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  1. 1. A Seminar Report on “Nanorobotics” Submitted by Ms. Bhawna Chachra Roll No. 25 Ms. Kittey Kohli Roll No. 42 Under guidance of Mr. Manish Gupta Mr. Sachin Shrivastava SHRI RAM INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, JABALPUR DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
  2. 2. INDEX Abstract Introduction How can this technology be implemented in medicine? Chemical composition of these nanorobot. Physical appearance of typical nanorobot. Brain of these tiny marvels. How do they work. Features. Working. Will body react to the “foreign” nano robot? Power supply to the robot. Could human fluid get inside the nanorobot? What if nanorobot fails? Would robot be allowed to replicate inside the body? Communication with outside world. How will the robot identifying the affected cell requiring treatment. Conclusion. Reference.
  3. 3. NANOROBOTICS Abstract : In this paper the application of nanotechnology n robots with further application in medicine has been discussed. The feasibility, potential snags, methods of functioning etc. have been discussed. Using nanorobots, their chemical compositions etc. as a tool to eliminate suffering and disease is what this paper aims to promote. Giving a bird’s eye view of nanotechnology is various considerations in many fields and the scope that it holds for the future. There are various ways by which this technology can be implemented in the field of medicine. Particularly robotics, since the use of robots can enhance the way we handle the treatment of ailments or diseases to a level where the life expectancy of our race can be increased. Nano medicine, though a futuristic potential, has been described with some detailed study about an artificial blood cell, and its potential use and advantage. Introduction : “Nanotechnology” is best described as an emerging frontier, a realm in which machines operate at scales of billionths of a metre. It is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometre scale. Viz. we can continue the revolution in computer hardware right down to the level of molecular gates, switches and wires unimaginable by the.
  4. 4. All materials are made from atoms. The properties of all materials depend on how these atoms are arranged. If we rearrange the atoms in coal, we get diamonds. If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a pinch of impurities) we get computer chips. If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we get “grass”! We've gotten better at it: we can make more things at lower cost and greater precision than ever before. But at the molecular scale we're still very crude, that’s where “nanotechnology” comes in, at the molecular level … Often called nanotechnology, molecular nanotechnology or molecular manufacturing, this new way of science has a tremendous scope in many fields:- • Computers (micro chips, memory modules etc • Robots (smaller robots, molecular precision, faster robots etc.) • Fabrication of materials (stronger than ever buildings, stronger cars etc.) • Medicine (customization of chemicals, robotic surgery etc. How can this technology be implemented in medicine? There are various ways by which this technology can be implemented in the field of medicine. Particularly robotics, since the use of robots can enhance the way we handle the treatment of ailments or diseases to a level where the life expectancy of our race can be increased. Chemical composition of these nanorobots : The typical medical nanodevice will be a micron-scale robot assembled from nanoscale parts. Parts ranging in size from 1nm to 100 nm (1 nm = 10-9 meter), and will be fitted together to make a working machine measuring 0.5-3
  5. 5. microns (1 micron = 10-6 meter) approx. in diameter. (3 microns is about the maximum size for blood borne medical nanorobot, due to capillary passage use.) Physical appearance of a typical nano robot: The robots will be so small that it would not be possible for us look at it through the naked eye but, here is an illustration of how a nano robot might look like: • Motors for maneuver. • Hydraulics for limbs. • Lens systems and sensors for touch like features. • Tanks to carry chemical agents. Etc. Brain of these tiny marvels: Many of the nano robots will have very limited processing power and will half no artificial intelligence as feared by most of us! They would have onboard a processor which is capable of only upto ~1000 operations per second. Therefore, there poses no threat whatsoever regarding A.I.
  6. 6. Most cellular repair nanorobots will not need more than 106 -109 operations/sec of onboard computing capacity to do their work. This is a full 4-7 order of magnitude below true human-equivalent computing at 10 teraflops (~1013 operations/sec). Any faster computing capacity is simply not required for most medical nanorobots. How do they work? Nanorobots are site directed. I.e. they reach the affected site before starting work as they are very job specific and can perform their functions with utmost precision. 1. 1. Nanorobots are injected into the body. •  Through an injection. •  Through an oral method. •  Or any other means. 2. 2. They perform their functions. •  Deliver medicine to affected site. •  Perform delicate surgical procedures. Etc. 3. 3. They are ejected out of the body. •  They leave the body by the regular excretory systems. •  Can decompose inside the body and the chemicals can be metabolized. Etc. One very simple nanorobot that was designed a few years ago is the artificial mechanical red cell, which is call a "respirocyte."
  7. 7. Working:- “When the nanorobot passes through the lung capillaries, O2 partial pressure is high and CO2 partial pressure is low, so the onboard computer tells the sorting rotors to load the tanks with oxygen and to dump the CO2. When the device later finds itself in the oxygen-starved peripheral tissues, the sensor readings are reversed. That is, CO2 partial pressure is relatively high and O2 partial pressure relatively low, so the onboard computer commands the sorting rotors to release O2 and to absorb CO2. Respirocytes mimic the action of the natural hemoglobin-filled red blood cells. But a respirocyte can deliver 236 times more oxygen per unit volume than a natural red cell. This nanorobot is far more efficient than biology, mainly because its diamondoid construction permits a much higher operating pressure. (The operating pressure of the natural red blood cell is the equivalent of only about 0.51 atm, of which only about 0.13 atm is deliverable to tissues.) So the injection of a 5 cm3 dose of 50% respirocyte aqueous suspension into the bloodstream can exactly replace the entire O2 and CO2 carrying capacity of the patient's entire 5,400 cm3 of blood!
  8. 8. Respirocytes will have pressure sensors to receive acoustic signals from the doctor, who will use an ultrasound-like transmitter device to give the Respirocytes commands to modify their behavior while they are still inside the patient's body. For example, the doctor might order all the Respirocytes to just stop pumping, and become dormant. Later, the doctor might order them all to turn on again. Power supply to the robots: One of the earliest proposals of powering a medical nanorobot was that in a vivo medical nanodevice would metabolize local glucose and oxygen for energy. Another possibility is externally supplied acoustic power, which is probably most appropriate in a clinical setting. There are literally dozens of useful power sources that are potentially available in the human body, like heat, electricity etc. as described in the book “Nanomedicine” What if a nanorobot fails? Doctors would want to remove their nanorobots from the patient's body as soon as the nanodevices have finished the job. So there will be little danger of "old nanorobots" breaking down or malfunctioning, or causing something unpleasant to happen to the patient after the original disease or traumatic condition has been treated. Also, nanorobots will be designed with a high level of redundancy to ensure fail-operational and fail-safe performance, further reducing the medical risk.
  9. 9. Conclusion: Nanomedicine will eliminate virtually all common diseases of the 20th century, virtually all medical pain and suffering, and allow the extension of human capabilities most especially our mental abilities. Consider that a nanostructured data storage device measuring ~8,000 micron3 , a cubic volume about the size of a single human liver cell and smaller than a typical neuron, could store an amount of information equivalent to the entire Library of Congress. If implanted somewhere in the human brain, together with the appropriate interface mechanisms, such a device could allow extremely rapid access to this information. A single nanocomputer CPU, also having the volume of just one tiny human cell, could compute at the rate of 10 teraflops (1013 floating-point operations per second), approximately equaling (by many estimates) the computational output of the entire human brain. Such a nanocomputer might produce only about 0.001 watt of waste heat, as compared to the ~25 watts of waste heat for the biological brain in which the nanocomputer might be embedded. But, perhaps the most important long-term benefit to human society as a whole could be the dawning of a new era of peace. We could hope that people who are independently well-fed, well-clothed, well-housed, smart, well-educated, healthy and happy will have little motivation to make war. Human beings who
  10. 10. have a reasonable prospect of living many "normal" lifetimes will learn patience from experience, and will be extremely unlikely to risk those "many lifetimes" for any but the most compelling of reasons. References: • The foresight institute of technology. • Images :- •, •, •, •, •