Destination Dynamics & Mobilities

Dr. Dianne Dredge
This presentation was given at Aalborg University,
Copenhagen Campus,...
ABSTRACT
The ‘mobilities turn’ provides an evocative lens to explore the way that
movement of people, objects, capital and...
1. Background
2. Current thinking
3. Gold Coast case study
4. Future research opportunities

Destination Dynamics & Mobili...
Background~

Different lenses in understanding destination dynamics

Mobilities, liquid
organisations,
resilience

Institu...
Identity & positionality
Urban &
regional/
environmental
planner

Using social
science to tackle
societal issues

Reflexiv...
Current thinking ~ Mobilities
• Inspired by Liquid Modernity (Bauman)
– Emphasis on consumption
– Hyper consumerism, hyper...
So what?
Implications for destinations
• Destinations continuously transforming
– Implications for destination identity
– ...
Gold Coast, Australia…
a Surfer’s Paradise
Gold Coast
Destination Development
Product renewal
New markets
GROWTH
• Visitor No’s
• Visitor Nights
• Visitor Expenditur...
Our research*
• Aims
– To apply the mobilities lens to the Gold Coast
– Identify the implications for destination governan...
‘Permanent’
Residents

Investors
Temporary
Residents

Capital

Tourists
Branding &
Image mobility
VERY GOLD COAST: Australia’s
Gold Coast, the most vibrant
experience you will ever have.
Austral...
“Bikie wars”

“Schoolies”
Findings:
Implications for governance?
• Spatial restructuring
– Destination being produced at multiple scales
– Uneven fl...
So what?
• Multi-spatial, multi-sectoral governance
• Multi-taskers, innovative, mobile, inventive
• Perpetually construct...
Future Research
Further research
in complex
hyper-mobile
destinations

Methods/
approaches

What is the
relevance of
liqui...
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2013 Gold Coast Mobilities and Tourism Governance

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The ‘mobilities turn’ provides an evocative lens to explore the way that movement of people, objects, capital and information transform the physical, social, economic and political characteristics of destinations. As a result, territorial and sedentary understandings of community, individual and collective notions of identity, and the ways a destination can be conceived, are being challenged. This presentation explores the implications of this mobilities turn on tourism planning, policy and governance using cases from Australia. The research highlights the implications of the mobilities turn on destination planning and management, and particularly what it might mean for destination governance.

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  • Inspired by Liquid Modernity (Bauman)
    Hyper consumerism, globalisation
    Fluid movement of capital, labour, tourists, residents, ideas
    Overall mobilities literature has problematised how we understand the challenges of planning and managing space and place, but doesn’t provide us with a way forward. The “so what” question looms large.
  • SEQ has 3 million residents
    Gold Coast has 530,000 residents
    6th largest city on Australia
    60 km of sandy white beaches; linear city based on beach nodes;
    3rd most popular destination for international travellers
    2011 - 723,000 international visitors generating 8 million nights
    2011 3.2 million domestic visitors generating 12.7 million nights
    Day trips 6.6 million by SEQ and NSW residents
  • Mature destination – although Butler’s model has some deficiencies in GC context
    The period from 1950s to 1990s was characterised by innovations in technology, product, policy,
    Since 2000 there has been a significant slow down and the response has been to refocus attention on emerging markets, etc
    Markets are changing – emerging markets BRIC countries growing fast (China 15%, India 9%); traditional markets static or in slight decline
    As markets change so to does branding/image of the destination.
    Therefore changing markets are driving force for image mobility
  • GC is one of top fastest growing areas in Australia from 1970s to late 1990s
  • Permanent residents
    Fastest growing local government area between 1970 and late 1990s
    Push and pull factors
    Push - cost of housing in capital, lifestyle factors
    Pull - sunbelt migration, second homes, employment
    Growth driven by net migration
    46% of residents not there 5 years before (2011 census)
    The census does not revel characteristics of circular migration, motivations etc.
    Investors
    Developers
    Investment capital
    Temporary residents
    Tourists
  • But destination identity made up of multiple layers: investors, developers, tourism, amenity migrants
    And these images are not always consistent
    Hyper neoliberalism has created differentiated landscape in which there are winners and loosers. At the
  • 2013 Gold Coast Mobilities and Tourism Governance

    1. 1. Destination Dynamics & Mobilities Dr. Dianne Dredge This presentation was given at Aalborg University, Copenhagen Campus, Denmark on 21 NOVEMBER 2013
    2. 2. ABSTRACT The ‘mobilities turn’ provides an evocative lens to explore the way that movement of people, objects, capital and information transform the physical, social, economic and political characteristics of destinations. As a result, territorial and sedentary understandings of community, individual and collective notions of identity, and the ways a destination can be conceived, are being challenged. This presentation explores the implications of this mobilities turn on tourism planning, policy and governance using cases from Australia. The research highlights the implications of the mobilities turn on destination planning and management, and particularly what it might mean for destination governance.
    3. 3. 1. Background 2. Current thinking 3. Gold Coast case study 4. Future research opportunities Destination Dynamics & Mobilities
    4. 4. Background~ Different lenses in understanding destination dynamics Mobilities, liquid organisations, resilience Institutional arrangements Policy Collaboration & partnerships Networksgovernment, business & civil society complementarities & trade-offs Relational planning, Capacity-building, Governance Path dependencies
    5. 5. Identity & positionality Urban & regional/ environmental planner Using social science to tackle societal issues Reflexive practitioner Critical Social construction Case study Boundaries of knowledge, liminalities
    6. 6. Current thinking ~ Mobilities • Inspired by Liquid Modernity (Bauman) – Emphasis on consumption – Hyper consumerism, hyper-neoliberalism – Everything is on the move • ‘Mobilities turn’ (Urry, Sheller, Mavrič) – Capital, labour, tourists, residents, ideas, resources on the move – Rescaling of space and community
    7. 7. So what? Implications for destinations • Destinations continuously transforming – Implications for destination identity – Democratic participation, governance of destinations problematic under mobilities lens • Three processes: – Spatial restructuring of the destination – Pluralisation of destination management – Re-visioning ‘community’
    8. 8. Gold Coast, Australia… a Surfer’s Paradise
    9. 9. Gold Coast Destination Development Product renewal New markets GROWTH • Visitor No’s • Visitor Nights • Visitor Expenditure Mature Developing 1980s Innovation Emergent Destination decline 1950s TIME 9
    10. 10. Our research* • Aims – To apply the mobilities lens to the Gold Coast – Identify the implications for destination governance • Challenge of methods, approach, data – Focus on tourist and resident mobilities, labour mobilities, capital mobilities, image mobilities – Spatial and temporal data inconsistencies • Understandings of mobilities can only be partial Dredge & Jamal (2013) Mobilities on the Gold Coast, Australia: implications for destination governance and sustainable tourism, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21:4, 557-579
    11. 11. ‘Permanent’ Residents Investors Temporary Residents Capital Tourists
    12. 12. Branding & Image mobility VERY GOLD COAST: Australia’s Gold Coast, the most vibrant experience you will ever have. Australia’s Gold Coast is a microcosm of the Australian lifestyle. Rich in colour and diversity, the region is synonymous with glorious weather, health, vitality and life itself. The environment is as diverse as the people creating an atmosphere of freedom, excitement and passion” 12
    13. 13. “Bikie wars” “Schoolies”
    14. 14. Findings: Implications for governance? • Spatial restructuring – Destination being produced at multiple scales – Uneven flow of capital, migration, investment – Spatial, temporal, socio-economic differentiation • Pluralisation of destination management – Spatial unevenness • Re-visioning of community – Networks bound in collective, shared identity, narratives
    15. 15. So what? • Multi-spatial, multi-sectoral governance • Multi-taskers, innovative, mobile, inventive • Perpetually construct/reconstruct themselves • Liquid governance – agile, spontaneous, relational • Accumulate social capital • Capable of building/shifting emotional investment in “swift-trust”
    16. 16. Future Research Further research in complex hyper-mobile destinations Methods/ approaches What is the relevance of liquid organisations? Policy and governance innovation Destination mobility and policy complementarities across policy sectors

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