Buddhist Philosophy

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Buddhism Dharma Science The Truth

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Buddhist Philosophy

  1. 1. Buddhist Philosophy What to believe?
  2. 2. Goldsmith “The Buddha instructed his disciples, `Do not accept my teachings merely out of respect for me, but analyze and check them the way that a goldsmith analyzes gold, by rubbing, cutting and www.zonalibre.org melting it`. You are intelligent people and should think about what you hear during this course. Don´t accept it blindly” Thubten Chödron Open Heart, Clear Mind 2
  3. 3. “Do not be guided by revelation or tradition, not to be guided by rumor or by the sacred writings, not to be guided by hearsay or mere logic, not be www.time4truth.com guided by the inclination towards an idea or appreciation of the ability of another person and not based on the idea “He is our master”, but when you yourselves know that something is good, it is not objectionable, it is praised by the wise and when it is practiced it leads to happiness, then follow it”. Buda Sidartha Gautama (A.I. 188, cited by Venerable S. Dhammika) 3
  4. 4. “The Buddha advised us to be very practical and to the point, without getting distracted by useless speculation. He gave the example of a man wounded by a poisoned arrow. If, before consenting to have the arrow removed, the man insisted on knowing the name and occupation of the person who shot it, the brand of the arrow, the site where it was manufactured and what type of bow was used, he would die before learning the answers. The crucial thing for him is to treat the present wound and prevent further complications”. Thubten Chödron Open Heart, Clear Mind parafraseandosobrelavida.blogspot.com 4
  5. 5. “To overcome our limitations and develop our inner beauty, there is a step-by-step process to 1 follow. www.ilhn.com - First we listen or read in order to learn a subject. -  Then we reflect and think about it. We use logic 2 to analyze it, and examine how it corresponds with our own experiences in life and with what we see in the lives of people around us. The Thinker of Auguste Rodin (François. Escultor francés. Escultura en bronce 1880. -  Finally, we integrate this new understanding into our being, so that it becomes part of us. 3 Thubten Chödron Open Heart, Clear Mind la-sociedad-de-la- informacion.blogspot.com 5
  6. 6. “The Buddha used the analogy of three faulty pots to explain how to remove obstructions to learning. - The first pot is upside-down. Nothing can be poured inside it. This is analogous to reading Dharma books while watching television. We´re so distracted that very little of what we read goes inside our minds. -  The second faulty pot has a hole in the bottom. Something may go inside, but it doesn´t stay there. We may read the book with attention, but if a friend later asks us what the chapter was about, we can´t remember. -  The third defective pot is dirty. Even if we pour fresh clean milk inside and it stays there, it becomes undrinkable. This is similar to filtering what we read through our own preconceptions and ideas. We won´t understand the subject correctly because it has been polluted with our misinterpretations”. Thubten Chödron Open Heart, Clear Mind 6
  7. 7. Three defective containers Dharma Dharma Dharma We are so Everything that You can get distracted that we pour in our something inside mind what soiled very little reaches our mind, but no the inside of our with our remains. We do prejudices and mind not remember misconceptions anything 7
  8. 8. What kind of person you are when you hear your teachings? D C B A 8
  9. 9. Oddly it is easier than people a “D” become a people “A”. People “D” is one that is in a closed position and not let anything, not listening, is not receptive. If you suddenly change your attitude and narrow opening, “if turned” his “bin”, is clean and has no holes and can receive the Dharma. But need to open up and decides to change its attitude, which is not easy. One day we can be in position A, one B, one C and one in D. D C B A 9
  10. 10. “Even if all his life a fool associates with a wise man does not understand Teaching, like the spoon never capture the flavor of the soup. “If an intelligent man in associated with a wise, if only for a moment, quickly understand the teaching, like the tongue captures the flavor of the soup”. Siddhartha Gautama, Dhammapada 10
  11. 11. “If I do not teach to him, who will?” In a meditation retreat led by the Zen Master, Bankei A student is caught stealing and reported the fact to Bankei with the request that this student be expelled. Bankei ignores the request. The fact happen again and the teacher ignored again. Angry, the students presented a petition in which they express their decision to abandon the retreat unless the thief is ejected. Bankei, the teacher, then decided to gather his students and tells them: “You are smart. You know what is right and wrong. You can go to study somewhere else if you want. But this poor student donʼt difference between good and evil. If I do not teach to him, who will? I want him to stay here, even if the rest will leave”. Thubten Chödron Open Heart, Clear Mind 11
  12. 12. There was a man called Upali. He was a follower of another religion and went to see the Buddha to discuss with him and try to convert it. But after talking to the Buddha was so admired that decided to become a follower of Buddha. But the Buddha said: -“First make a proper investigation. Proper research is good for you as a famous person” -“Now I am even more pleased and satisfied when the Lord says: `First make a proper investigation`. Because if members of another religion had secured me as his disciple had paraded around the city with a banner saying: ´Upali has joined our religion´. But the Lord says: `First make a proper investigation. Proper research is good for you as a famous person´. In Buddhism, understanding is the most important thing and understanding takes time. Therefore, do not impulsively precipited Buddhism. Take your time, ask questions, think carefully and then make your decision. The Buddha was not interested in having large numbers of disciples. Worried that people follow his teachings as a result of careful investigation and consideration of the facts”. . Venerable S. Dhammika “Good Question, Good Answer” http://www.casatibet.org.mx/images/stories/BuenaPregunta.pdf wirajhana-eka.blogspot.com 12
  13. 13. Third Party Endorsement What say scientists, historians and psychologists about Buddhism
  14. 14. “The fundamental teachings of Gautama (Buddha), as it is now being made plain to us by study of original sources, is clear and simple and in the closet harmony with modern ideas. It is beyond all dispute the achievement of one of the most penetrating intelligences the world has ever known”. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), British historian and writer 14
  15. 15. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), the great scientist of the twentieth century: "Buddhism has the characteristics of what would be expected in a cosmic religion for the future: it transcends a personal God, avoids dogmas and theology; it covers both the natural & spiritual, and it is based on a religious sense aspiring from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity. If there is any religion that would cope with modern scientific needs, it would be Buddhism.” “The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion.  It should transcend a personal God and avoid dogmas and theology.  Covering both the natural and the spiritual, it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity.  Buddhism answers this description.”   15
  16. 16. “As a student of comparative religions, I believe that Buddhism is the most perfect one the world has seen. The philosophy of the theory of evolution and the law of karma are far superior to any other creed.” Dr. Carl Gustav Jung, Swiss psychologist (1875-1961) 16
  17. 17. “Paradoxically, the religious thought of the East is seen as more appropiate to rational thought that the Western religious thought of the West”. Erich Fromm, German-American psychoanalyst and social philosopher (23 de Marzo de 1900-18 de Marzo de 1980) Western East Rational Rational Thought Thought Religious Religious Thought Thought 17
  18. 18. “Buddhism is a system of thought, religion, science and a spiritual way of life that is reasonable, practical and it covers everything. For two thousand 500 years has fulfilled the spiritual needs of one third of humanity. Call those who seek the truth because it has no dogmas, satisfies the reason and the heart, insists on self coupled with tolerance for other points of view, embraces science, religion, philosophy, psychology, mysticism, ethics and art, and identifies the man as the sole creator of his present life as the sole creator of your destiny”. Christmas Humphreys, an eminent British judge (February 15 for 1901-13 April 1983) 18
  19. 19. Is Buddhism scientific? Response of S. Venerable S. Dhammika in “Good Question, Good Answer” Fuente: www.buddhanet.net
  20. 20. “Before we answer that question it would be best to define the word «science». Science is, according to the dictionary, «knowledge which can be made into a system, which depends upon seeing and testing facts and stating general natural laws, a branch of such knowledge, anything that can be studied exactly». There are aspects of Buddhism that would not fit into this definition but the central teachings of Buddhism, the Four Noble Truths, most certainly would. Suffering, the First Noble Truth, is an experience that can be defined, experienced and measured. The Second Noble Truth states that suffering has a natural cause, craving, which likewise can be defined, experienced and measured. No attempt is made to explain suffering in terms of a metaphysical concept or myths. According to the Third Noble Truth, suffering is ended, not by relying on upon a supreme being, by faith or by prayers but simply by removing its cause. 20
  21. 21. This is axiomatic. The Fourth Noble Truth, the way to end suffering, once again, has nothing to do with metaphysics but depends on behaving in specific ways. And once again behavior is open to testing. Buddhism dispenses with the concept of a supreme being, as does science, and explains the origins and workings of the universe in terms of natural laws. All of this certainly exhibits a scientific spirit. Once again, the Buddha´s constant advice that we should not blindly believe but rather question, examine, inquire and rely on our own experience, has a definite scientific ring to it. In his famous Kalama Sutta the Buddha says: 21
  22. 22. «Do not go by revelation or tradition, do not go by rumor or the sacred scriptures, do not go by hearsay or mere logic, do not go by bias towards a notion or by another person´s seeming ability and do not go by the idea “He is our teacher”. But when you yourself know that a thing is good, that it is not blamable, that it is praised by the wise and when practiced and observed that it leads to happiness, then follow that thing» A.I., 188 So we could say that although Buddhism in not entirely scientif, it certainly has a strong scientific overtone and is certainly more scientiic than any other religion. It is significant that Albert Einstein, the greatest scientist of the 20th century said of Buddhism: 22
  23. 23. «The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. It should transcend a personal God and avoid dogmas and theology. Covering both natural and spiritual, it should be based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual and a meaningful unity. Buddhism answer this description. If there is any religion that would cope with modern scientific needs, it would be Buddhism» 23
  24. 24. The Four Noble Truths Lighting Wisdom and Love The Method is the Correct Noble Path Octuple Vision The cause is the Tiple Correct Correct Venom: ignorance, absorption Thought attachment and aversion Correct Correct Correct Correct Attention Word Support Effort Cause 2 4 Meditation Wake Ethics Release Correct Action Effect 1 3 Life just always in pain and Release: if you remove the suffering cause, abolished the effect We suffered at birth, growing up, the sick, the Buddha´s first sermon on the Four Noble Truths and aging and dying. the Middle Path in Deer Park, Sarnath. First set in motion the Wheel of Dharma, the vehicle Nikaya or We suffered for not having what we want, or Hinayana. losing what we had or what others have Dharmachakrapravatana (c. 528 BC) 24
  25. 25. “Anything that is subject to arising Dharmachakrapavatana is subject to a one stop” The Middle Path Sutra First turning of the Wheel of Dharma It gives vision, gives knowledge, The First Discourse of the Buddha pronounced in the Deer Park at Isipatana (the Resort of Seers) near Varanasi and leads to calm, to insight, to (Benares) enlightenment and to Nibbana Such was the vision, the knowledge, the wisdom, the science, the light that arose in me concerning things not The Path of heard before Right understanding Complacency in the The Path of Right thought sensual pleasures Things as they really are addiction to self- Right Speech Which is low, coarse, the way of Three Aspects or mortification Right Action ordinary people, unworthy, and Characteristics of Existence unprofitable Which is painful, unworthy and Right livelihood unprofitable Right effort - Anicca. Everything is limitd to Right mindfulness a certain duration and, consequently, liable to disappear. Right concentration -  Dukkha. Everything is The Noble Eightfold Path unsatisfactory. There is nothing The Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the that can be relied upon, there is Cessation of Suffering nothing that can bring true happiness. -  Anatta. Everything is deprived The Noble Truth of Suffering (Dukkha) of a self. There is no self- The Noble Truth of the Origin (cause) of - Birth is suffering, ageing is suffering, The Noble Truth of the inherent entity, nothing that can Suffering sickness is suffering, death is suffering, Cessation of Suffering be controlled. association with the unpleasant is suffering, - It is this craving (thirst) which produces re- - It is the complete cessation of - (Ignorance of these factores dissociation from the pleasant is suffering, becoming (rebirth) accompanied by that very craving, giving it up, leads to suffering, constant, not to receive what one desires is suffering – passionate greed, and finding fresh delight relinquishing it, liberating uncontrollable and recurring – in brief the five aggregates subject to now here, and now there, namely craving for oneself from it, and detaching Samsara) grasping are suffering. sense pleasure, craving for existence and oneself from it. craving for non-existence (self-annihilation) Form (rupa), feeling (vedana), Volitional perception (samjnna), formation Contact Old age (or formations or Name and Senses (samskara), consciousness (vijnana) Ignorance Consciousness form (nama (sparsha) decay) and action Feelings Craving Attachment “Coming to Birth death (avidya) (samskara) (vijñana) rupa) The 12 Links of Interdependent Origination (vedana) (trishna) (upadana) be” (bhava) (jati) (jaramarana) 25
  26. 26. Next translate ¿Qué es el Budismo? ¿Es una religión, una psicologia, una etica, una filosofia o una forma de vida?
  27. 27. ¿Qué es el budismo? - Es una de las tradiciones espirituales más antiguas. Tiene su origen en la prédica de Siddharta Gautama, el Buda histórico que vivió hace 2 mil 550 años en India. Es una religión que pretende reunir al hombre con su naturaleza. No es de fe o dogmas, sino de experiencias que se basan en la investigación metódica y empírica de la realidad. Es una filosofía que busca entender las cosas a través de sus causas y del uso de la razón. Es una psicología que intenta comprender la mente y sus fenómenos como fundamento para la felicidad y garantía para la trascendencia del dolor. Es también una ética, basada en la responsabilidad universal y una forma de vida. Entrevista a Marco Antonio Karam, fundador y director de Casa Tíbet México redaccion@elperiodico.com.gt Belka I. Cojulún S./elPeriódico 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. ¿QUE ES EL BUDISMO EXACTAMENTE? El Budismo es la ciencia de conocer a la mente. Si la mente se conoce a sí misma es en verdad perfección y no necesita nada de ninguna parte. Esta mente descubre que en esencia es como el espacio, que no puede ser dañada, ni mejorada. Entonces, una vez que entendemos eso nos damos cuenta de que la mente está llena de posibilidades y finalmente nos damos cuenta de que es ilimitada y a través de eso nos volvemos llenos de amabilidad, porque no podemos separar nuestro propio deseo de la felicidad del deseo de los otros de adquirirla. Y porque los otros son muchos y nosotros somos solamente uno. Lama Ole Nydahl http://www.el-mundo.es/encuentros/invitados/2004/05/1107/ 29
  30. 30. El budismo, que ahora es una religión, una teología, una mitología, una tradición pictórica y literaria, una metafísica o, mejor dicho, una serie de sistemas metafísicos que se excluyen, fue al principio una disciplina de salvación, una suerte de yoga (la palabra yoga es afín a la palabra latina iugum, «yugo»). El mismo Buddha se negó siempre a discusiones abstractas que le parecieron inútiles y formuló la famosa parábola del hombre herido por una flecha y que no se la deja arrancar antes de saber la casta, el nombre, los padres y el país de quien lo hirió. «Proceder así, dijo el Buddha, es correr peligro de muerte; yo enseño a quitar la flecha.» Con esta parábola respondió a quienes le preguntaban si el universo es infinito o finito, si es eterno o si ha sido creado. JORGE LUIS BORGES & ALICIA JURADO. QUE ES EL BUDISMO (1976) La doctrina, observa Köppen, no es dogmaática ni especulativa; es moral y práctica. Lo confirman las palabras del mismo www.nlcphs.org Buddha: «Así como el océano tiene un solo sabor, el sabor de la sal, esta doctrina tiene un solo sabor, el sabor de la salvación». 30
  31. 31. El límite de la ciencia ¿Por qué necesitamos otro nivel de percepción?
  32. 32. Es cierto que la biología y la física teórica han aportado conocimientos extraordinarios sobre el origen de la vida y la formación del universo. Pero ¿permiten acaso estos conocimientos elucidar los mecanismos fundamentales de la felicidad y del sufrimiento? No hay que perder de vista los objetivos que uno mismo se fija. Conocer la forma y las dimensiones exactas de la Tierra constituye un progreso indudable, pero el hecho de que sea redonda o plana no altera mayormente el sentido de la existencia. Por mucho que se progrese en el ámbito de la medicina, sólo se pueden aliviar temporalmente los sufrimientos, que jamás dejan de reaparecer y culminan en la muerte. Es posible detener un conflicto o una guerra, pero otros volverán a surgir mientras no cambie el espíritu de la gente. ¿No hay, en cambio, algún medio para descubrir una paz interior que no dependa de la salud, del poder, del éxito, del dinero o de los placeres de los sentidos? ¿Una paz interior que sea fuente de paz exterior? Matthieu Ricard. El Monje y el Filósofo p. 28 32
  33. 33. ¿Qué no ha podido explicar o investigar o dilucidar la ciencia? -  Si existe o no un Dios -  Cuál es el sentido de la vida -  Si existe vida después de la muerte -  Si teníamos otra vida antes de la actual -  ¿Qué produjo el Big Bang? -  ¿Qué es la mente? ¿Qué es la conciencia? -  Si existe o no el karma (una consecuencia positiva o negativa a nuestras acciones) -  Si existe o no el renacimiento 33
  34. 34. El budismo si tiene una respuesta para todas esas cuestiones… 34
  35. 35. ¿El Método Científico es el Unico para descubir la Verdad? “Cuando preguntamos por qué los materialistas creen que la consciencia es una propiedad emergente de la materia, podemos ver que esta conclusión se sigue de las asunciones de la propia metodología científica. Los científicos generalmente sólo aceptan las evidencias si pueden ser ‘objetivamente’ demostradas y comprobadas. Pero aquí no puede haber tal cosa como una prueba ‘objetiva’, ya que la aceptación o el rechazo de una prueba están siendo actos mentales, y los sucesos mentales son necesariamente subjetivos. En la práctica, establecemos un ‘consenso intersubjetivo’; es decir, cuando existe suficiente evidencia observable a través de los cinco sentidos para convencer a una determinada comunidad científica. El método científico es por tanto incapaz, en el momento actual, de investigar directamente a la mente. Todo lo que puede hacer es examinar externamente los fenómenos observables, tales como la conducta y la actividad cerebral, y entonces inferir correlaciones con el reino de lo mental. Así que no es una sorpresa encontrar la teoría científica de que la consciencia también se inicia en el reino de lo físico para ver a la consciencia emergiendo a partir de ahí. Esta teoría está incorporada en las bases propias del método científico y por lo tanto no puede ser probada por ese mismo método. No se trata de una conclusión empíricamente comprobable, y por ello no es científica. Se trata de una especulación metafísica, una inferencia injustificada derivada de la asunción de que el método científico es el medio único y suficiente para descubrir la verdad”. Cuando la vida comienza. Bikkhu Sujato 35
  36. 36. Dos Métodos para encontrar la Verdad Entrecomillados: Cuando la vida comienza, Bikkhu Sujato Materialistas Budismo “Es una propiedad emergente de la materia” (reacciones Capacidad de la mente de darse cuenta que se da Consciencia físicas, químicas y biológicas del cerébro). “La consciencia se cuenta. Una mente atenta, en paz, con claridad. inicia en el reino de lo físico”. Científico: Meditación (Samadhi) en sus dos fases: Método 1. Observación crítica 1. Desarrollo de la atención unipuntual (Shamatha). 2. Plantear una hipótesis 2. Desarrollo del análisis cognitivo (vipashana), 3. Investigar, experimentar para hacer retrocogniciones, cogniciones y 4. Encontrar un principio, ley, verdad. Comprobar, verificar procogniciones de la realidad. 5. Formular un enunciado, ley o teoría “Los científicos generalmente sólo aceptan las evidencias si “Aquí no puede haber tal cosa como una prueba Actitud pueden ser “objetivamente” demostradas y comprobadas”. «objetiva», ya que la aceptación o el rechazo de una prueba están siendo actos mentales, y los sucesos mentales son necesariamente subjetivos”. “En la práctica, establecemos un «consenso intersubjetivo»; es 1. Meditar, meditar, meditar. Práctica decir, cuando existe suficiente evidencia observable a través de 2. Analisis profundo de la realidad (el karma) los cinco sentidos para convencer a determinada comunidad 3 Entendimiento del vacio científica”. De un lado está el científico, de otro lado la comunidad Convertir a la mente en el instrumento de Proceso científica, en otro el laboratorio de experimentación y sus observación y en el objeto a observar. Método, instrumentos (microscopios, telescopios, etc.) y de otro el instrumento y objeto son la misma cosa. objeto a investigar. La teoría cienífica que plantea que la consciencia se inicia en “El método científico es por tanto incapaz, en el Conclusión el reino de lo físico “no puede ser probada por ese mismo momento actual, de investigar directamente a la método. No se trata de una conclusión empíricamente mente. Todo lo que puede hacer es examinar comprobable, y por ello no es científica. Se trata de una externamente los fenómenos observables, tales especulación metafísica, una inferencia injustificada derivada como la conducta y la actividad cerebral, y de la asunción de que el método científico es el medio único y entonces inferir correlaciones con el reino de lo suficiente para descubrir la verdad”. mental” 36
  37. 37. Dos Métodos Para encontrar la verdad Científico Entrenamiento de la Mente Uno mismo Sujeto: El científico La Sangha (comunidad espiritual), donde está el maestro, el Dharma o enseñanzas y Comunidad: fundacioncaixagalicia.org otros discípulos fundacionprincipedeasturias.org Instrumentos: Laboratorio (telescopio, Nuestra propia mente microscopio, lentes, sustancias, etc.) Nuestra propia mente Objeto de estudio: Conducta y actividad cerebral Método: 1. Observación crítica Meditación (Samadhi) en sus dos fases: 2. Plantear una hipótesis 1. Desarrollo de la atención unipuntual 3. Investigar, experimentar (Shamatha). 4. Encontrar un principio, ley, verdad. 2. Desarrollo del análisis cognitivo Comprobar, verificar (vipashana), para hacer retrocogniciones, 5. Formular un enunciado, ley o teoría cogniciones y procogniciones de la realidad. De un lado está el científico, de otro lado la Convertir a la mente en el instrumento de comunidad científica, en otro el laboratorio de observación y en el objeto a observar. experimentación y sus instrumentos (microscopios, telescopios, etc.) y de otro el objeto a investigar. Método, instrumento y objeto son la misma cosa. 37
  38. 38. Fuentes: - Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth (Dhammacakkappavattana-Sutta)(1) (The First Discourse of the Buddha). Buddhist Studies. http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/bp_sut17.htm - The 3 characteristics of Existance. http://www.dhammadana.org/en/dhamma/3_characteristics.htm - The Twelve Links of Interdependent Co-Arising. http://www.uky.edu/StudentOrgs/UKBA/twelveln.htm -  Good Question, Good Answer. Ven. S. Dhammika. http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/gqga-4ed.pdf - 38
  39. 39. For more information, please visit: http://www.dharmavskarma.blogspot.com/ http://www.slideshare.net/DharmavsKarma/slideshows Graphical version, errors, bad translations and misinterpretations Karma Wangchuk Sengue The 1st version: 19 May 2008 The 2nd version: 20 may 2008 (corrections 3 June 2008) The 3rd version: 26 November 2008. Added on December 21, 2008. English translation 1 July 2008 Ciudad de México 39

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