4 stages of pain


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This chapter describes the normal psychological response to pain, over time. The stages mimic the psucholoigcal response described by Kubler-Ross in her book on death and dying. Hendler documents that it is normal to get depressed from chronic pain, usually by the 6th month, and this depression can last 3-8 years.

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4 stages of pain

  1. 1. * - Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Pain Edited by Nelson H. Hendler Donlin M. Long Thomas N. Wise John Wright. PSG Inc Boston Bristol London 1982 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Main entry under title: Diagnosis and treatment of chronic pain. Bibliography: p. www.DiagnoseMyPain.com
  2. 2. Includes index. I. Pain. I. Hendler, Nelson H. II. Long. Donlin. III. Wise. Thomas N. IDNLM: I. Pain—Diagnosis. 2. Pain—Therapy. WL 704 D536J RB127.D53 6I6~.0472 82-4733 ISBN 0-7236-7011-0 AACR2 Published by: John Wright • PSG mc, 545 Great Road. Littleton. Massachusetts 01460, U.S.A. John Wright & Sons Ltd. 42—44 Triangle West. Bristol 858 IEX. England Copyright © 1982 by John Wright • PSG Inc All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in Great Britain by John Wright & Sons (Printing) Ltd. at The Stonebridge Press. Bristol International Standard Book Number: 0-7236-7011-0 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 82-4733 SI~U1ION I Psychological Background
  3. 3. The Four Stages of Pain Nelson H. Hendler One of the most common errors that one encounters when reading a multitude of articles about pain is the failure of some authors to make the distinction between acute and chronic pain. One of the first physicians to appreciate not only the psychological differences between acute and chronic pain, but also the anatomical differences, was John J. Bonica, MD. While at first this may seem inconceivable, upon further examination it is quite apparent that almost all of the various pain states as they progress into chronicity are bound to produce psychological changes, since the debilitating component of the experience of chronic pain only worsens with time. Some authors have described this psychological response in other chronic disease processes. However, chronic pain has never been considered a disease per se, since there arc multiple etiologies to the complaint of chronic pain. Yet, hone examines chronic pain as a distinct symptom complex, it becomes quite apparent that a host of similarities emerge when comparing and contrasting the psychological states of people experiencing chronic pain, regardless of its etiology. One of the early reports, which divided the psychological responses into four stages, was published by Hendler cm al in 1977. White the stages are not rigidly drawn, it is quite possible for patients to manifest characteristics of one or more stages or. in fact, all stages. These stages seem to parallel the response to death and dying as described by Kubler-Ross, and, in fact, differ only in the acceptance phase. The concept does seem to serve as a useful framework upon which to build an understanding of the psychological components of chronic pain. When one begins to integrate the psychological as well as the anatomical considerations, a more broad-based framework and understanding for the symptom complex of chronic pain can be appreciated. In order to understand abnormal responses, one must study the natural phenomenology of a disorder and establish baseline responses in normal subjects. For this reason, the material in this chapter is derived from studies of well-adjusted individuals, who, as the result of chronic pain, have developed psychological problems. Very often, this relationship is not fully appreciated, and psychiatrists and other physicians have the tendency to interpret psychological responses at any given time as the cause rather than the result of chronic pain. This has given rise to a variety of pejorative terms for chronic pain patients, including “low-back loser,” the “pain-prone personality,” the “pain neurosis,” and others. The lack of sophistication and empathy demonstrated by the authors of these uncomplimentary epithets is understandable, since chronic pain patients can be incredibly demanding of a physician’s time, and most trying of his or her patience. However, if one studies chronic pain patients in a longitudinal fashion and follows them during the course of their odyssey through chronic pain, it is quite apparent that in previously well-adjusted individuals personality changes occur as the result of chronic pain. For this reason, the remainder of the chapter is based on what-one must term a normal response to chronic pain. Premorbid Adjustment When analyzing a patient’s response to chronic pain, it is imperative to know what the person was like prior to the acquisition of the pain. Often, the prepain or premorbid adjustment lends a variety of clues which helps one understand how the patient deals with adversity, how stable the individual is, and how socially well-adjusted or
  4. 4. maladjusted the individual is. In order to study a normal response to chronic pain in a well-adjusted individual, one must outline some of the criteria for establishing the fact that a patient was functioning well prior to the onset of chronic pain. To do so requires a thorough and extensive history of not only the social, but psychological, sexual, and financial adjustment 3 the patient may or may not have made prior to his illness. In a well-adjusted individual, one finds the following features: I. A good work record, with steady employment and progressive advancement up to the time of the Onset of chronic pain. - 2. A stable family background, with the absence of a history of alcoholism, child abuse, drug abuse, arrests, and suicide in family members. 3. A negative psychiatric history, with no previous suicide attempts, depressions, or consultations with psychiatrists prior to the onset of chronic pain. 4. The absence of prior use of narcotics, tranquilizers, hypnotic drugs, excessive alcohol intake, or commonly abused street drugs. 5. A good marital history, with marriage occurring between the ages of 20 and 30, and the absence of divorce or marital maladjustment prior to the Onset of pain. 6. Lack of financial difficulties prior to the onset of pain. 7. A good sexual adjustment, with the absence of difficulty with orgasm (for both males and females) and erection (for males). - 8. No difficulty sleeping prior to the onset of pain. 9. No radical changes itt weight (more than 20 pounds’ fluctuation) other than a conscious attempt to lose weight when it was medically indicated and appropriate. Obviously, there are a host of other parameters that might be considered, but the above list touches on all major aspects of social, sexual, and marital adjustment. If a patient is free of difficulties in seven out of these nine categories, then one must safely assume that his prepain (premorbid) adjustment, was good. Acute Pain (first two months) After the well-adjusted individual acquires pain, the initial stage is the acute phase. During this stage, the patient realistically expects that his pain will get better. During this stage of the pain, the patient may take narcotic analgesics for a brief (One to two weeks) period of time and may require no other medical interVention. Also, during this period of time, the patient manifests none of the psychological disturbances that one sees in later stages of pain other than occasional difficulty sleeping. The following tests should yield normal results when administercd during this stage of the pain process. - - MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory test), a 566-question test consisting of true or false answers and designed to assess personality traits. 2. SCL-90 (Symptom Check List), a 90-question cast developed by the Johns Hopkins Hospital group headed by Dr. Leonard Derogatis and designed to measure changes in the psychological status of an individual over time. 3. The Hendler Screening Test for Chronic Back Pain (H PT) (if the patient has back or limb pain). Anatomically, the various neural pathways for acute pain differ from those for chronic pain. In acute pain, the anatomical connections begin with the receptor sites in the periphery, whether it be visceral receptors or common skin receptors. These fibers impinge on the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord and enter at various levels. They then ascend in the spinal cord, carried by the neolaeral spinal thalantic tract. They transverse the brain Stem and do not send projections to the reticularactivating system, but rather synapse within the thalamus. Then, various relays and interconnections of the chalamic nuclei occur, and afterwards the message of pain is transmitted to several areas of the somaloscnsory cortex. It is here that the pain is perceived and the patient recognizes that he has pain. Subacute Pain (two to six months) By now, the pain is beginning to distress the patient. Both the MMPI and the SCL-90 tests reflect change.
  5. 5. Elevation of scales I and 3 (hypochondriasis and hysteria, respectively) on the MMPI, representing the so-called conversion V seen in hysterical conversion reactions, indicate an emerging preoccupation with physical problems. Likewise, the SCL-90 reflects this concern, since SOM (somatization) and ANX (anxiety) scales are usually elevated. The Hendler Screening Test for Chronic Back Pain usually has scores between IS and 20 during this stage which Suggests that the patient has not yet begun to experience the depression chronic pain can bring. This stage corresponds to the denial stage of the dying patient, as outlined by Kubler-Ross, which occurs early in the chronic pain process. Since the patient is denying the prospect of chronic disability, there is no evidence of depression. The patient retains the hope that the pain and disability, ie “loss of a loved object,” will be resolved. Subtle changes in personality or behavior such as increased irritability, insomnia, being awakened from sleep by pain, social isolation, and the beginning of the use of analgesics and sleeping medications may take place. The anatomical pathways of subacute pain are the same as those of acute pain. Chronic Pain (six months to eight years) At this time, even the previously stable patient begins to experience depression. The MMPI and SCL-90 tests begin to show the neurotic triad of elevated scales 1,2, and 3 on the MMPI, and the SOM, obsessive compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, DEP (depression), ANX (anxiety), and HOS (hostility) scales are elevated on the SCL-90. These changes indicate tha( the patient may have begun to have suicidal thoughts, may have stopped or reduced work secondary to the pain, and recognizes the possibility that the pain may persist. The depression alternates with feelings of anger and attempts at bargaining with physicians about pain relief (“just get rid of 50~o of this pain”) and corresponds with the advanced stages of a dying patient. Although this comparison may seem a bit extreme, both the pain patient and the dying patient have experienced losses, either of functioning or of hope, and are trying to learn to cope with the loss. The pain patient by now is experiencing some trouble with the marriage, sexual activity is reduced, is beginning to feel like a burden, has lost some self-esteem, and asks “Why me?” The patient ma~ be abusing narcotics and may have begun to “doctor shop”; in addition, the patient may have undergone several operative procedures and may have feelings of guilt. The sleep pattern is disturbed, with difficulty falling asleep resulting as much from anxiety and depression as from pain, and awakening because of pain and depression being reported. There may be weight loss because of the reduced appetite that accompanies depression. or weight gain resulting from reduced exercise because of limitation secondary to pain. The patient reports hopeless and helpless feelings, which are classic manifestations of depression and anxiety. As the patient progresses through the chronic stage, the depression begins to resolve. Since depression has been described as anger turned in on oneself, it is not surprising that as the depression lifts the patient becomes overtly hostile toward members of the family, physicians, and the employer. The anger may also be better understood if one examines the dynamics of dependency. Very often, chronic pain patients become reliant and dependent upon members of their family and physicians for assistance. Additionally, they may for a variety of reasons become dependent upon insurance carriers or employers for providing income during the period of time that they are disabled by pain. This fosters a sense of dependency, which, in normally independent individuals, is repugnant. In response to dependency, one normally refrains from expressing anger at the person on whom he is dependent, only because the fear of losing the support of the person outweighs the anger. Additionally, at this stage, the patient normally expresses a degree of jealousy and resentment of the person on whom he is dependent. Thus, the pent-up anger which was causing depression now explodes upon the scene, with a variety of appropriate and sometimes inappropriate outbursts. The resentment and jealousy that the patient may have felt toward family members who had been of assistance to him becomes very evident, and the fear of losing these family members is now replaced by months and years of repressed hostility. This is one of the most difficult stages for the chronic pain patients and for their family members. After the anger has subsided, the patient then resorts to a substage of chronic pain which parallels the dying patient, bargaining. During this substage, the patient tries to negotiate with physicians for pain relief and with family members for assistance. Patients usually become somewhat contrite, since the>’ have previously alienated a variety of acquaintances with their angry out bursts. It is during this stage that the patient tries to negotiate additional pain- relieving techniques with the physician, tries a variety of unproven treatments in an attempt to relieve the chronic pain problem, and begins to negotiate with family members about appropriate and inappropriate levels of assistance that they may require around the house. The patient’s behavior becomes more rational, and consequently more functional. It is at this stage that the patient becomes more adept at negotiating with insurance carriers, workmen’s compensation carriers, attorneys, and employers. It is the prodroma to entering into the final stage of chronic pain, the subchronic or acceptance stage. The anatomy of chronic pain differs from that of acute and subacute pain for a variety of reasons. Initially, as
  6. 6. in acute pain, the sensory input travels along nerve fibers from the viscera and the periphery. However, when these fibers reach the spinal cord, the information is carried in the paleolateral spinal thatamic tract, which is anatomically distinct from the neolateral spinal thalamic tract of acute or sharp pain. The fibers then ascend in the paleolateral spinal thalarnic tract to the brain stem, where they send projections into the reticutar-activating system. This pathway differs from that of acute pain, in which the ascending fibers do not send projections into the reticular- activating system. As the fibers carrying the message of chronic pain ascend into the brain, they also send projections into the hypothalamus, as well as the thalamus. Again, this is different from the fibers of acute pain, which send projections only to the thalamus. From the thalamus and hypothalamus, a variety of pain messages ascend into the somatosensory cortex and areas of the frontal lobe, where the sensation of chronic pain is perceived. The most striking neuroanatomical distinction between acute and chronic pain is the involvement of the limbic system which occurs in chronic pain. The limbic system controls a variety of emotions through hypothalamic and temporal lobe interconnection. From a neurochemical viewpoint, the involvement of the hypothalamus and other parts of the limbic system is important, since the vast majority of the biogenic amine neurosynaptic transmitters, which control emotion and some of the perception of pain, are located within this discrete anatomical area. Also, the neurosynaptic transmitters involved in sleep, and the newly discovered enkephalins function as neurosynaptic transmitters within this area, which has been documented by the presence of morphine-like receptor sites that intermingle with other receptor sites for biogenic amines. A more detailed description of the neuroanatomy of the area is contained in Chapter 17, and the neurochemistry is more fully explained in Chapter 18. Subchronic Pain (three to 12 or more years) In this stage, the patient has “learned to live with the pain” but still does not accept it. In fact, the pain patient never accepts the pain and its attendant disability. In this way, the pain patient differs from the dying patient who seemingly becomes peaceful in the final acceptance of death. Unfortunately, the pain patient has an indeterminate sentence and a more chronic, long-term course. At this stage, the pain patient has ~isconcinued narcotics, has changed jobs or is functioning at the old job with almost the same degree of efficiency; sexual activity has returned. Sleep is less disturbed, and the depression is resolved. The patient’s marriage has either ended or consolidated. The MMPI test shows elevated scale I (hypochondriasis) while the SCL-90 test has elevated SOM scales; the depression scales are again low on the SCL-90, but may not have returned to normal on the MMPI because of the structure of its questions. The pain patient’s faith in treatment is much less evangelical than in the earlier stages, and he is beginning to settle into a readjusted lifestyle that demands coping with the chronic pain. The anatomy of subchronic pain is similar to that of chronic pain. By reviewing the prernorbid personality and the four stages of chronic pain, one can see that chronic pain patients actually undergo an arduous odyssey that carries them through the full range of human emotion. While this chapter has dealt primarily with the psychological response to chronic pain in a previously well-adjusted individual, many if the psychological features can be found superimposed upon preexisting personality disorders or neuroses. Patients suffering from both Preexisting psychiatric disorders and reactive disorders secondary to chronic pain present one of the most difficult therapeutic challenges to all physicians involved in their care. However, it is most important to bear in mind that preexisting psychiatric disorders and the normal Psychological response to chronic pain exist on two different and mutually exclusive axes, and require different modalities of treatment and intervention This is in opposition to the abnormal or exaggerated response to chronic pain that only serves to worsen the preexisting personality disorder or neurotic axis. This conceptual framework will be more fully explained in the following chapter. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hendler N. Viernstein M, Gucer F, et at: A preoperative screening test for chronic back pain patients. Psychosomatics I 979;20: 801-808. Hendler N, Derogatis L, Avella J et al: EMG biofeedback in patients with chronic pain. Dis Nerv Sysi l977;38:505— 509. Hendler N, Fenton JA: Coping wit/i Chronic Pain. New York, Clarkson Potter, 1979. Hendler N: Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Chronic Pain. New York, Raven Press, 1981. Kubler-Ross E: On Dear/i and Dying. New York, Macmillan Co. 1969. For additional help, see www.DiagnoseMyPain.com