What is a Robot ? “A re-programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.”
History The term robot originates from the Czech word robota, meaning “compulsory labor.” It was first used in the 1921 play R.U.R. (Rossums Universal Robots) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Capek. The word robot has been used since to refer to a machine that performs work to assist people or work that humans find difficult or undesirable.” In 1956, George Devil and Joseph Engelberger formed the worlds first robot company, but writers have been dreaming about robots long before that.
First century A.D. and even earlier Descriptions of more than 100 machines and automata, including a fire engine, a wind organ, a coin-operated machine, and a steam- powered engine, in Pneumatica and Automata by Heron of AlexandriaCtesibius of Alexandria, Philo of Byzantium, Heron of Alexandria, and others 1st real known example was in 1206. First programmable humanoid automatons Boat with four robotic musicians made by Al-Jazari .
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term; since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics, he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots. However, in some of Asimovs other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround
Isaac Asimovs Three Laws of Robotics First Law A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. Second Law A robot must obey orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. Third Law A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
That Consists OF :- CHARACTERISTICS CONSTRUCTION WORKING PRINCIPAL DEVICES USED LANGUAGESES
Construction & Working of the Robot Mechanical platforms- the hardware base Sensors Motors Driving mechanisms Power supplies Electronic Controls Microcontroller systems (speed , size , memory) Languages R/C Servos Pneumatics Driving High-Current Loads from Logic Controllers
Mobility: It possesses some form of mobility. Programmability: implying computational or symbol- manipulative capabilities that a designer can combine as desired (a robot is a computer). It can be programmed to accomplish a large variety of tasks. After being programmed, it operates automatically. Sensors: on or around the device that are able to sense the environment and give useful feedback to the device
Mechanical capability: enabling it to act on its environment rather than merely function as a data processing or computational device (a robot is a machine); and Flexibility: it can operate using a range of programs and manipulates and transport materials in a variety of ways.
Motors: The vast majority of robots use electric motors, including brushed and brushless DC motors. Stepper motors: As the name suggests, stepper motors do not spin freely like DC motors; they rotate in discrete steps, under the command of a controller. This makes them easier to control, as the controller knows exactly how far they should have rotated, without having to use a sensor. The controller cant tell if the motor has stalled and the shaft didnt turn. They are used on many robots and CNC machines, as their main advantage over DC motors, is that you can specify how much to turn, for more precise control, rather than a "spin and see where it went" approach.
Piezo motors: A recent alternative to DC motors are piezo motors or ultrasonic motors. Air muscles: The air muscle is a simple yet powerful device for providing a pulling force. When inflated with compressed air, it contracts by up to 40% of its original length. The key to its behavior is the braiding visible around the outside, which forces the muscle to be either long and thin, or short and fat (almost like a Chinese finger trap). Since it behaves in a very similar way to a biological muscle, it can be used to construct robots with a similar muscle/skeleton system to an animal. For example, the Shadow robot hand uses 40 air muscles to power its 24 joints.
Sensors Sensors are the parts that act like senses and can detect objects or things like heat and light and convert the object information into symbols or in analog or digital form so that computers understand. And then Robots react according to information provided by the sensory systemVision SensorProximity SensorsProprioceptive SensorsLogical Sensors
POWER SOURCE At present; mostly (lead-acid) batteries are used, but potential power sources could be: pneumatic (compressed gases) hydraulics (compressed liquids) organic garbages (through anaerobic digestion) feces (human, animal); may be interesting in a military context as feces of small combat groups may be reused for the energy requirements of the robot assistant (see DEKAs project Slingshot stirling engine on how the system would operate)
Touch Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand. Recent research has developed a tactile sensor array that mimics the mechanical properties and touch receptors of human finger tips. The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. Electrodes are mounted on the surface of the rigid core and are connected to an impedance-measuring device within the core. When the artificial skin touches an object the fluid path around the electrodes is deformed, producing impedance changes that map the forces received from the object.
Other devices Motors Driving mechanisms Power supplies Driving High-Current Loads from Logic
Artificial Intelligence What is artificial intelligence? It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs Can a machine think?
Present Robots WakamaruThe Wakamaru is the first human- size robot that can provide companionship, or function as a caretaker and house sitter. The Wakamaru was created in Japan,and will be for sale there for about one million yen ($14,250). The Wakamaru moves around on wheels, is 3.3 feet tall, weighs 60pounds, and recharges itself when batteries run low.
From Honda Motor Co.comes a new small, lightweight humanoid robot named ASIMO that is able to walk in a manner which closely resembles that of a human being. ASIMO Special Features: Smaller and Lightweight More Advanced Walking Technology Simple Operation Expanded Range of Arm Movement People-Friendly Design
Specifications Weight: 43kg Height: 1,200mm Depth: 440mm Width 450mm Walking Speed: 0 - 1.6km/h Operating Degrees of Freedom* Head: 2 degrees of freedom Arm: 5 x 2 = 10 degrees of freedom Hand: 1 x 2 = 2 degrees of freedom Leg: 6 x 2 = 12 degrees of freedom TOTAL: 26 degrees of freedom Actuators: Servomotor + Harmonic Decelerator + Drive ECU Controller: Walking/Operation Control ECU, Wireless Transmission ECU Sensors - Foot: 6-axis sensor Torso: Gyroscope & Deceleration Sensor Power Source: 38.4V/10AH (Ni-MN) Operation: Work Station & Portable Controller
The Robosapien is the first affordable intelligent entertainment humanoid of its kind. Developed by robotics physicist Dr. Mark W. Tilden, Robosapien is the first robot based on the science of applied biomorphic robotics, enabling him to act more like a human. Tilden, who developed applied biomorphic robotics, has worked for NASA and other government research agencies developing advanced robotic technologies.
SCIENTIFIC ROBOTS NASAs mission to Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory, will be landing with an extremely unusual landing system -- a skycrane invented by the mission team specifically to land a large rover in scientifically exciting locations on Mars. This is the K-10 rover.
Future Artificial neural networks Robots which train themselves Nothing can be predicted about future.
Pros and Cons Robots can either help or take away human jobs .
Future In Robotics Education and training The SCORBOT-ER 4u - educational robot.
INDIA In India a post-graduate degree in Mechatronics is offered at Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai. Mechatronics at bachelor level is offered at SASTRA university, Thanjur and kongu college of engineering, Erode. UK In the UK, Robotics degrees are offered by a number of institutions including the Heriot-Watt University, University of Essex, the University of Liverpool, University of Reading, Sheffield Hallam University, Staffordshire University, University of Sussex, Robert Gordon University, and the University of Wales, Newport.
In the United States, only Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) offers a Bachelor of Science in Robotics Engineering. Universities that have graduate degrees focused on robotics include Carnegie Mellon University, MIT, UPENN, UCLA, WPI, and SDSM&T. In Australia, there are Bachelor of Engineering degrees at the universities belonging to the Centre for Autonomous Systems (CAS): University of Sydney, University of New South Wales , and the University of Technology, Sydney. Other universities include Deakin University, Flinders University, Swinburne University of Technology, University of Western Australia
SOME MORE UNIVERSITY MEXICO IRAN JAPAN CHINA
Robots recently became a popular tool in raising interests in computing for middle and high school students. First year computer science courses at several universities were developed which involves the programming of a robot instead of the traditional software engineering based coursework. Examples include Course 6 at MIT and the Institute for Personal Robots in Education at the Georgia Institute of Technology with Bryn Mawr College. Some specialised robotics jobs require new skills, such as those of robot installer and robot integrator. While universities have long included robotics research in their curricular offerings and tech schools have taught industrial robotic arm control,
EMPLOYEMENT IN ROBOTICS MAR is a leading automation and robotics solutions provider driven by a commitment to superior client servicing and quality values. At MAR we know that our dynamic team of talented individuals is the key to our success. Working closely with global technology partners on large-scale production-critical projects makes MAR a challenging and rewarding place to be. We are seeking passionate, motivated service professionals to join our team. At the cutting edge of automation and robotic technology MAR could be the opportunity you are looking for.
Acknowledgement Thanks to all of my respected teachers for allowing us to represent an article on Robotics. I thank the Faculty of our college for providing access to pc to show this slide. Thanks to my parents for providing me a ‘Personal Computer’.