Ms. Eunice Antoinette M. FranciscoMs. Eunice Antoinette M. Francisco
III-CommunionsIII-Communions
World HistoryWorld Histo...
““Peking Man”Peking Man”
(750,000 – 500,000 BCE)(750,000 – 500,000 BCE)
SinanthropusSinanthropus
pekinesispekinesis
Yellow River CivilizationYellow River Civilization
Neolithic PotteryNeolithic Pottery
3000 BCE to3000 BCE to
2000 BCE2000 BCE
The 4 Old-WorldThe 4 Old-World
River Valley CulturesRiver Valley Cultures
Pan-Gu:Pan-Gu: Mythical Creator ofMythical Creator of
the Universethe Universe
““Chung Kuo”Chung Kuo”
(The(The “Middle Kingdom”“Middle Kingdom”))
Overview
• Time span of the dynasties
– 21st
century B.C. thru
– 1911 A.D.
– Almost 4000 years
• Over 30 different dynasti...
Xia Dynasty
(21st
until 16th
B.C.)
• First prehistoric dynasty
• Excavations made at Anyang, Henan in 1928
• Evolutionary ...
Yu, the Great – FounderYu, the Great – Founder
of the Hsiaof the Hsia
““Huangdi”Huangdi” ––
EmperorEmperor The “YellowThe “Yellow
Emperor.”Emperor.”
 Legend has it thatLegend has it that
he ...
Emperor FuxiEmperor Fuxi
 Mythical HsiaMythical Hsia
ruler.ruler.
 Taught theTaught the
Chinese howChinese how
to read a...
Hsia Plaque,Hsia Plaque, 17001700
BCEBCE
Bronze Age EmpiresBronze Age Empires
Shang:Shang: 1523-1028 BCE1523-1028 BCE
Shang Dynasty
(17st until 11th
B.C.)
• Cradle of Chinese civilization
– Based on agriculture
– Developed a writing system
...
Oracle BonesOracle Bones
Oracle BonesOracle Bones
CalendarCalendar
The Evolution ofThe Evolution of
ChineseChinese
Writing during theWriting during the
ShangShang
PictographsPictographs Sem...
Axe Scepter –Axe Scepter – 1100 BCE1100 BCE - jade- jade
Ceremonial Dagger –Ceremonial Dagger – 1028 BCE1028 BCE
ShangShang
UrnUrn
Shang BronzesShang Bronzes
Ritual Wine Vessel –Ritual Wine Vessel –
bronze,bronze, 13c BCE13c BCE
Zhou Dynasty
10th
until 2nd
century B.C.
• Capital at Hao (near Xi’an) in Wei Valley
• Ruled much of China north of Yangtz...
Western Zhou:Western Zhou: 1027-7711027-771
BCEBCE
Eastern Zhou:Eastern Zhou: 771-256 BCE771-256 BCE
Ritual Food Vessel, bronzeRitual Food Vessel, bronze
11c BCE11c BCE (Western Zhou)(Western Zhou)
Pendant of a Dancer - jadePendant of a Dancer - jade
3c BCE (Eastern Zhou)3c BCE (Eastern Zhou)
Ritual Wine Vessel – 4cRitual Wine Vessel – 4c
bronze, silver, gold,bronze, silver, gold,
coppercopper
Zhou Coins - bronzeZhou Coins - bronze
““T’ien Ming”T’ien Ming”
The Mandate of HeavenThe Mandate of Heaven
1.1.The leader must lead by ability andThe leader must...
Qin
(221 until 207 B.C.)
• Achievements:
– Standardized language & Writing
– Standardized currency
– Standardized measurem...
Western Han (206 B.C.- 9 A.D.)
Eastern Han (25-225 A.D.)
• Achievements:
– Silk Road
• Better Tools—Iron
– Agriculture
» C...
Xin
(9 - 24 A.D.)
• Brief Interlude
• One Family Member had too
much power
• Introduced Imperial Seal
Three Kingdoms
(220-280 A.D.)
Western & Eastern Jin
(265-315 A.D.)
Southern & Northern
(420-588 A.D.)
Sui Dynasty (581-617)
Reunified China in 589Reunified China in 589
High Taxes and Compulsory LaborHigh Taxes and Compulsor...
Tang Dynasty (618-907)
High point of ChineseHigh point of Chinese
civilization (comparable tocivilization (comparable to
H...
Tang Dynasty (618-907) Cont’d
Better government systemBetter government system
• Civil service examination andCivil servic...
Song Dynasty (960-1279)
2 Phases: Northern (960-1127) and2 Phases: Northern (960-1127) and
Southern Song (1127-1279)Southe...
Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368)
Mongolian Rule
• Kublai KhanKublai Khan
• Established the YuanEstablished the Yuan
dynasty (1279-...
Ming Dynasty (1368 -1644)
Construction of the Forbidden City
Completion of the Great WallCompletion of the Great Wall
Ocea...
Ch’ing Dynasty (1644 – 1911)
Expansion andExpansion and
unificationunification
Opium WarsOpium Wars
Boxer RebellionBoxer R...
The
Dynastic
Cycle
The
Dynastic
Cycle
A new
dynasty
comes to power.
A new
dynasty
comes to power.
Lives of common
people i...
Geographical Influences
• Mountains, sea, and desert provide some
protection and isolation
• Vulnerable to northwest
• Riv...
Earliest Civilizations- most
isolated
• Earliest- Neolithic- Ban Po- similar to other parts
of the world/ one of the oldes...
Ancient China
Way of Life- Confucianism p58-
59• Moral and ethical code highly developed
treat everyone with consideration...
Daoism (Taoism)
LaoTzu (Lao Zi) p 60
• contemporary of Confucius
• Tao= the road way
• Absolute=sum of existence
• Goal to...
ANCIENT CHINA
• Great Wall
• Began 2000 B.C.
• Mandate of
Heaven
• Dynasties
• Silk
• astronomy
As in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and along the Indus
River, Chinese civilization began within a major
river valley. Modern China ...
Yellow River Civilization
• G:Ancient China
was formed around
the Yellow River.
• The color yellow
symbolized
“centrality”...
Chinese accomplishments
• During the Zhou and
Shang periods, the
Chinese made
remarkable
achievements in
astronomy and
bro...
E:Chinese invented silk
• Silk was exotic and
expensive, so it was
good for trading with
the rest of the world.
• It is ma...
Silk worm
S:Chinese astronomy
•2137 BC - Chinese book 书经 records the earliest known solar eclipse on
October 22.
•ca. 2000 BC - Chin...
In the Middle Ages the Arabs made known throughout
Muslim Spain a material which was to replace all its
predecessors. This...
According to Chinese political theory, every
dynasty goes through the so-called dynastic
cycle:
1.A new ruler unites China...
Ancient China
Chinese pyramids!!!!
The Great Wall of China was
built to keep the Mongols out.
Many died building it, and their
bodies were used as filler for it.
Contributions.Contributions.
The ancient Chinese provided the world with its first paper,ink andThe ancient Chinese provid...
Governments
China
-is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and
the People's Liberation Arm...
MAO ZEDONG-Mao Zedong (also Mao Tse-
Tung) was the world's most prominent Chinese
communist during the 20th century. Mao's...
FOUR OLDS:
*old thoughts
*old culture
*old customs
*old habits
DENG XIAOPING-a
Chinese politician, statesman,
theorist, and diplomat. As leader
of the Communist Party of China,
Deng was...
Ancient china.
Ancient china.
Ancient china.
Ancient china.
Ancient china.
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  • Henry Pu Yi as a child (“The Last Emperor”)
  • Ancient china.

    1. 1. Ms. Eunice Antoinette M. FranciscoMs. Eunice Antoinette M. Francisco III-CommunionsIII-Communions World HistoryWorld History Ms. Eunice Antoinette M. FranciscoMs. Eunice Antoinette M. Francisco III-CommunionsIII-Communions World HistoryWorld History
    2. 2. ““Peking Man”Peking Man” (750,000 – 500,000 BCE)(750,000 – 500,000 BCE) SinanthropusSinanthropus pekinesispekinesis
    3. 3. Yellow River CivilizationYellow River Civilization
    4. 4. Neolithic PotteryNeolithic Pottery 3000 BCE to3000 BCE to 2000 BCE2000 BCE
    5. 5. The 4 Old-WorldThe 4 Old-World River Valley CulturesRiver Valley Cultures
    6. 6. Pan-Gu:Pan-Gu: Mythical Creator ofMythical Creator of the Universethe Universe
    7. 7. ““Chung Kuo”Chung Kuo” (The(The “Middle Kingdom”“Middle Kingdom”))
    8. 8. Overview • Time span of the dynasties – 21st century B.C. thru – 1911 A.D. – Almost 4000 years • Over 30 different dynasties • We will present 13 of the most important one.
    9. 9. Xia Dynasty (21st until 16th B.C.) • First prehistoric dynasty • Excavations made at Anyang, Henan in 1928 • Evolutionary stage between: – Late Neolithic culture • Hunter gatherers • Stone tools – Chinese civilization • Agricultural communities • Silk and pottery
    10. 10. Yu, the Great – FounderYu, the Great – Founder of the Hsiaof the Hsia
    11. 11. ““Huangdi”Huangdi” –– EmperorEmperor The “YellowThe “Yellow Emperor.”Emperor.”  Legend has it thatLegend has it that he ruled for overhe ruled for over 100 years.100 years.  Associated with theAssociated with the invention ofinvention of wheeled vehicles,wheeled vehicles, ships, armor,ships, armor, pottery, andpottery, and silk-making.silk-making.
    12. 12. Emperor FuxiEmperor Fuxi  Mythical HsiaMythical Hsia ruler.ruler.  Taught theTaught the Chinese howChinese how to read andto read and write,write, according toaccording to legend.legend.
    13. 13. Hsia Plaque,Hsia Plaque, 17001700 BCEBCE
    14. 14. Bronze Age EmpiresBronze Age Empires
    15. 15. Shang:Shang: 1523-1028 BCE1523-1028 BCE
    16. 16. Shang Dynasty (17st until 11th B.C.) • Cradle of Chinese civilization – Based on agriculture – Developed a writing system – High level of civilization: bronze workmanship • Ruled by kings – Cities were centers of glittering court life – Court rituals honoring ancestors – Slaves buried alive in royal tombs
    17. 17. Oracle BonesOracle Bones
    18. 18. Oracle BonesOracle Bones CalendarCalendar
    19. 19. The Evolution ofThe Evolution of ChineseChinese Writing during theWriting during the ShangShang PictographsPictographs Semantic-PhoneticsSemantic-Phonetics
    20. 20. Axe Scepter –Axe Scepter – 1100 BCE1100 BCE - jade- jade Ceremonial Dagger –Ceremonial Dagger – 1028 BCE1028 BCE
    21. 21. ShangShang UrnUrn
    22. 22. Shang BronzesShang Bronzes
    23. 23. Ritual Wine Vessel –Ritual Wine Vessel – bronze,bronze, 13c BCE13c BCE
    24. 24. Zhou Dynasty 10th until 2nd century B.C. • Capital at Hao (near Xi’an) in Wei Valley • Ruled much of China north of Yangtze river • Extended Shang culture • Early rule: Feudal – Decentralized; control based on family ties • Later: City States – Central control over local governments – Impersonal political and economic institutions – Culture: philosophy, poetry and prose
    25. 25. Western Zhou:Western Zhou: 1027-7711027-771 BCEBCE
    26. 26. Eastern Zhou:Eastern Zhou: 771-256 BCE771-256 BCE
    27. 27. Ritual Food Vessel, bronzeRitual Food Vessel, bronze 11c BCE11c BCE (Western Zhou)(Western Zhou)
    28. 28. Pendant of a Dancer - jadePendant of a Dancer - jade 3c BCE (Eastern Zhou)3c BCE (Eastern Zhou)
    29. 29. Ritual Wine Vessel – 4cRitual Wine Vessel – 4c bronze, silver, gold,bronze, silver, gold, coppercopper
    30. 30. Zhou Coins - bronzeZhou Coins - bronze
    31. 31. ““T’ien Ming”T’ien Ming” The Mandate of HeavenThe Mandate of Heaven 1.1.The leader must lead by ability andThe leader must lead by ability and virtue.virtue. 2.2.The dynasty's leadership must beThe dynasty's leadership must be justified by succeeding generations.justified by succeeding generations. 3.3.The mandate could be revoked byThe mandate could be revoked by negligence and abuse; the will ofnegligence and abuse; the will of the people was important.the people was important.
    32. 32. Qin (221 until 207 B.C.) • Achievements: – Standardized language & Writing – Standardized currency – Standardized measurements – Public Works • Great Wall • Roads & Irrigation canals • Leader: Shi Huangdi
    33. 33. Western Han (206 B.C.- 9 A.D.) Eastern Han (25-225 A.D.) • Achievements: – Silk Road • Better Tools—Iron – Agriculture » Crop Rotation – Education – Paper and Porcelain
    34. 34. Xin (9 - 24 A.D.) • Brief Interlude • One Family Member had too much power • Introduced Imperial Seal
    35. 35. Three Kingdoms (220-280 A.D.) Western & Eastern Jin (265-315 A.D.) Southern & Northern (420-588 A.D.)
    36. 36. Sui Dynasty (581-617) Reunified China in 589Reunified China in 589 High Taxes and Compulsory LaborHigh Taxes and Compulsory Labor Completion of the Grand Canal (connect YellowCompletion of the Grand Canal (connect Yellow and Yangtze/ Beijing to Hangzhou)and Yangtze/ Beijing to Hangzhou) Campaign against Korea in the early 7Campaign against Korea in the early 7thth centurycentury A lot of revolts and assassinationsA lot of revolts and assassinations
    37. 37. Tang Dynasty (618-907) High point of ChineseHigh point of Chinese civilization (comparable tocivilization (comparable to Han Dynasty)Han Dynasty) Golden age of literature and artGolden age of literature and art • India and Middle-EastIndia and Middle-East relations stimulatedrelations stimulated creativitycreativity • Buddhism (from India) wasBuddhism (from India) was widely promoted (Confuciuswidely promoted (Confucius era)era) • Block printing was inventedBlock printing was invented
    38. 38. Tang Dynasty (618-907) Cont’d Better government systemBetter government system • Civil service examination andCivil service examination and other competitive entranceother competitive entrance procedures (why?)procedures (why?) • Independent from aristocracyIndependent from aristocracy and warlords (why? How?)and warlords (why? How?) • ““Scholar-officials” (who? dutyScholar-officials” (who? duty and privileges?)and privileges?) Fragmentation of China (5 northFragmentation of China (5 north dynasties, 10 south kingdoms)dynasties, 10 south kingdoms) • Economic, politic, societalEconomic, politic, societal reasons + Arab warsreasons + Arab wars • North invadersNorth invaders
    39. 39. Song Dynasty (960-1279) 2 Phases: Northern (960-1127) and2 Phases: Northern (960-1127) and Southern Song (1127-1279)Southern Song (1127-1279) Centralized bureaucracy (more power on emperor)Centralized bureaucracy (more power on emperor) (regional governors(regional governors  centrally appointedcentrally appointed officials)officials) City developments (admin., trade, industry,City developments (admin., trade, industry, maritime commerce)maritime commerce) Mercantile classMercantile class • Printing and education spreadPrinting and education spread • Private trade grewPrivate trade grew • Market network grewMarket network grew The Neo Confucius Philosophy (by Zhu Xi)The Neo Confucius Philosophy (by Zhu Xi)  inhibited pre modern societal developmentinhibited pre modern societal development
    40. 40. Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) Mongolian Rule • Kublai KhanKublai Khan • Established the YuanEstablished the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368dynasty (1279-1368 • Moves Capital to BejingMoves Capital to Bejing • Marco Polo visitsMarco Polo visits BejingBejing • Drama and novels are developed
    41. 41. Ming Dynasty (1368 -1644) Construction of the Forbidden City Completion of the Great WallCompletion of the Great Wall Ocean voyages as far as Africa by Zheng HeOcean voyages as far as Africa by Zheng He
    42. 42. Ch’ing Dynasty (1644 – 1911) Expansion andExpansion and unificationunification Opium WarsOpium Wars Boxer RebellionBoxer Rebellion
    43. 43. The Dynastic Cycle The Dynastic Cycle A new dynasty comes to power. A new dynasty comes to power. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Lives of common people improved; taxes reduced; farming encouraged. Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) Problems begin (extensive wars, invasions, etc.) Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Taxes increase; men forced to work for army. Farming neglected. Govt. increases spending; corruption. Govt. increases spending; corruption. Droughts, floods, famines occur. Droughts, floods, famines occur. Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. Poor lose respect for govt. They join rebels & attack landlords. Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Rebel bands find strong leader who unites them. Attack the emperor. Emperor is defeated !! Emperor is defeated !! The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. The emperor reforms the govt. & makes it more efficient. Start here
    44. 44. Geographical Influences • Mountains, sea, and desert provide some protection and isolation • Vulnerable to northwest • River valleys 1. Yellow(Huang Ho) earliest civilization - damaging floods 2. Yangtze- very important in unification- transportation- irrigation
    45. 45. Earliest Civilizations- most isolated • Earliest- Neolithic- Ban Po- similar to other parts of the world/ one of the oldest • Shang Dynasty 1500-11 BCE in No China along the Huang Ho- raised silk worms- silk part of lure and fascination of China, famous for bronze sculpture, daggers, jade jewelry paid homage to ancestors- family important • Chou (Zhou) 1027-256-longest-developed foundations for Chinese society
    46. 46. Ancient China Way of Life- Confucianism p58- 59• Moral and ethical code highly developed treat everyone with consideration • Advocated paternalistic government • Value on family head- ancestor respect • Values- loyalty, righteousness, wisdom, sincerity • very practical and humanistic Gentility
    47. 47. Daoism (Taoism) LaoTzu (Lao Zi) p 60 • contemporary of Confucius • Tao= the road way • Absolute=sum of existence • Goal to bring people into harmony • very introspective • not as influential as Confucius
    48. 48. ANCIENT CHINA • Great Wall • Began 2000 B.C. • Mandate of Heaven • Dynasties • Silk • astronomy
    49. 49. As in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and along the Indus River, Chinese civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the Yellow River Valley.
    50. 50. Yellow River Civilization • G:Ancient China was formed around the Yellow River. • The color yellow symbolized “centrality”, as in China is the center of the world.
    51. 51. Chinese accomplishments • During the Zhou and Shang periods, the Chinese made remarkable achievements in astronomy and bronzework, learned to make silk and create books, and developed a complex system of writing
    52. 52. E:Chinese invented silk • Silk was exotic and expensive, so it was good for trading with the rest of the world. • It is made from silk worms. • Silk also makes “paper”
    53. 53. Silk worm
    54. 54. S:Chinese astronomy •2137 BC - Chinese book 书经 records the earliest known solar eclipse on October 22. •ca. 2000 BC - Chinese determine that Jupiter needs 12 years to complete one revolution of its orbit. •ca. 1400 BC - Chinese record the regularity of solar and lunar eclipses and the earliest known solar variation 日珥 . •ca. 1200 BC - Chinese divide the sky into twenty eight regions 二十八宿 for recognitions of the stars. •ca. 1100 BC - Chinese first determine the spring equinox 黄赤交角 . •776 BC - Chinese make the earliest reliably record of solar eclipse.
    55. 55. In the Middle Ages the Arabs made known throughout Muslim Spain a material which was to replace all its predecessors. This was paper, whose manufacture they imported from far distant and mysterious realm of China. The first paper appeared in China about 200 BC. Its name is derived from papyrus. Silk was transformed into paper by a process of pasting, but because silk was expensive, wool and cotton came to be used instead. This invention was attributed to Ts'ai Lun. In the picture above, the manufacturing process used by the Chinese. They steeped mulberry or bamboo bark in water, then kneaded it to produce a paste from which they obtained smooth thin sheets of paper.
    56. 56. According to Chinese political theory, every dynasty goes through the so-called dynastic cycle: 1.A new ruler unites China and founds a new dynasty. 2.China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity and a new golden age. 3.The royal family of the dynasty begins to decay, corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court, and the empire begins to enter decline and instability. 4.The dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven, their legitimacy to rule, and is overthrown by a
    57. 57. Ancient China
    58. 58. Chinese pyramids!!!!
    59. 59. The Great Wall of China was built to keep the Mongols out.
    60. 60. Many died building it, and their bodies were used as filler for it.
    61. 61. Contributions.Contributions. The ancient Chinese provided the world with its first paper,ink andThe ancient Chinese provided the world with its first paper,ink and gunpowder . It offered various philosophies like Confucianism and Taoism togunpowder . It offered various philosophies like Confucianism and Taoism to answer life’s big questions.answer life’s big questions. It introduced different items for practicas and enjoyable use, like theIt introduced different items for practicas and enjoyable use, like the chopstick, kite, and umbrella. It also presented the world with its own brand ofchopstick, kite, and umbrella. It also presented the world with its own brand of grand architecture, as shown by the Great Wall of China, which has an imposinggrand architecture, as shown by the Great Wall of China, which has an imposing presence even in modern times.presence even in modern times.
    62. 62. Governments China -is divided among three bodies: the Communist Party of China, the state, and the People's Liberation Army (PLA). This article is concerned with the formal structure of the state, its departments and their responsibilities. Most, but not all, positions of significant power in the state structure and in the army are occupied by members of the Communist Party of China which is controlled by the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, a group of 4 to 9 people, usually all older men, who make all decisions of national significance. As the role of the Army is to enforce these decisions in times of crisis, support of the PLA is important. The legal power of the Communist Party is guaranteed by the PRC constitution and its position as the supreme political authority in the PRC is realised through its comprehensive control of the state, military, and media. According to a prominent government spokesman: We will never simply copy the system of Western countries or introduce a system of multiple parties holding office in rotation, although China’s state organs have different responsibilities, they all adhere to the line, principles and policies of the party.
    63. 63. MAO ZEDONG-Mao Zedong (also Mao Tse- Tung) was the world's most prominent Chinese communist during the 20th century. Mao's Red Army overthrew Chiang Kai-Shek in 1949, and the communists seized power of mainland China.
    64. 64. FOUR OLDS: *old thoughts *old culture *old customs *old habits
    65. 65. DENG XIAOPING-a Chinese politician, statesman, theorist, and diplomat. As leader of the Communist Party of China, Deng was a reformer who led China towards a market economy. Deng Xiaoping in 1979

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