Leo Jago, Victoria University, Australia Janne Liburd, S. Denmark UniversityAND ABOUT 70 OTHER LEADING EDUCATORS AND INDUSTRY MEMBERS FROM ABOUT 28 COUNTRIES
THE TEFI VISION• “TEFI seeks to provide vision, knowledge and a framework for tourism education programs to promote global citizenship and optimism for a better world.” www.tourismeducationsummit.com
Rationale For Change• Education must shift from unthinking reproduction• Focus on means rather than ends• Tsunamis of change – Climate change – Peak oil – Human rights – Food and water shortages
TEFI Process ww.tourismeducationsummit.com• Three Annual Summits – Lectures by leading scholars and industry – Breakout group discussions – Agreements and vision setting• Work Group Assignments – Set foundation for following summit – Enable connections/networking with groups and programs• Move from Values to Implementation
TEFI 1 - Vienna Summit• April 2007, Modul University, Vienna, Austria• 48 participants from 13 countries• Goal: White Paper to Outline a Framework for the Future of Tourism Education for 2010-2030 Summit: Megatrends Futurist Pre-meeting 5 Scenarios Values – basedReadings survey framework Values Skill sets www.tourismeducationsummit.com
Hawai’i Summit II – April, 2008Towards a Values-Based Framework for Tourism Education • John Tribe, UK - Promoting an Academy of Hope for Tourism Education” – scoping the vision • Scott Meis, Canada - Increasing demand for qualified employees, projecting a lack as other industries compete for labor. • Gianna Moscardo, Australia - learning styles and behaviors of Gen Y. Need to attract the brightest and best to tourism studies Attended by 38 participants from ten countries.
Lugano Summit III – April, 2009Towards a Values-Based Framework for Tourism Curricula • Thomas Bieger, CH. - Challenges of universities in a time of change • Irena Ateljevic, NL. - Academy of Hope • Simon Wong, Hong Kong - Outcomes- based education in the Context of TEFI • Loredana Padurean, CH and Betsy Barber, USA - Linking values into curriculum design Attended by 34 participants from 14 countries.
TEFI Values Stewardship: •sustainability, responsibility •and service to the community Mutuality: Knowledge: diversity, inclusion, •critical thinking, innovation,equity, humility, collaboration •creativity, networking Professionalism: Ethics: •leadership, practicality, •honesty, transparency, •services, relevance, timeliness, • authenticity, •reflexivity, teamwork, •authentic self •pro-activity
ETHICS• “Right” vs. “Wrong”• Judging and guiding actions• Universal Ethical Values – Benevolence, freedom, transparency, honesty, justice, authenticity etc.• Cross-cultural issues: – Issues of ownership
Learning Experiences in Tourism EthicsIntroduce Understand Equip Draw Evokeethics as a different students to connections actionsfield of study ethical achieve to issues of • Develop own• Reflexivity and traditions and reconciliation power and Student Code of decolonization principles politics Conduct • Principles of of self negotiation • Utilitarianism • Identify sources• Ethical • Ethical dilemmas due to • Kantian ethics of power of respect for leadership skills stakeholder ethics others • Aristotelian virtue ethics • others
Learning about Tourism Knowledge Strengthening Humility and students’ critical Courage in the Harvesting from thinking through fields of new Knowledge interactive • Data creation and The Art and intermediaries, teaching; management Skill of Sharing codes of • Interactive • InformationUnderstand the management Knowledge conduct; teaching Value and processes • Knowledge Power of including Ways of • The art of creation and Knowledge questioning the management new Codes of communicating Conduct knowledge answer across borders and disciplines
STEWARDSHIP• “Choosing service over self-interest” – Responsibility – Sustainability – Service to Others• All Stakeholders have responsibility for environment• Need understanding of stakeholder motives and exercising of power/influence• Need to engage with the non-tourism world• Cross-cultural differences: stage of development; quantity and quality of resources
Learning about Stewardship in TourismUnderstand Servicehow the Understand Students projectstourism that the should shouldsystem tourism critically involveoperates system evaluate the The local Include requires impact of community• Inputs and debates on outputs constant their own • Other countries stewardship travels and and academic• Cause and intervention fields to effect their future issues and a re- increase evaluation of travels as knowledge of other cultures performance managers and sectors indicators and leaders
MUTUALITY• “…grounded in human relationships mutuality requires attitudinal developments involving acceptance, self- awareness, open-mindedness and empowerment..”• Mutuality as an evolving process starting with self- awareness (Inglehart 1997)• Influences behaviors and attitudes• Respect of self and other• Diversity, inclusion, humility, equity, collaboration• Cross-cultural issues: – level of homogeneity of population
Learning Experiences in Mutuality in TourismCreate Develop studentopportunities for Encourage skills to:students to positive attitude toexamine their diversity and • Initiate open dialogown mindsets of respect to all. • Manage conflicthow they perceive Expose students • Reach mutuallyreality to social and beneficial agreements• Create safe, inclusive cultural values environments for different from own. students
PROFESSIONALISM• “The ability to align personal and organizational conduct with ethical and professional standards that include a responsibility to customer and community and a commitment to lifelong learning”.• Leadership and pro-activity• Practicality and timeliness• Partnership development & teamwork• Relevance and reflexivity• Cross-cultural differences: – Level of prestige of tourism profession
Learning Experiences in Tourism Professionalism Partnership Timeliness • Understand how andLeadership Pro-activity Relevance to create Practicality networks and Create and reflexivity new alliances • Embody the innovation in Taking • Build new ideals of initiative Ability to supply chain efficiency and an effectiveness organization create relationships Perseverance service and Inspire to achieve productindividual and change innovationorganizational excellence
The Way Forward for TEFI• Networking• Distribution• Pilot Projects• The Next Two Summits
Networking• Accreditation Agencies: – UNWTO TedQual – ACPHA – Others• Collaborating with other agencies working to make education more responsible – Academy of Hope – UN Principles for Responsible Management Education – Education and Science Council, UNWTO – BEST Education Network
Distribution• Creation of TEFI Ambassadors• Website: www.tourismeducationsummit.com• Faculty Code of Ethics/Conduct• Journal Articles• Handbook for Faculty• One week Seminars for Faculty around the world• Conference Presentations
Pilot Projects• Pilot Projects in Academia – Modul University: Scholarship of Hope; Oath – Temple University: Course templates – University of Hawaii: Redesign of Curriculum• Pilot Projects in Industry – Engagement with Innovators – Stewardship internships
Professional Oaths of Honor• Modul University, Vienna Austria• Thunderbird Business School, USA – “As a global citizen, I promise: I will strive to act with honesty and integrity, I will respect the rights and dignity of all people, I will strive to create sustainable prosperity worldwide, I will oppose all forms of corruption and exploitation, and I will take responsibility for my actions. As I hold true to these principles, it is my hope that I may enjoy an honorable reputation and peace of conscience. This pledge I make freely and upon my honor.”
Pilot Courses: Temple University Leisure and Tourism in a Diverse SocietySTEWARDSHIP Upon conclusion of this course• Service to the Community students will be able to: • Demonstrate service to theMUTUAL RESPECT community by organizing a service project.• Diversity • Prepare a statement on Mutual• Inclusion Respect including the terms• Equity diversity and inclusion.• Humility • Formulate a policy on equity (inclusive of persons with disabilities) for your business. • Write a reaction paper on how you felt when role playing a disability. Assignments include: Event Planning, Reaction Papers, Policy Development and Role Playing.
Pilot: Temple University: Research Methodology (core)PROFESSIONALISM Upon conclusion of this course students will be able to:• Teamwork • Write a proposal to conduct research (critical thinking, innovation, and creativity)MUTUAL RESPECT • Identify and critically evaluate literature (both practical and academic) that provides the• Collaboration foundation for research • Critique a survey focusing on the various aspects of survey design and conceptKNOWLEDGE evaluation• Critical Thinking • With a team, conduct a study which includes• Innovation sampling, survey design, data collection, analysis and interpretation• Creativity • With a team, present in both written and oral formats the results of a research project. Assignments include: Exams and Quizzes, Research Proposal, Research Paper, and Presentation
The Next Two Years• TEFI Values Assessment Inventory• Academy of Hope Scholarship• Grant-writing• 2010 and 2011 Meetings – 2010 TEFI Meeting: Assessment and Tools for Change – 2011: TEFI World Congress: Activating Change in Tourism Education• Please join us…
CONCLUSION• More research on values transmission
TEFI Process• Development of a foundation based upon leading innovators in tourism research and education worldwide• Proactive, focusing on the development of leaders of change• Combination of Summit and Working Groups• Summits involve lecture to stimulate – challenge the status quo and discussion groups to address these challenges• Working Groups focus on building tools to support learning & build partnerships with industry leaders
After Hawaii• Five Values Working Groups to define/refine each of values• Modul University – Implemented a program on sustainability; Scholarship of Hope• Program design – HK, Australia, USA• Case Study Working Group to identify examples of values-based education implemented at universities worldwide• Lugano Summit III - – April 2009
After Lugano• White Paper outlining the foundations for TEFI and its values• Working Group - Faculty Code of Ethics• Working Group - Pilot programs at universities world wide• Working Group - TEFI Inventory for program assessment• Summit IV - Summit V
After Vienna• Article in Journal of Teaching in Travel and Tourism• Website: www.tourismeducationsummit.com• BEST Education Network houses TEFI• Hawai’i Summit II - April 2008 Towards a Values-Based Framework for Tourism Education.