The world a continuing saga


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Part Lecture on World History

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The world a continuing saga

  1. 1. UkraineUkraine GreeceGreece ItalyItaly BulgariaBulgaria RomaniaRomaniaFranceFrance SpainSpain * Locations are based on modern names
  2. 2. RussiaRussia MoscowMoscow VoroneszVoronesz UkraineUkraine BelarusBelarus PolandPolandGermanyGermany Czech Rep.Czech Rep. HungaryHungary RomaniaRomania LithuaniaLithuania SlovakiaSlovakia * Locations are based on modern names
  3. 3. Germany France Poland Italy Hungary * Locations are based on modern names
  4. 4. Scotland* England* Ireland* * Locations are based on modern names
  5. 5. Founder of France & Germany. The empire began in the crowning of Charlemagne or Charles the Great. It ended with the death of Charles the Fat.
  6. 6. Charlemagne & Carloman is the co-rulers of the empire In 771 A.D., Carloman died & Charlemagne became the sole ruler Charlemagne became the ““Emperor of the Romans”Emperor of the Romans” The empire last from 800 A.D to 1806 A.D.
  7. 7. This Religion is founded by Jesus First Nicene CouncilFirst Nicene Council- first of seven ecumenical councils. Eastern group- GreekGreek Orthodox ChurchOrthodox Church Western group- RomanRoman Catholic ChurchCatholic Church The Roman Catholic Church grew stronger. It is headed by the PopePope
  8. 8. Focus on the Mass or EucharistMass or Eucharist as the Primary ritual of liturgical life The supreme jurisdictionsupreme jurisdiction of the Pope or the Bishop of Rome over the whole Roman Catholic Church Obligations of CatholicsObligations of Catholics to hear mass and do various other duties on Sundays and important feast days The special emphasis and importance on the role played by the Blessed Virgin Mary the mother ofBlessed Virgin Mary the mother of JesusJesus, on the salvation of mankind
  9. 9. It was headed by Charles V of the Habsburg familyCharles V of the Habsburg family He lost his power as aggravated by the protestant reformation Emperor Francis IIEmperor Francis II declared the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 18061806
  10. 10. 9th to 13th century
  11. 11. A unique Socio-Economic System Feudalism was the political and military system of western Europe during the Middle Ages After Charlemagne’s death, there was a leadership void and many nobles and rich people grabbed power The nobles were granted lands called FiefsFiefs because of their power skills and they were called VassalsVassals
  12. 12. A knightknight is considered as a gallant and able warrior who is skilled in fighting and in using weapons, such as a lance or a sword Virtues of a knightVirtues of a knight: piety, honor, valor, courtesy, chastity, and loyalty Knights became formidable with the development of horse-mounted cavalry A knight on a horse is not only an imposing warrior, but a very destructive one
  13. 13. A knight is usually a son of a noblea son of a noble At the age of seven the child becomes a pagepage, trained early in the basics of weaponry At fifteen the page becomes a squiresquire, who is given to the charge and care of a certain knight for training, knowledge and experience Then, they are prepared for knighthoodknighthood
  14. 14. The Roman Catholic Church played an important role in the continued existence of feudalism as a system Fiefs were usually enclosed in castles, and every castle had a chapel where a priest or a monk stayed.
  15. 15. CrusadesCrusades, a number of wars launched by the Roman Catholic Church against non-Catholics and heretics, which was sanctioned by popes.
  16. 16. 1. The permanent control of Jerusalem and the Holy Land 2. The protection of Byzantine Empire from the Muslims 3. Religious zeal and the need to defend the faith 4. The desire for land 5. The trading ambitions of many businessmen at that time
  17. 17. 1096-1099 This happened when Caliph HakimCaliph Hakim, a Muslim leader destroyed a Christian sanctuary in Jerusalem They fought many battles, however, the Christian forces in the Holy Land became weaker
  18. 18. 1147-1149 The second crusade was launched with King LouisKing Louis VII of FranceVII of France and King Conrad III of GermanyKing Conrad III of Germany It failed because of lack of cooperation The Muslim force defeated them
  19. 19. 1189-1192 The leader is Frederick IFrederick I who drowned on the way to battle King Richard (the lion-hearted)King Richard (the lion-hearted) and King PhilipKing Philip II of FranceII of France whose quarrels left their crusade without able leaders As they fail, they just negotiated with Saladin to have Christian pilgrims enter Jerusalem freely
  20. 20. 1202-1204 The crusade composed mostly of French nobles, became involved in different affairs They were not able to meet their objective of reclaiming the Holy Land
  21. 21. This was a special but tragic event during this period in history, as several thousands of children from 10children from 10 to 18 years old were allowed to go on a crusadeto 18 years old were allowed to go on a crusade They died through starvation, freezing in cold ocean water, drowned in storms or sold into slavery
  22. 22. THERE HAPPENED THE FIFTH, SIXTH, SEVENTH AND EIGHT CRUSADES and all of it effectively ended when the European Christians looked to other territories.
  23. 23. (the crusades failed in the following aspects: ) They were not able to achieve their goal to capture the Holy Land. The losses contributed to the decline in the prestige of popes and church. The crusade led to much needless slaughter.
  24. 24. The crusades had a big effect on the decline of feudalism Knighthood also rapidly declined because of the invention of gunpowder and firearms
  25. 25. 9th to 13th century
  26. 26. The businessmen, artisans, and craftsman of the 12th century honed their crafts and increased their productivity. The increased production needed new markets, and for this, the people held fairs, which were occasional centers of business and trade setup during holidays.
  27. 27. The fairs served as market festivals where merchants from all over Europe came to buy and sell wares. Some fairs were held for the sale of a particular product or merchandise, such as horse or clothes; while others were held for trading in general merchandise. There were also labor fairs, where servants were hired for a year or so; and pleasure fairs, with amusement shows put up in conjunction with the business fairs. In time, all fairs became commercialized. The most popular fairs were those held in Champagne in France, Geneva in Switzerland, Milan in Italy, Frankfurt in Germany, and London in England.
  28. 28. Since the fairs were seasonal, it did not satisfy the need of the people for a continuing business center. There came a time when people needed to trade in one permanent place. These permanent fairs led to the emergence if towns, where people permanently settled. In time, these medieval towns increased and many prospered and attracted businessmen, professionals, and craftsmen. As the number of people in a town increased, productivity also increased, leading to greater urbanization.
  29. 29. The towns were still initially under the control of kings, but as they grew larger, the townspeople wanted to manage their own affairs. They bought a charter of freedom from the king, which allowed them to administer their own affairs, with the king only there to provide protection. From the 11th to the 14th century, the number of towns increased tenfold, and these towns were known for their unique specialties: trade, banking, and democratic systems. Some of the more famous towns that grew during that time were Canterbury in England; Oxford and Cambridge, also in England, which became centers of education; and Dresden, Germany, which specialized porcelain.
  30. 30. As their business and trade grew, the merchants and craftsmen thought of the need to protect their businesses and interests. This led to the creation of the guilds, which were associations formed by the businessmen and traders to protect themselves and their interests. These guilds were usually composed of people having similar profession. The guilds then were of two types: merchant guilds and craft guilds.
  31. 31.  These were composed of all the merchants or businessmen in a particular area. As merchants traveled in different locations and markets, they needed mutual protection against dangers, anti-business rules or laws, and government meddling in the different localities. Frequently, merchants from the same city or town banded together and formed caravans, with them choosing a leader for their own business or group.  The merchant guilds were usually composed of the richest businessmen in an area, and in time the guilds gained a monopoly over the entire industry and commerce in the locality, bringing with it much wealth and political influence for guild members. It was not long that artisans and craftsmen also created their own guilds – the craft guilds – which posed a challenge to the influence of the merchant guilds.  The merchant Guilds-composed of 1. Merchants 2. Businessmen
  32. 32.  The artisans and craftsmen noted the success of the merchant guilds, and decided to unite and form their own group for their own mutual benefit. The craft guilds were composed of those who belonged to the same craft or trade. There was a bakers’ guild and a shoemakers’ guild. The craft guilds also purchased from the government the right to control its branch of industry. The crafts guild served like the workers’ of union today. It is inevitable that there will be a conflict of interest between the merchant guilds and the crafts guild.  Craft Guilds-composed of 1. Bakers’ Guild 2. Shoemakers’ Guild
  33. 33. A person could become a guild member in any of these three ways: 1. By succeeding a parent 2. By buying membership 3. Through apprenticeship or training in a particular craft, which was the most common manner.
  34. 34. By the 1300’s, wealthy masters began to use liveries (attractive robes) that distinguish them from the poorer masters. They wear these robes in ceremonies. By the 1400’s, the traders’ guilds in London were already called livery companies. The livery companies had a big influence in the political and economic life of the people. From these livery companies would rise the business empires that would propel the rise of commercialism and international business later on.
  35. 35. Economy based on money as the convenient medium of exchange. Whereas the former agricultural system based wealth on the product of the land, the new system was based on money, with people required to have it to buy something. With the influx of products coming from the guilds, people were not able to depend on just the products of land anymore, necessitating the adoption of the money economy by Europe. Silver and gold coins were produced and spread in these area.
  36. 36. As many guild members became rich, and as money became the foremost medium of exchange, many if them grew rich and just lent excess money to other craftsmen, with interest and security, such as real estate or jewels. Thus, capitalism was born, the power of capital or money to create wealth. This led to the development of banking as it is known to be practiced today.
  37. 37. The way of life during the Middle Ages cam be characterized by the following: 1. The Rise of Universities 2. The Power of the Church 3. Ups and Downs of Progress 4. Literature, Arts, and Music
  38. 38. Many students gathered in cathedrals where men of learning lectured, and these students and scholars created associations and organizations which were later called Universities. Many of these universities became outstanding centers of a particular kinds of learning, such as the University of Salerno in southern Italy, which was noted for medicine, and the University of Paris in France, which became famous for philosophy. From these would come many men of learning which would later assist society.
  39. 39.  The Catholic Church touched every person’s life during the Middle Ages. It was present at birth (during baptism), at the wedding of the person, and at his burial. The decisions of the church also had a big impact as it became the largest landholder in Western Europe. It threatened people with the prospect of excommunication, which is to separate the person from the church, resulting to the denial of blessings for the lord and for his subjects as well. The power of the church was such that power okay arose between popes and kings, and between the churchmen themselves. Disputes about who was the true pope divided the church. Sometimes, two to three popes and antipopes claimed the throne, and this severely weakened the influence and power of the church.
  40. 40. The economic and social development of Europe during the high Middle Ages suffered a setback in the 1300’s. Wars, natural disasters, and diseases all contributed to the decrease in population and slowdown in business. The Hundred Years War from 1337 to 1453 depleted the economies of both England and France; the demise of feudalism caused strife as peasants rose to be free from their lords; while the Black Death, a form of bubonic plague, killed a fourth of Europe’s population from 1347 to 1350.
  41. 41.  Various developments in literature, arts, and music began during the Middle Ages. National literature flourished: popular epics were sung by wandering minstrels, such as the: 1. Song of Roland(France), which chant the exploits of one of Charlemagne’s best knights. 2. El Cid(Spain), which narrates the mighty deeds of Rodrigo Vivar, a Spanish soldier and hero who fought the Muslims and captured the Kingdom of Valencia. 3. Beowulf(England), which describes the adventures of Beowulf, a mighty warrior who saves the Danish king from the savage monster Grendel.
  42. 42. Some of the greatest works in literature were created in the Middle Ages, such as Dante Aleghieri’s epic poem Divine Comedy, which was written in Italian and tells about Dante’s journey through hell, heaven, and purgatory; The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer, about the journey of a group of pilgrims; and Le Morte D’Arthur, a group of romances collected and rewritten by Sir Thomas Malory, about the adventures of the legendary King Arthur and his knights.
  43. 43. Two new styles in architecture were develop during Middle Ages. These were the: 1. Romanesque Style-which was characterized by rounded arches, square towers, and emphasis on perpendicular elements. 2. Gothic Style-Which evolve from the Romanesque style, and is characterized by vertical lines in tall pillars and spires, pointed arches, and flying buttresses(it serves to transmit the lateral forces pushing a wall outwards).
  44. 44. Architecture that use Romanesque Style Architecture that use Gothic Style 
  45. 45. French word that means REBIRTH Renascere the Latin word which refers to the act of being reborn
  46. 46. An idea of the central importance Is the central theme of the Renaissance. Believes in the high potential of human beings.
  47. 47. It sparked the intellectual revolution that will come centuries later, aided by the invention of printing and writings of humanism It enriched world civilization through an intellectual and artistic heritage that is still important today, especially in the fields of education, arts, literature, and humanistic inquiry It contributed to exploration and voyages to new lands It paved the way for the reformation, as humanist thinking revealed the many abuses of the clergy within the Catholic Church It nurtured the growth of national states as the weakening papacy and middle class contributed t o the strength of kings
  48. 48. The End