K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 1
TITLE Page No.
1 INTRODUCTION 02
2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS 05
3 ADVANTAGES OF LPG 06
4 DISADVANTAGES OF LPG 08
5 USES OF LPG 09
6 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS
AND ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
7 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS REGULATIONS 2011 27
8 CONCLUSION 42
9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 43
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 2
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS
Liquefied petroleum gas, also called LPG, GPL, LP Gas, liquid petroleum gas or
simply propane or butane, is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating
appliances and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant,
replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer. When
specifically used as a vehicle fuel it is often referred to as autogas.
Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane (C3H8),
primarily butane (C4H10) and, most commonly, mixes including both propane and butane,
depending on the season — in winter more propane, in summer more butaneIn the United States,
primarily only two grades of LPG are sold, commercial propane and HD-5. These specifications
are published by the Gas Processors Association (GPA) and the American Society of Testing and
Materials (ASTM). Propane/butane blends are also listed in these
specifications. Propylene, butylenes and various other hydrocarbons are usually also present in
small concentrations. HD-5 limits the amount of propylene that can be placed in LPG, and is
utilized as an autogas specification. A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added so that leaks can
be detected easily. The international standard is EN 589. In the United
States, tetrahydrothiophene (thiophane) or amyl mercaptan are also approved odorants, although
neither is currently being utilized. Major suppliers of LPG in the UK include AvantiGas, Calor
gas and Flogas.
LPG is prepared by refining petroleum or "wet" natural gas, and is almost entirely derived
from fossil fuel sources, being manufactured during the refining of petroleum (crude oil), or
extracted from petroleum or natural gas streams as they emerge from the ground. It was first
produced in 1910 by Dr. Walter Snelling, and the first commercial products appeared in 1912. It
currently provides about 3% of all energy consumed, and burns relatively cleanly with
no soot and very few sulfur emissions. As it is a gas, it does not pose ground or water
pollution hazards, but it can cause air pollution. LPG has a typical specific calorific value of
46.1 MJ/kg compared with 42.5 MJ/kg for fuel oil and 43.5 MJ/kg for premium
grade petrol (gasoline).
However, its energy density per volume unit of 26 MJ/L is lower than
either that of petrol or fuel oil, as its liquid density is lower (about 0.5—0.58, compared to
0.71—0.77 for gasoline).
As its boiling point is below room temperature, LPG will evaporate quickly at
normal temperatures and pressures and is usually supplied in pressurised steel vessels.
They are typically filled to between 80% and 85% of their capacity to allow forthermal
expansion of the contained liquid. The ratio between the volumes of the vaporized gas and the
liquefied gas varies depending on composition, pressure, and temperature, but is typically around
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 3
The pressure at which LPG becomes liquid, called its vapour pressure, likewise varies depending
on composition and temperature; for example, it is approximately 220 kilopascals (32 psi) for
pure butane at 20 °C (68 °F), and approximately 2.2 megapascals (320 psi) for pure propane at55
°C (131 °F). LPG is heavier than air, unlike natural gas, and thus will flow along floors and tend
to settle in low spots, such as basements. There are two main dangers from this. The first is a
possible explosion if the mixture of LPG and air is right and if there is an ignition source. The
second is suffocation due to LPG displacing air, causing a decrease in oxygen concentration. In
addition, an odorant is mixed with LPG used for fuel purposes so that leaks can be detected more
easily.Large amounts of LPG can be stored in bulk cylinders and can be buried underground.
Normally, the gas is stored in liquid form under pressure in a steel container, cylinder or tank.
The pressure inside the container will depend on the type of LPG (commercial butane or
commercial propane) and the outside temperature.
When you start using LPG, some of the pressure in the container is released. Some of the liquid
LPG then boils to produce vapour. Heat is needed to convert the liquid to vapour (known as the
latent heat of vaporization). As the liquid boils, it draws the heat energy from its surroundings.
This explains why containers feel cold to touch and why, if there is a heavy off-take, water or ice
may appear on the container. When you stop using LPG, the pressure will return to the
equilibrium value for the surrounding temperature.
The pressure of the LPG in the container varies with the surrounding temperature. It is also much
higher than is needed by the appliances that use it; it needs to be controlled to ensure a steady
supply at constant pressure. This is done by a regulator, which limits the pressure to suit the
appliance that is being fuelled. It is a colourless and odourless gas to which foul-smelling
mercaptan is added so that leak can be easily detected.
LPG is highly inflammable and must therefore be stored away from sources of ignition and in a
well-ventilated area, so that any leak can disperse safely. Another reason why care should be
taken during storage is that LPG vapour is heavier than air, so any leakage will sink to the
ground and accumulate in low lying areas and may be difficult to disperse. LPG expands rapidly
when its temperature rises. So whenever a container is filled, sufficient space is left to allow for
such expansion. LPG will cause natural rubber and some plastics to deteriorate. This is why only
hoses and other equipment specifically designed for LPG should be used.
Although LPG is non-toxic, its abuse – (like that of solvents) – is highly dangerous. LPG should
always be treated with respect and kept away from children whenever possible.
Liquid petroleum gases were discovered in 1912 when Dr. Walter Snelling, an American
scientist, realized that these gases could be changed into liquids and stored under moderate
pressure. From 1912 and 1920, LP-gas uses were developed. The first LPG cook stove was made
in 1912, and the first LPG -fueled car was developed in 1913. The LPG industry began sometime
shortly before World War I. At that time, a problem in the natural gas distribution process
popped up. Gradually facilities were built to cool and compress natural gas, and to separate the
gases that could be turned into liquids (including propane and butane). LPG was sold
commercially by 1920.
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LPG Production and Delivery
LPG is a by-product from two sources: natural gas processingand crude oil refining. Natural gas,
as extracted at the well
head,contains methane and other light hydrocarbons. The lighthydrocarbons are separated in gas
processing plant using
highpressures and low temperatures. The natural gas liquidcomponents recovered during process
ing include ethane,propane, and butane, as well as heavier hydrocarbons. Propaneand butane,
along with other gases, are also produced duringcrude oil refining as a by-product of
the processes that rearrangeand or break down molecular structures to obtain more
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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS
LPG at atmospheric pressure and temperature is a gas which is 1.5 to 2.0 times heavier than air.
It is readily liquefied under moderate pressures. The density of the liquid is approximately half
that of water and ranges from 0.525 to 0.580 @ 15 deg. C.
Since LPG vapour is heavier than air, it would normally settle down at ground level/ low lying
places, and accumulate in depressions.
The pressure inside a LPG storage vessel/ cylinder will be equal to the vapour pressure
corresponding to the temperature of LPG in the storage vessel. The vapour pressure is dependent
on temperature as well as on the ratio of mixture of hydrocarbons. At liquid full condition any
further expansion of the liquid, the cylinder pressure will rise by approx. 14 to 15 kg./sq.cm. for
each degree centigrade. This clearly explains the hazardous situation that could arise due to
overfilling of cylinders.
LPG has an explosive range of 1.8% to 9.5% volume of gas in air. This is considerably narrower
than other common gaseous fuels. This gives an indication of hazard of LPG vapour
accumulated in low lying area in the eventuality of the leakage or spillage.
The auto-ignition temperature of LPG is around 410-580 deg. C and hence it will not ignite on its
own at normal temperature. Entrapped air in the vapour is hazardous in an unpurged vessel/
cylinder during pumping/ filling-in operation. In view of this it is not advisable to use air
pressure to unload LPG cargoes or tankers.
The combustion reaction of LPG increases the volume of products in addition to the generation
of heat. LPG requires upto 50 times its own volume of air for complete combustion . Thus it is
essential that adequate ventilation is provided when LPG is burnt in enclosed spaces otherwise
asphyxiation due to depletion of oxygen apart from the formation of carbon-dioxide can occur.
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ADVANTAGES OF LPG
Cold engine start emission reduction due to its gaseous state.
It has lower peak pressure during combustion, which generally reduces noiseand
LPG fuel systems are sealed and evaporative losses are negligible.
Easily transportable with minimum support infrastructure compared toC
LPG vehicles do not require special catalysts.
LPG has lower particle emissions and lower noise levels relative to dieseland
petrol. Also it contains negligible toxic components.
Its low emissions have low greenhouse gas effects and low NOx precursors.
LPG can be produced from both natural gas fields and oil refinery sources.
Bear in mind that fuel consumption alone is not the only criterion in promoting the use of LPG,
and all the other advantages where applicable should be stressed. The useful characteristics of
LPG fired equipment can be summarised as follows:
Cylinders can be transported easily to the jobs, or can be fixed to mobile equipment. The
smallest ones can be carried by hand.
Alternative gas supplies make use of piped delivery. Should the supply fail the effect is
immediate. LPG, in the form of cylinder or bulk on the other hand, provides a margin of safety.
Wide turn down
By this is meant the range of gas flow from maximum to minimum for a particular burner. LPG
burners can be designed to operate over a wide range.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 7
Ease of control
Gaseous fuels are the easiest to control, and are very quick in response. Solid fuels are the
Many processes require a small flame, or a number of small flames rather than a big one. Gas is
the best fuel for such flames.
LPG is stored under moderate pressure and therefore no pumps or gravity systems are needed to
get the fuel to the burner. Simple LPG burners are quite independent of any electrical supply.
LPG, like all other petroleum fuels, is subject to stringent quality controls.
Ample supply pressure
Many competitive types of fuel gas supplies rely on low pressure piped delivery. If the system is
old or inadequate the burner pressure may fluctuate as demand varies. This can upset certain
processes. An LPG supply is normally installed for one factory or process and has adequate
pressure at all times if properly designed.
LPG is a high grade fuel with negligible impurities, producing clean sulphur-free combustion
gases. This can be important for many processes especially where the gases come into contact
with the products.
Many LPG burners are very simple and require little or no maintenance. The clean combustion
gases mean that very little fouling occurs and ensures long life even for the more complex
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DISADVANTAGES OF LPG
Ignition requirements for LPG are not the same as for petrol operation; Atlow
RPM the burning rate of LPG is slower and more advance is needed; athigh speeds the
burning rate is faster, consequently less advance is needed.
LPG has relatively high energy content per unit mass but energy content per unit volume
is lower than diesel and petrol, which explains why LPG tankstake more space than
liquid fuel tanks. These are pressure vessels so thatthey also weigh more than
liquid fuel tanks but less than CNG cylinder.
It is heavier than air, which requires appropriate handling. CNG which
islighter than air and move upwards in case of leakage whereas LPG travelslike
a snake and can reach to the source of ignition.
In case of leakage LPG converts to gaseous state, in this case LPG has muchhigher
flammability limits compared to CNG and even higher than petrol.
It has a high expansion coefficient so that tanks can only be filled to 80%
of c a p a c i t y. LP G c yl i n d e r c a n e x p l od e w h e n Li q u i d c on v e r t s t o v
a p o r i f exposed to high temperature; phenomena called BLEVES (Boiling
LiquidExpanding Vapor Explosion).
LPG in liquid form can cause cold bums to the skin in case of inappropriatehandling as it
is cryogenic to some extent
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USES OF LPG
Predominantly in Europe and rural parts of many countries, LPG can provide an alternative to
electricity and heating oil (kerosene). LPG is most often used where there is no access to piped
LPG can be used as a power source for combined heat and power technologies (CHP). CHP is
the process of generating both electrical power and useful heat from a single fuel source. This
technology has allowed LPG to be used not just as fuel for heating and cooking, but also for de-
centralised generation of electricity.
LPG can be stored in a variety of ways. LPG, as with other fossil fuels, can be combined with
renewable power sources to provide greater reliability while still achieving some reduction in
When LPG is used to fuel internal combustion engines, it is often referred to as autogas or auto
propane. In some countries, it has been used since the 1940s as a petrol alternative for spark
ignition engines. In some countries, there are additives in the liquid that extend engine life and
the ratio of butane to propane is kept quite precise in fuel LPG. Two recent studies have
examined LPG-fuel-oil fuel mixes and found that smoke emissions and fuel consumption are
reduced but hydrocarbon emissions are increased. The studies were split on CO emissions, with
one finding significant increases, and the other finding slight increases at low engine load but a
considerable decrease at high engine load. Its advantage is that it is non-toxic, non-corrosive and
free of tetraethyllead or any additives, and has a high octane rating (102-108 RON depending on
local specifications). It burns more cleanly than petrol or fuel-oil and is especially free of
the particulates from the latter.
LPG has a lower energy density than either petrol or fuel-oil, so the equivalent fuel
consumption is higher. Many governments impose less tax on LPG than on petrol or fuel-oil,
which helps offset the greater consumption of LPG than of petrol or fuel-oil. However, in many
European countries this tax break is often compensated by a much higher annual road tax on cars
using LPG than on cars using petrol or fuel-oil. Propane is the third most widely used motor fuel
in the world. 2008 estimates are that over 13 million vehicles are fueled by propane gas
worldwide. Over 20 million tonnes (over 7 billion US gallons) are used annually as a vehicle
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 10
Not all automobile engines are suitable for use with LPG as a fuel. LPG provides less upper
cylinder lubrication than petrol or diesel, so LPG-fueled engines are more prone to valve wear if
they are not suitably modified. Many modern common rail diesel engines respond well to LPG
use as a supplementary fuel. This is where LPG is used as fuel as well as diesel. Systems are now
available that integrate with OEM engine management systems.
LPG is instrumental in providing off-the-grid refrigeration, usually by means of a gas absorption
Blended of pure, dry propane (refrigerant designator R-290 ) and isobutane (R-600a) the blend—
"R-290a"—has negligible ozone depletion potential and very low global warming potential and
can serve as a functional replacement for R-12, R-22, R-134a,and
other chlorofluorocarbon or hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants in conventional stationary
refrigeration and air conditioning systems.
Such substitution is widely prohibited or discouraged in motor vehicle air conditioning systems,
on the grounds that using flammable hydrocarbons in systems originally designed to carry non-
flammable refrigerant presents a significant risk of fire or explosion.[
Vendors and advocates of hydrocarbon refrigerants argue against such bans on the grounds that
there have been very few such incidents relative to the number of vehicle air conditioning
systems filled with hydrocarbons. One particular test was conducted by a professor at
the University of New South Wales that unintentionally tested the worst case scenario of a
sudden and complete refrigerant loss into the passenger compartment followed by subsequent
ignition. He and several others in the car sustained minor burns to their face, ears, and hands, and
several observers received lacerations from the burst glass of the front passenger window. No
one was seriously injured.
According to the 2001 Census of India, 17.5% of Indian households or 33.6 million Indian
households used LPG as cooking fuel in 2001, which is supplied to their homes by Indian Oil
which is known as Indane.
76.64% of such households were from urban India making up 48%
of urban Indian households as compared to a usage of 5.7% only in rural Indian households. LPG
is subsidised by the government. Increase in LPG prices has been a politically sensitive matter in
India as it potentially affects the urban middle class voting pattern.
LPG was once a popular cooking fuel in Hong Kong; however, the continued expansion of town
gas to buildings has reduced LPG usage to less than 24% of residential units.
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LPG is the most common cooking fuel in Brazilian urban areas, being used in virtually all
households. Poor families receive a government grant ("Vale Gás") used exclusively for the
acquisition of LPG.
Security of supply
Because of the natural gas and the oil-refining industry, Europe is almost self-sufficient in LPG.
Europe's security of supply is further safeguarded by:
a wide range of sources, both inside and outside Europe;
a flexible supply chain via water, rail and road with numerous routes and entry points into
As of early 2008, world reserves of natural gas — from which most LPG is derived — stood at
6,342.411 trillion cubic feet. Added to the LPG derived from cracking crude oil, this amounts to
a major energy source that is virtually untapped and has massive potential. Production continues
to grow at an average annual rate of 2.2%, virtually assuring that there is no risk of demand
outstripping supply for the foreseeable future.
Comparison with natural gas
LPG is composed primarily of propane and butane, while natural gas is composed of the lighter
methane and ethane. LPG, vaporised and at atmospheric pressure, has a higher calorific
value (94 MJ/m3
equivalent to 26.1kWh/m3
) than natural gas (methane) (38 MJ/m3
), which means that LPG cannot simply be substituted for natural gas. In order to
allow the use of the same burner controls and to provide for similar combustion characteristics,
LPG can be mixed with air to produce a synthetic natural gas (SNG) that can be easily
substituted. LPG/air mixing ratios average 60/40, though this is widely variable based on the
gases making up the LPG. The method for determining the mixing ratios is by calculating
the Wobbe index of the mix. Gases having the same Wobbe index are held to be interchangeable.
LPG-based SNG is used in emergency backup systems for many public, industrial and military
installations, and many utilities use LPG peak shaving plants in times of high demand to make
up shortages in natural gas supplied to their distributions systems. LPG-SNG installations are
also used during initial gas system introductions, when the distribution infrastructure is in place
before gas supplies can be connected. Developing markets in India and China (among others) use
LPG-SNG systems to build up customer bases prior to expanding existing natural gas systems.
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Commercially available LPG is currently derived from fossil fuels. Burning LPG releases CO2,
an important greenhouse gas, contributing to global warming. LPG does, however, release
less CO2 per unit of energy than that of coal or oil. It emits 81% of the CO2 per kWh produced
by oil, 70% of that of coal, and less than 50% of that emitted by coal-generated electricity
distributed via the grid. Being a mix of propane and butane, LPG emits less carbon per joule than
butane but more carbon per joule than propane.
LPG can be considered to burn more cleanly than heavier molecule hydrocarbons, in that it
releases very few particulates.
Fire risk and mitigation
In a refinery or gas plant, LPG must be stored in pressure vessels. These containers are either
cylindrical and horizontal or spherical. Typically, these vessels are designed and manufactured
according to some code. In the United States, this code is governed by the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME).
LPG containers have pressure relief valves, such that when subjected to exterior heating sources,
they will vent LPGs to the atmosphere. If a tank is subjected to a fire of sufficient duration and
intensity, it can undergo a boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). This is typically
a concern for large refineries and petrochemical plants that maintain very large containers. In
general, tanks are designed that the product will vent faster than pressure can build to dangerous
One remedy, that is to utilized in industrial settings, is to equip such containers with a measure to
provide a fire-resistance rating. Large, spherical LPG containers may have up to a 15 cm steel
wall thickness. They are equipped with an approved pressure relief valve. A large fire in the
vicinity of the vessel will increases its temperature and pressure, following the basic gas laws.
The relief valve on the top is designed to vent off excess pressure in order to prevent the rupture
of the container itself. Given a fire of sufficient duration and intensity, the pressure being
generated by the boiling and expanding gas can exceed the ability of the valve to vent the excess.
If that occurs, an overexposed container may rupture violently, launching pieces at high velocity,
while the released products can ignite as well, potentially causing catastrophic damage to
anything nearby, including other containers.
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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS AND
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
LPG at atmospheric pressure and temperature is a gas which is 1.5 to 2.0 times heavier
than air. It is readily liquefied under moderate pressures. The density of the liquid is
approximately half that of water and ranges from 0.525 to 0.580 @ 15 deg. C.
Since LPG vapour is heavier than air, it would normally settle down at ground level/ low
lying places, and accumulate in depressions.
The pressure inside a LPG storage vessel/ cylinder will be equal to the vapour pressure
corresponding to the temperature of LPG in the storage vessel. The vapour pressure is
dependent on temperature as well as on the ratio of mixture of hydrocarbons. At liquid
full condition any further expansion of the liquid, the cylinder pressure will rise by
approx. 14 to 15 kg./sq.cm. for each degree centigrade. This clearly explains the
hazardous situation that could arise due to overfilling of cylinders.
LPG has an explosive range of 1.8% to 9.5% volume of gas in air. This is considerably
narrower than other common gaseous fuels. This gives an indication of hazard of LPG
vapour accumulated in low lying area in the eventuality of the leakage or spillage.
The auto-ignition temperature of LPG is around 410-580 deg. C and hence it will not
ignite on its own at normal temperature.
Entrapped air in the vapour is hazardous in an unpurged vessel/ cylinder during pumping/
filling-in operation. In view of this it is not advisable to use air pressure to unload LPG
cargoes or tankers.
The combustion reaction of LPG increases the volume of products in addition to the
generation of heat. LPG requires upto 50 times its own volume of air for complete
combustion . Thus it is essential that adequate ventilation is provided when LPG is burnt
in enclosed spaces otherwise asphyxiation due to depletion of oxygen apart from the
formation of carbon-dioxide can occur.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 14
LPG has only a very faint smell, and consequently, it is necessary to add some odourant,
so that any escaping gas can easily be detected.
Ethyl Mercaptan is normally used as stenching agent for this purpose. The amount to be
added should be sufficient to allow detection in atmosphere 1/5 of lower limit of
flammability or odour level 2 as per IS : 4576.
LPG is colourless both in liquid and vapour phase. During leakage the vapourisation of
liquid cools the atmosphere and condenses the water vapour contained in them to form a
whitish fog which may make it possible to see an escape of LPG.
LPG even though slightly toxic, is not poisonous in vapour phase, but can, however,
suffocate when in large concentrations due to the fact that it displaces oxygen. In view of
this the vapour posses mild anaesthetic properties.
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Petrol, or gasoline, is a liquid mixture created form crude oil. It is made up of hydrocarbons and
iso-octane. It is a fuel most commonly used in internal combustion engines.
Relatively concentrated and you can travel many hundred km with one full tank of petrol
It is highly available
It is fairly cheap
It is not difficult to make - it just has to be distilled and no waste is produced
It is easy to carry around
It is fairly safe to store
The supply of petrol is decreasing and we will one day run out of it
Because of the high demand and decreasing supply, the price of petrol is increasing.
It greatly affects the environment as carbon is produced when petrol is burned.
Petrol can be much better used to create other products like plastics and chemicals
Wars and international disputes have formed from petrol
Petrol has an energy density of about 34.6 MJ/L. There are many different blends of petrol and
energy density can vary. The difference is about ±4%.
Petrol is currently highly available and cars can be filled up with petrol at service stations all
over cities. However, our oil reserves are depleting and we are nearly at the point where we are
consuming more petrol than we are finding.
Burning 100L of petrol emits about 250kg of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
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LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
LPG has many uses; from heating to vehicles. It is made up of hydrocarbon gases. When used
for vehicles, LPG is a mixture of propane and butane (this is called autogas). When compressed,
it turns into liquid form. 1L of LPG liquid is equivalent to 270L of LPG vapour.
LPG is cheaper than petrol (up to 50%)
It produces less exhaust emissions than petrol
It is better for the engine and it can prolong engine life
In some vehicles, it can provide better performance
Has a higher octane rating than petrol (108 compared to 91)
It isn't highly available
The initial cost for converting your vehicle to LPG can cost up to $3000. However the average
car can repay the cost of the conversion in about 2 years
It has a lower energy density than petrol
No new passenger cars come readily fitted with LPG (they have to be converted)
The gas tank takes up a considerable amount of space in the car boot
Liquid LPG (autogas with 60% propane and 40% butane) has an energy density of about
LPG is not as available as petrol and diesel, but can be found at 45% of service stations in
Australia (there are 3200 outlets). LPG in Australia is mainly refined locally.
Burning 100L of LPG emits about 160kg of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
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Like petrol, petroleum diesel (or diesel fuel), is made from crude oil and is a hydrocarbon
mixture. Diesel is made from the fractional distillation of oil. It is denser and heavier than petrol.
Diesel can only be used in diesel engines.
Has a very high energy density
Greater fuel economy than petrol - up to 20-30%
New forms of diesel have been developed; modern diesel is much cleaner, quieter and more
efficient than they were previously.
Better performance; faster acceleration
In diesel engines, it has the power to pull larger and heavier loads
Highly available in Australia
Diesel produces more carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide than petrol does
Diesel cars emit more particles of soot into the air. This contributes to smog and health issues
like asthma and lung cancer
The initial cost of buying a diesel car is more than a normal car running on petrol
Diesel is slightly more expensive than petrol
Diesel has an energy density of about 38.6MJ/L.
Diesel is highly available in Australia and can be found at any service staion that sells petrol as
well. However, in other countries like America, diesel is only available at truck stops and 30% of
service stations as they have less diesel vehicles in use.
Burning 100L of diesel emits about 270kg of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Compared to
petrol, it may emit more carbon dioxide but it has much greater fuel efficiency and more
kilometres per litre.
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LITHIUM-ION POLYMER BATTERIES
Lithium-ion polymer batteries (or Li-Poly) are rechargeable battery packs that have evolved from
Lithium-ion batteries. They are already in use in portable devices and the technology is already
there for its use in electric cars.
They are much cleaner than petrol and diesel vehicles, especially if they are recharged with
renewable energy. Cars with these batteries can be carbon neutral
Li-Poly batteries are very energy efficient
They provide enough distance per recharge for the average person to drive around a city
Li-poly batteries can be easily recharged at home or at recharging stations
They are 20% lighter, more robust and more efficient than other battery technologies like
lithium-ion and NiMH (used in the original EV1)
They are still fairly expensive to manufacture. They are usually the most expensive part of an
electric car. However, prices of rechargeable batteries are rapidly decreasing
The lifespan of the battery is currently only 2-3 years. However, technology is always
developing and this is sure to increase
There may not be enough infrastructure, like public recharging stations for electric cars
Li-Poly batteries have an energy density of 300Wh/L or 0.72MJ/L. The more batteries you have,
the more energy you get. This can be compared to Lithium-ion batteries' energy density of
270Wh/L or 0.58Wh/kg.
Li-Poly batteries are currently not commercially available. However, vehicles like the Hyundai-
Kia hybrid are currently being developed with these batteries and will be mass produced in 2009.
Li-Poly batteries can be carbon neutral if they are recharged with renewable energy. If they are
recharged from coal-powered energy, they will have a bigger ecological footprint and the
emissions depend on how much energy is used.
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LPG Advantages and Disadvantages
LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas is made up of two major ingredients, namely propane and butane.
The percentage of the two depends upon the season, as a higher percentage of propane is kept in
winter and the same for butane in summer. It is a non-renewable fossil fuel that is prepared in a
liquid state under certain conditions. The mixture is popularly known as propane for use in cars,
and as LPG when it is used in cars and contains 90 percent propane in contrast to 2.5 percent
butane. It is obtained from crude oil refining, and is also considered to be eco friendly because it
doesn't cause any lead in the environment as a by-product.
LPG is used in homes as a cooking gas, and in cars as an alternate for petrol or diesel. With more
and more people buying vehicles running on LPG, most of the gas stations provide refueling
systems for LPG-run cars. LPG turns out to be a lot cheaper and efficient in comparison to petrol
and diesel. After petrol and diesel, LPG is the 3rd most extensively used fuel for transportation
the world over. The LPG-fitted cars are very popular in countries such as Japan, Italy, Canada,
and Austria. However, people making use of LPG cylinders for cooking is not allowed, as the
cylinders in many countries are available at fairly low rates compared to the ones available at gas
Today, the LPG kits that are available in the market offer dual-fuelled or bi-fuelled systems.
Automatic and manual switching to LPG from petrol or diesel or vice versa is available. Using
LPG increases the fuel efficiency of the vehicle as LPG has a high octane value. It causes less
corrosion of the engine because less water is vaporised, however, not everybody is aware of the
safety risks and conservation issues that surround it. Being a flammable gas, LPG is potentially
hazardous. The major disadvantage of using LPG in a vehicle is that because it doesn't use lead
or any other substitute for combustion, it damages the valves, resulting in a decrease of the life of
the engine. Moreover, as it is a low-density energy fuel, in comparison to petrol or diesel, LPG is
consumed more but because of the subsidised rates available, it proves to be a lot cheaper.
Further, LPG is not recommended for mountains or any kind of rough terrain as it does not
provide power and torque to the vehicle, as with other fuels. Using LPG means the vehicle drives
20% less than with other sources of fuel, resulting in more frequent refuelling. In contrast to
petrol or diesel vehicles, starting is always a problem with LPG driven vehicles under 32 degrees
Fahrenheit (cold conditions), because at lower temperatures it has a lower vapor pressure. It is
considered to be eco-friendly as it reduces the emission of carbon dioxide by more than 40
percent. The use of LPG in homes and cars is growing day by day, so in future a gradual increase
in its consumption can be seen.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 20
Commercial Uses of LPG Domestic Uses of LPG
Disadvantages of LPG Uses
LPG is said to have some properties which makes it dangerous to handle it. Although the
advantages of using LPG far outweigh the disadvantages, it always helps to know how LPG
usage can also cause some disadvantages.
The main disadvantage associated with the usage of LPG is to do with the storage and safety. To
store LPG, you require very sturdy tanks and cylinders. The gas has to be kept pressurized to
accommodate it in 274tines lesser space. This can also be perceived by the number of cases LPG
cylinders have exploded and resulted in serious damages to lives and property.
In colder climates or conditions, there is a known problem related to starting due to the low
vapour pressure of propane. This is known to happen in conditions with sub 32 degrees
LPG is also known to be more expensive than CNG or gasoline.
When it comes to using LPG in vehicles, it is known to shorten the life of an engine. This is due
to the fact that LPG lacks combustive properties with lead and lead substitutes. Also, LPG is not
safe to be used in vehicles running or plying on rough terrains and mountain roads. An LPG run
car is less powerful than the car which uses diesel or petrol, since LPG is known to have low
Also, with time, it has been noticed in some Asian countries that as LPG uses have gained
popularity, the prices have also been increased. The initial installation fees with respect to
equipments and an LPG connection for domestic uses is also priced higher. But yes, LPG is far
much cheaper in the long run.
LPG boilers and gas stoves also need regular maintenance to ensure that they are running
efficiently. Also, there has to be increased awareness yet to be created with regard to safe storage
of LPG cylinders in domestic properties.
Today, LPG fitted cars are very common in countries like Italy, Japan, Austria and Canada. But
still, when you compare this usage to petrol or even gasoline, LPG is way down the number chart
since it is not easily available in many parts of the world. Also, many people feel that the initial
cost of conversion for switching to LPG fuel is very high with respect to domestic vehicles. It
leaves lesser boot space in the cars.
Since LPG is highly inflammable, it is potentially very hazardous. It also damages valves of the
vehicles. Transporting LPG is also not very easy.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 21
The advantages of LPG include:
Because LPG vaporizes when released from the tank and is not water soluble, LPG does not
pollute underground water sources.
Power, acceleration, payload and cruise speed are comparable to those of an equivalent vehicle
fueled on gasoline. Propane has a high octane rating of 104, in-between Compressed Natural Gas
(CNG) (130) and regular unleaded gasoline (87).
Refueling a propane vehicle is similar to filling a gas grill tank; the time it takes is comparable
with that needed to fill a CNG, gasoline or diesel fuel tank.
Its high octane rating enables it to mix better with air and to burn more completely than does
gasoline, generating less carbon. With less carbon buildup, spark plugs often last longer and oil
changes are needed less frequently.
Because it burns in the engine in the gaseous phase, propane results in less corrosion and engine
wear than does gasoline.
The drawbacks of LPG include:
In cold conditions, below 32 degrees Fahrenheit, starting could be a problem because of the low
vapor pressure of propane at low temperatures.
One gallon of LPG contains less energy than a gallon of gasoline. The driving range of a propane
vehicle is about 14 percent lower than a comparable gasoline-powered vehicle.
LPG is generally higher priced than other fuel alternatives such as CNG and gasoline.
There are over 4,000 LPG refueling sites in the US, more than all of the other alternative fuels
combined. Most of these stations, however, are not readily available to consumers on a 24/7
basis. This is one of the reasons why most on-road applications are bi-fuel vehicles, which burn
LPG and gasoline.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 22
LPG Conversion - Specialist Words
Ecotec Autogas is a London based LPG Conversion Specialists helping the residents of London
save a hand full of money on their fuel and also the Environment in which their families are
Advantages and disadvantages of LPG conversion
LPG has significant environmental and financial benefits as outlined below:
1. By converting to LPG you can automatically reduce your environmental impact as the amount
of carbon dioxide your vehicle produces decreases. Compared to most petroleum vehicles, LPG
vehicles produce 20% less CO2.
2. They are much quieter than diesel engines, LPG quickly evaporates if a spillage occurs and
produces fewer particulates and nitrogen oxides.
3. Reduces reliance on petrol and diesel; there are already more than 1400 refueling stations
across the UK.
4. As a result LPG is substantially cheaper at the pumps than petrol and diesel. It is estimated
that a high mileage driver can save as much as 40% of their fuel costs with LPG compared to
petrol, and 20% compared to diesel.
5. Congestion charges/road tax; Cars that run on LPG qualify for reduced taxation as they fit into
lower tax bands. Many LPG vehicles are also exempt from congestion charges such as those in
the city of London, Richmond and Westminster.
Disadvantages to consider: 1. It is important to have a fully trained LPG conversion specialist
carry out the installation on your car. Generally this costs from £7,50-£2,000.
2. The LPG fuel system will need servicing at approximately 10,000 miles or typically once a
3. You should also consider your insurance costs, as some insurance companies may charge an
excess for an LPG approved conversion Specialist.
4. Not all petrol stations sell LPG, though the number is increasing. Typically you will not be
able to travel as far on a full tank of LPG as you would on a full tank of petrol. However, with
the petrol tank usually left in place during a conversion you can always use petrol as a back-up.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 23
5. Bear in mind that your manufacturer warranty could be affected by an LPG conversion. At
Ecotec conversion centre, we provide Life Time Warranty (including parts and Labor)
How do you get an LPG vehicle? With increasing demand for LPG in UK especially London,
many vehicle manufacturers are creating cars with bi-fuel capacity - running on both LPG and
petroleum. Among the manufacturers that offer LPG in their vehicles are Citroen, Ford, Nissan,
Proton, Renault and Vauxhall. If you do not have the cash to buy or lease a brand new car, you
can still significantly reduce your carbon emissions and save cash with an LPG conversion. If
you are looking for quality and low price LPG Conversion carried by Approved conversion
specialist under controlled Environment and the one that comes with life time warranty then visit
www.ecotecautogas.com or www.lpgconversionlondon.com or call us at 01895 348 088 or just
pop in and chat with our LPG Conversion Specialist. You can get the directions of the centre
from our contact us page.
LPG is a predominant mixture of Propane and Butane with a small percentage of unsaturates
(Propylene and Butylene) and some lighter C2 as well as heavier C5 fractions.Included in the
LPG range are Propane (C3H8), Propylene (C3H6), normal and Iso-butane (C4H10) and
Butylene (C4H8). Commercial LP Gases invariably contain traces of lighter hydrocarbons like
ethane (C2H6) and ethylene (C2H4) and heavier hydrocarbons like pentane (C5H12).
LPG is a clean burning, non-poisonous, dependable, high calorific value fuel. It is mainly used as
a domestic fuel but also finds wide uses in industry, where very low sulphur fuels are required
and also where a very fine degree of temperature controls are required. Bharat Petroleum
markets LPG as Bharat Gas and presently meet IS 4576:1999 for Liquefied Petroleum
Gases.Auto LPG is a fuel for use in passenger & commercial vehicles. The Petrol engines can be
retrofitted with a specialised kit to run the engine either on Petrol or on Auto LPG, without doing
any modifications in the engine. However, diesel engines cannot be retrofitted with auto LPG kit.
A separate engine, which runs on Auto LPG, has to be placed in place of diesel engine and these
engines will run only on Auto LPG. Use of Auto LPG in automobile vehicles will reduce the
pollutants emitted be these engines. Auto LPG meets IS 14861:2000 Specification for Liquefied
Petroleum Gases (LPG) for Automotive Purposes.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 24
MANFACTURE OF LPG
There are two main sources from which LPG are produced, namely:
(a) Wet Natural Gas or Associated Gas &
(b) Refinery operations
LPG prepared from wet natural gas consists entirely of ―saturated‖ hydrocarbons, i.e. propane
and butaneLPG produced by straight distillation process will have ―Saturated‖ hydrocarbons, i.e.
propane and butane (both normal and iso).LPG produced by both cracking and reforming
processes will have, in addition to saturated hydrocarbons, some quantities of unsaturated
hydrocarbons also (i.e. propylene and butylene).LPG Gases produced will have impurities like
moisture & sulphur compounds like hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans. Moisture may lead to
clogging of regulators, valves, etc. and sulphur compounds cause corrosion. Moisture and
sulphur compounds are, therefore removed by suitable treatment at the refinery.However, to alert
the user of LPG in case a leak takes place, ‗ethyl mercaptan‘, which has a distinctive odour, is
added in minute quantities at the refinery.At BPCL Refinery, LPG is produced at the CDU and
CCU. We are also getting LPG from Associated Gas obtained from Bombay High wells and
processed at Uran.PROPERTIES AND THEIR BEARING ON STORAGE, HANDLING AND
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 25
Some of the important properties and their bearings are:
1. Liquid Density
LPG in the liquid state is nearly half as heavy as water. Specific gravity ranges from 0.55 –0.58.
Knowledge of this property helps us in calculating the safe quantities that can be filled in a given
container whose volume is known. An LPG container should be filled in such a way that there
will be a 5% ullage left at the design temperature, otherwise, as temperature rises excessive
pressures are likely to be encountered leading to bursting of cylinders.
2. Vapour Specific Gravity
LPG vapour is nearly 1 ½ to 2 times as heavy as air. This would mean that any escaping vapours
of LPG would tend to settle down. Hence, there should be adequate ground level ventilation
where LPG cylinders are stored.For this very reason LPG cylinder installations should not be
undertaken in cellars or basements which have no ventilation at ground level. Also, cylinder
installation should not be within 1 meter of drain openings.
3. Co-efficient of Expansion of Liquid
Co-efficient of expansion of liquid LPG is approximately 12 times that of water. This property
in conjunction with liquid density should be taken into consideration for arriving at safe filling
capacities of containers.
4. Vapour Pressure
This is the most important property of LPG. The vapour of LPG in equilibrium with its liquid
exerts a pressure called the vapour pressure and the magnitude of this pressure is dependent on
the ambient temperature and not on the quantity of the contents. Vapour pressure increases
rapidly with temperature. (See vapour pressure chart). Boiling point of a liquid is that
temperature at which the vapour pressure of the liquid equals atmospheric pressure. Since boiling
point of LPG is below 0°C the pressure inside a cylinder is always higher than the atmospheric
pressure for temperatures above °C and hence, this is the reason that gas gushes out of a cylinder
when the valve is opened.
From this it naturally follows that LPG cannot be withdrawn in the vapour state from cylinders
when the temperature outside is below its boiling point.
Since, as already mentioned, the vapour pressure is dependent on the temperature and not on the
quantity of the contents two points emerge from this property of LPG.
a) As external equipment i.e. a pressure regulator is needed for obtaining gas at a constant
pressure for use in appliances irrespective of the ambient temperature.
b) Fitment of a pressure gauge to a cylinder cannot indicate the quantity of gas contained unlike
in the case of oxygen or other gas cylinders where the gas is contained in the gaseous state and
the pressure inside is gaseous pressure.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 26
5. Explosive Limits
Combustible gases will only ignite with air when mixed with it in certain proportion. As a
combustible gas is gradually mixed with air in increasing proportions a concentration is reached
at which the mixture just becomes explosive i.e. ignitable. This is called the ―lower explosive
As concentration of the gas is further increased, a point is reached at which the mixture ceases to
be ignitable, and the concentration of the gas just before this point is called the ―Upper explosive
A flame can only be propagated in a mixture of the gas and air, if the gaseous concentration lies
between these two limits. The limits of inflammability of LPG and some other fuel gases in air
are as follows:
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 27
LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS REGULATIONS 2011
SECTION ONE – CITATION AND DEFINITIONS
These Regulations may be cited as the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Regulations.
In these Regulations, unless the context otherwise requires, ―Branded Cylinder Owner‖ means a
licensed person who has introduced cylinders, bearing his brand name or mark, into the market
through his network of wholesalers, retailers and distributors
―Bulk LPG‖ means LPG contained in a receptacle of a capacity exceeding eighty kilograms
―License‖ means a legal instrument issued by the Regulator granting rights and obligations of the
LPG business operator
―Licensee‖ means the holder of a license issued under these Regulations ―Liquefied Petroleum
Gas‖ means commercial propane, commercial butane or mixture thereof as specified in the RS
LPG‖ means liquefied petroleum gas
―LPG Storage ―means the storing of LPG in premises consisting of one or more tanks in transit
for sale or consumer use
―Minister‖ and ―Ministry‖ mean respectively the Minister and the Ministry of Trade and Industry
―Permit‖ means an instrument issued by the Regulator granting rights to perform specific LPG
―Premises‖ includes any installation on land or vehicle storing LPG
―Retail in LPG‖ means a form of distribution of LPG by which the LPG is customarily sold to
consumers other than for the purpose of resale.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 28
―Regulatory Authority‖ means the Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Agency
―Rwanda Bureau of Standards‖ means the national institution in charge of standards
development as established by Law No 43/2006
―RS‖ means Rwanda Standard which is the specification or code of practice declared by the
Rwanda Bureau of Standards
―Standard LPG Cylinder‖ means an LPG cylinder whose characteristics are consistent with the
―Unified Valve‖ means the valve specified in the RS 578
―Wholesale Trade‖ means a form of distribution of LPG by which LPG is customarily sold for
the purpose of resale
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 29
SECTION TWO – LICENSES FOR LPG BUSINESS
3. License for LPG business
(1) No person shall conduct a business of importation, transportation, processing, supply,
storage, distribution, wholesale and retail sale and sale to industrial consumers of LPG and
related activitiesexcept under and in accordance with the terms and conditions of license granted
by the Regulatory Authority under these Regulations.
(2) Any person who contravenes paragraph (1) commits an offence and shall on conviction be
liable to a fine not exceeding Rwanda Francs Five millions (Rwf 5,000,000).
(3) A person desirous of obtaining or renewing a license under these regulations shall make an
application to the Regulatory Authority in the manner prescribed by these regulations by filling
LPG Form 1 prescribed in the Schedule I to these Regulations. The Application fee for any type
of License is Rwanda Francs One hundred thousand (Rwf 100,000).
(4) An application for renewal of license shall be made at least 2 months before the date of
expiry ofthe current license in the manner prescribed by subsection (3) of these Regulations.
(5) The Regulatory Authority shall approve or decline an application for grant of license within
thirty days of application. Where application is declined, the reasons shall also be given to the
applicant in writing.
(6) The license granted under paragraph (4) shall be in form ―LPG Form 2‖ prescribed in the
(7) A license under these Regulations shall be valid for a period not exceeding 1 year in the case
of importation, wholesale, retail and transportation, and not exceeding 2 years in case of
construction of LPG storage and filling facilities.
(8) Each type of LPG license shall be issued subject to such terms and conditions as the
Regulatory Authority shall specify, which shall include but not limited submission of the
a. Proof of Certificate of business registration
b. Proof of premises ownership
c. LPG supply agreement with a licensed importer or wholesaler
d. Other conditions as shall be listed in LPG Form 1
(9) The Regulatory Authority may suspend or revoke a license where the license contravenes the
terms and conditions of issue.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 30
4. Powers of Inspection
(1) The Regulatory Authority or any person acting on its behalf may inspect any vehicle,
premises, facility or installation suspected of being engaged in the business of importation,
transportation, processing, supply, storage, distribution, wholesale and retail sale of LPG for the
purpose of ascertaining whether the provisions of these Regulations are being observed, and, in
the case of contravention, may give such directions to the owner, occupier, driver or person in
charge of such vehicle, premises, facility or installation as it considers necessary.
(2) Where the Regulatory Authority calls upon a licensee, by a notice in writing, to execute any
repairs to the licensed premises, which may, in the opinion of the Regulatory Authority, be
necessary the licensee shall execute the repairs within such period as may be fixed by the notice.
The Licensee will have the right to address, within five working days counted from the day the
notice is received by the Licensee, its concerns regarding the time fixed by the Regulatory
Authority and the latter will analyze the relevance and take necessary decision.
(3) A person who resists, hinders or obstructs the Regulatory Authority or any person acting on
its behalf in the course of his duty under the provisions of paragraph (1) commits an offence and
shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding Rwanda Francs One million (Rwf
1,000,000) for each day or part thereof that the obstruction occurs.
(4) A person who refuses to obey any order lawfully given under the provisions of paragraphs
(1) and (2) commits an offence and shall be liable, on conviction, to pay a fine not exceeding
Rwanda Francs One million (Rwf 1,000,000) for each day or part thereof that the offence
(5) In any case where the person who contravenes the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) is
licensed under these Regulations, the Regulatory Authority may suspend or revoke his license.
5. Reporting of Accidents and Fires
(1) Any accident involving LPG or the transportation of LPG which causes injury to
employees, property damage, or injury to other persons or an accidental release of LPG and any
fire in which LPG is directly or indirectly involved shall be reported by a licensee in writing to
the Regulatory Authority as soon as possible but not later than 48 hours.
(2) A person who contravenes the provisions of paragraph (1) commits an offence and shall be
liable, on conviction, to pay a fine not exceeding Rwanda Francs two hundred thousand (Rwf
200,000) for each day or part thereof that the offence continues.
(3) In any case where the person who contravenes the provisions of paragraph (1) is licensed
under these Regulations, the Regulatory Authority may suspend or revoke his license.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 31
6. Saving in Case of armed forces
Nothing in these Regulations shall apply to LPG imported, exported, kept, stored or transported
by the armed forces or specialized departments of the Government of Rwanda as long as these
operations are directly linked with the Rwanda national security. The above mentioned
specialized departments should seek authorization from the Ministry of Trade and Industry and
the Ministry having energy in its portfolio.
However, armed forces or other specialized departments should comply with RS 575—2 as
regards LPG transportation in order to care for public safety.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 32
SECTION THREE – IMPORTATION OF LPG
7. License to Import LPG
(1) A person shall not conduct a business of importation of LPG into Rwanda except under and
in accordance with the terms and conditions of a valid license issued by the Regulatory
(2) A person desirous of obtaining a license under this part shall make an application to the
Regulatory Authority in the Form LPG No.1 and such application shall be accompanied by a
declaration to adhere and conform to the specifications contained in Rwanda Standards;
(3) A license to import LPG shall be in the Form LPG No.2. The LPG Importation License fee
will be Rwanda Francs One and a half million (Rwf 1,500,000).
(4) No person shall import LPG into Rwanda unless the vehicle used meets the requirements of
RS 573 and RS 579 and where no national standard exists, the relevant international standards
approved by the Rwanda Bureau of Standards.
(5) A person who contravenes paragraphs (2) and (4) commits an offence and shall, on
conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding Rwanda Francs five million (Rwf 5,000,000).
(6) In any case where the person who contravenes the provisions of paragraphs (2) and (4) is
licensed under these Regulations; the Regulatory Authority may suspend or revoke his license.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 33
SECTION FOUR: BULK LPG STORAGE.
8. License for Bulk Storage
(1) A person shall not operate a bulk LPG storage facility except in accordance with the terms
and conditions of a valid license for bulk LPG storage issued by the Regulatory Authority.
(2) A license shall not be necessary for bulk storage of LPG for non-commercial use in quantities
not exceeding eighty kilograms provided that such bulk LPG storage shall be contained in secure
cylinders that conform to RS 569, RS 571, RS 572 and RS 574 on Refillable welded steel gas
cylinders and RS 575—3 & RS 575—4 on Handling, Storage and Distribution of LPG in
Domestic, Commercial and Industrial Installations.
(3) A licensee shall not conduct a business of bulk LPG storage in any building constructed of
(4) A licensee shall not offer hospitality, release or otherwise part with possession of bulk LPG
to a person unless such person has a valid bulk storage license or an official permission from the
Ministry having internal security in its portfolio.
(5) A person desirous of obtaining a license for bulk LPG storage shall make an application to
the Regulatory Authority in Form LPG No.1 accompanied by :-
a. An Environmental Impact Assessment Certificate issued by RDB
b. Proof that the facility complies with the Building Codes of Rwanda
c. A copy of approved drawings in accordance with the local authorities requirements with
specifications and plans indicating :-
i. The facility to be licensed, giving particulars of the materials and construction
ii. The position of the facility in relation to adjoining property including distances from
iii. The position and capacity of all tanks, storage sheds, filling plant, the position of all
buildings, structures or other works within the installation in which LPG is to be stored
iv. All lighting arrangements including the position of electric cables, switches, and fuse boxes,
draining system, water connections, fire hydrants and firefighting appliances, and any other
precision that may be specified by the Regulatory Authority.
(6) A licensee shall not alter the licensed facility or the method of bulk LPG storage shown in the
license or specifications and plan submitted without prior approval by the Regulatory Authority.
(7) A license for bulk storage of LPG shall be in the Form LPG No.2. The LPG Bulk Storage
Operation License fee will be Rwanda Francs One and a half million (Rwf 1,500,000).
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 34
SECTION FIVE: LPG CYLINDER FILLING AND DISTRIBUTION
9. License for LPG Cylinder Filling
(1) A person shall not fill LPG into cylinders except in accordance with terms and conditions of
a valid license issued for LPG Filling by the Regulatory Authority
(2) A licensee shall at all times ensure that LPG is contained in a secure cylinder that conforms
to RS 569, RS 570, RS 571, RS 572, RS 574 and RS 576.
(3) The standard capacities of cylinders for filling with LPG shall be as specified in the RS …
and the cylinders shall be fitted with unified valves
(4) A person shall not with effect from the date of signature of these regulations import into
Rwanda or manufacture an LPG cylinder that does not meet the standard capacities and fitted
with unified valves.
(5) The Regulatory Authority shall not allow any cylinder not in the categories specified in
paragraph (2) to be filled with LPG after the date that will be agreed upon between the
Regulatory Authority after consultation and consent of the Ministry having energy in its
(6) A person shall not alter the branding, deface, damage, repair or submit for maintenance an
LPG cylinder without written authorization of the brand owner. On the other hand, any faulty or
defective cylinder shall be returned back to the ―cylinder brand owner‖.
(7) A person conducting a business of wholesale trade in LPG in cylinders shall require a license
for LPG Wholesale business and shall not buy or sell LPG in cylinders from an unlicensed
person. The LPG Wholesale Trade License fee will be Rwanda Francs eight hundred thousand
(8) A person shall not conduct a business of retail in LPG in cylinders except in accordance with
terms and conditions of a valid license issue for LPG Retail by the Regulatory Authority.
(9) Application for LPG Retail business shall be accompanied by :-
a. A copy of approved drawings for the premises for appraisal by the Regulatory Authority
b. A copy of a valid supply agreement with a person licensed to undertake wholesale business in
(10) A person licensed to conduct a business of Retail in LPG in cylinders shall not purchase
LPG in cylinders from an unlicensed person
(11) A person dealing with LPG cylinders in a retail outlet shall not store the cylinders in a
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 35
(12) Every retailer selling LPG shall have a properly calibrated weighing machine for
verification of the net contents of LPG cylinders
(13) No Person shall be permitted to transport LPG filled in cylinders unless the person is
licensed for LPG transportation and has an agreement with a licensed LPG supplier
(14) The LPG Retail License fee will be Rwanda Francs Five hundred thousand (Rwf 500,000).
(15) Disposal of LPG Cylinders shall conform to RS 577.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 36
SECTION SIX: LPG TRANSPORTATION
10. LPG Transportation License
(1) A person shall not transport LPG both in bulk and in cylinders, except in accordance with
terms and conditions of valid LPG Transportation license issued by the Regulatory Authority.
(2) The provision shall not apply to LPG in a private vehicle transported by a consumer in
standard capacity cylinder not exceeding an aggregate quantity as specified in the RS 575—1, or
as may be determined by the Regulatory Authority, based on the quality and standard of
equipment, infrastructure, safety risks and threats, etc
(3) An application for LPG Transportation License shall be accompanied by :-
a. A valid vehicle inspection report
b. A licensee shall not transport in his vehicle LPG from an unlicensed person, or load from an
unlicensed storage, or offload from his vehicle to a person not licensed under these regulations
c. A person shall not drive a vehicle or engage a driver for the transporting LPG unless the
i. Has valid driving license
ii. In case of a bulk LPG transportation vehicles he has driven that class of vehicle for a
minimum of three years, and for LPG in cylinders has driven that class of vehicle for a minimum
of two years
iii. Is certified in accordance with Section Eight of these regulations
iv. Has attended a prescribed basic training course providing appropriate knowledge of LPG,
defensive driving and emergency preparedness
v. Is of optimal health and fitness.
(4) The LPG Transportation and Distribution License fee will be Rwanda Francs One million
thousand (Rwf 1,000,000). For the Transportation License or Distribution operations alone, the
License fee will be Rwanda Francs Five hundred thousand (Rwf 500,000).
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 37
SECTION SEVEN: LPG FACILITIES CONSTRUCTION PERMITS
11. LPG Construction Permits
(1) Any person intending to construct an LPG facility (bulk storage, filling plant, and pipeline)
shall, before commencing such construction, apply in writing to the Regulatory Authority for a
permit to do so.
(2) The application under sub-section (1) shall:
(a) Specify the name and address of the proposed owner; and
(b) Attach a copy (or copies) of appropriate LPG business licenses issued under 3 (1), where
(c) Be accompanied by the appropriate number of copies of plans and specifications for that class
(3) The Regulatory Authority shall consider every application received and shall if satisfied that
the applicant meets prescribed requirements, grant to the applicant within fifteen days, the permit
to construct the LPG facility.
(5) The permit may be subject to such conditions as may be prescribed by the Regulatory
(6) Before issuing a permit, the Regulatory Authority shall take into account all relevant factors,
including but not limited to the following:
(a)Relevant Government policies and regulations;
(b)Compliance with environmental management and safety codes and standards including an
environmental impact assessment and proposal to mitigate any impacts identified and
occupational health and safety procedures;
(c) Relevant standards and measurements;
(d) The financial capability of the applicant and the methods of financing the proposed facility;
(e)any other matter in the opinion of the Regulatory Authority that may be affected by the
granting or the refusal of the permit being sought, including but not limited to the size and use of
land including access to roads or highways
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(7) A permit shall contain such terms and conditions as the Regulatory Authority may deem
appropriate, including but not limited to:
(a) Duration of the permit;
(b) Persons authorized to execute the works;
(c) Area in which the works shall be executed; and
(d) Conditions to be satisfied before the commencement of the works.
(8) Where the Regulatory Authority refuses to grant a permit under sub-section (3) he shall
notify the applicant of such refusal in writing specifying reasons thereof, within a period not
exceeding fifteen days.
(9) The LPG Construction Permit fee will be Rwanda Francs Three million (Rwf 3,000,000).
12. Suspension or Revocation of a Construction Permit
(1) Subject to sub-section (2) below, the Regulatory Authority may suspend or revoke a
construction permit if any term or condition thereof has not been complied with within the
(2) Where the Regulatory Authority intends to revoke or suspend a permit it shall at least
within twenty days before the date on intended revocation or suspension, notify the holder of the
permit of such intention, specifying the reasons thereof.
(3) The Regulatory Authority may in writing reinstate the permit suspended or revoked in
subsection (1) of this article if satisfied that the reasons for suspension or revocation no longer
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SECTION EIGHT: LPG SKILLS CERTIFICATION
13. Skills to be certified
(1) Persons engaged in construction, installation or maintenance of LPG facilities, equipment
and appliances shall require a certificate issued by the Regulatory Authority or its appointed
(2) The certification will ensure that the person certified under paragraph (1) above has the
necessary qualifications, LPG knowledge and skills to undertake LPG works
(3) Drivers undertaking LPG transportation shall be certified by the Regulatory Authority or an
agent appointed by the Ministry to fulfill the conditions listed in Section Six above.
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SECTION NINE: OPERATIONAL DETAILS AND SPECIFICATION
DETAILS NOT INDICATED IN THE PRESENT REGULATIONS AND IN
THE ADOPTED RWANDA STANDARDS
(1) The Regulatory Authority may decide on additional technical and operational requirements,
if it is realized that such additional requirements are critical for safety reasons or for the smooth
and good service delivery in the LPG industry;
(2) The Regulatory Authority shall be responsible to provide any details that are meant to bring
the operators and the consumers at fully understanding and complying with the National LPG
Standards and Regulations.
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SECTION TEN: VALIDITY OF THESE REGULATIONS
(1) The present Regulations shall take effect from the date of their signature;
(2) These Regulations shall be amended following the adoption of the Downstream Petroleum
Policy and Law.
K.E.S. SHROFF COLLEGE Page 42
LPG is highly inflammable and must therefore be stored away from sources of ignition and in a
well-ventilated area, so that any leak can disperse safely.
Another reason why care should be taken during storage is that LPG vapour is heavier than air,
so any leakage will sink to the ground and accumulate in low lying areas and may be difficult to
LPG expands rapidly when its temperature rises. So whenever a container is filled, sufficient
space is left to allow for such expansion.
LPG will cause natural rubber and some plastics to deteriorate. This is why only hoses and other
equipment specifically designed for LPG should be used.