Kimel anderson getmotivated_final

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Presentation given at QRCA in Philadelphia on October 2010. The topic is how motivational theory can be translated to design strategies to build devices that help individuals change behavior...hopefully for the better!

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  • Make this interesting – maybe a quick hand sketch or mock up of a screen shot of a bank site – then show images of how it might look with this idea implemented
    Cheema and Soman (2009) found that earmarking savings in
    From nudge blog
  • Make this interesting – maybe a quick hand sketch or mock up of a screen shot of a bank site – then show images of how it might look with this idea implemented
    Cheema and Soman (2009) found that earmarking savings in
    From nudge blog
  • Design doesn’t have to be about a product, it can be a service, a package, a web site, or software or even an experience. The important thing is that the research informs whatever the “it” is – the following strategies can be put in place regardless of the size or shape of the deliverable.
  • Design doesn’t have to be about a product, it can be a service, a package, a web site, or software or even an experience. The important thing is that the research informs whatever the “it” is – the following strategies can be put in place regardless of the size or shape of the deliverable.
  • Baumeister and Daniel Pink
  • http://www.conorneill.com/2009/12/there-is-mismatch-between-what-science.html
  • http://uchicagolaw.typepad.com/faculty/2007/01/libertarian_pat.html
  • http://www.danpink.com/archives/2010/03/is-purpose-really-an-effective-motivator
    http://persweb.wabash.edu/facstaff/hortonr/articles%20for%20class/taylor%20and%20Brown.pdf
  • Radio Lab with Gladwell on genius.
  • Especially important to dig into this. Not just about social networking and bulletin boards.
    People are motivated by the positive feelings generated by groups: Baumeister and Leary 1995: In-group rewards are higher, even when groups are created via lottery. Negative experiences bring people together (electric shock = tighter group), and the fact that we bond with our rivals shows a deep need for this. Divorce isn’t an end to a relationship, it’s a change.
    But also the need to have actions witnessed and validated by others: showing off and strengthening status in a group (The Alamo example from Leary Risking Life and Limb
    Also relates to both Mastery and Autonomy: Kids who are encouraged to learn something to teach others do better; medical school see one, do one, teach one method; being autonomous is in direct relation to being part of a group
    “Need to belong also can be understood on the basis of a fundamental interpersonal relations orientation, which suggests three basic needs underlie people's group-seeking behavior: inclusion, which pertains to the need to belong to or include others in a circle of acquaintances; affection, or the need to love or be loved by others; and control, which encompasses the need to exert power over others or give power over the self to others (Schutz 1966). Joining SNS can meet all three of these needs; specifically, people may join user-generated content sites such as Facebook to remain "in the loop" and maintain relationships with friends and others, irrespective of time and physical space.”
    http://jiad.org/article100
    The Alamo: http://persweb.wabash.edu/facstaff/hortonr/articles%20for%20class/Leary%20risking%20life%20and%20limb.pdf
     
  • Helps lessen intensity in adverse conditions, keeps people going long enough to get the positive feedback loop
    Mihaly Chiksentmihaly and flow theory: got to get into a trance. You get there by not over thinking, often physical, but non-physical states (music) are often someone exploring for fun, sense of rhythm is important
    Exploit the desire for Order (or flipped, people love puszzles):
    http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2008/06/13/exploiting-desire-for-order/
    The VW trash can/dancing keyboard thingy
  • http://architectures.danlockton.co.uk/2008/07/17/richard-thaler-at-rsa/
    For enabling reflection:
    http://www.danpink.com/archives/2010/04/stairway-to-motivational-heaven
  • Design doesn’t have to be about a product, it can be a service, a package, a web site, or software or even an experience. The important thing is that the research informs whatever the “it” is – the following strategies can be put in place regardless of the size or shape of the deliverable.
  • Design doesn’t have to be about a product, it can be a service, a package, a web site, or software or even an experience. The important thing is that the research informs whatever the “it” is – the following strategies can be put in place regardless of the size or shape of the deliverable.
  • if your personal health care has an effect on someone else's health, are you more likely to take care of yourself? if every time you work out, a starving child in a third world country gets food, will you work out more?
    for the motive to realize one's full potential. In his view, it is the master motive—indeed, the only real motive a person has, all others being merely manifestations of it. However, the concept was brought to prominence in Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory as the final level of psychological development that can be achieved when all basic and mental needs are fulfilled and the "actualisation" of the full personal potential takes place.
    Pink has a good example of this too --
  • I always think of these Nike shoes you can customize online – pulled a screen shot of wii fit yoga where it looks like you can customize which positions you do and in what order. Personalization can be simple or complex – but if I set up my yoga routine the way I like it, I’m more likely to actually do it. I decide the length of time, the difficulty etc. Of course, missing here is the belonging. Just because I set it up, doesn’t mean I’ll do it – I don’t have a class to attend – maybe invite a friend over to encourage discipline.
  • I always think of these Nike shoes you can customize online – pulled a screen shot of wii fit yoga where it looks like you can customize which positions you do and in what order. Personalization can be simple or complex – but if I set up my yoga routine the way I like it, I’m more likely to actually do it. I decide the length of time, the difficulty etc. Of course, missing here is the belonging. Just because I set it up, doesn’t mean I’ll do it – I don’t have a class to attend – maybe invite a friend over to encourage discipline.
  • Autonomy and goal setting – I set my own goals so I should be able to achieve them
  • Autonomy and goal setting – I set my own goals so I should be able to achieve them
  • This relates to a sense of mastery and improvement.
  • This relates to a sense of mastery and improvement.
  • Asymmetrical relationships
    Earned status
    Yelp
    Amazon
    Offer virtual support
    Babycenter.com
    Blog about a couple reducing their debt http://www.moneyrelationship.com/
    Facebook training apps
  • We set up a study to catch people when they were not in bed, on the phone, in the bathroom or with visitors. Reminder would go off based on series of rules – if not “busy”, unless it is close to the end of the effective window for taking pills.
  • We set up a study to catch people when they were not in bed, on the phone, in the bathroom or with visitors. Reminder would go off based on series of rules – if not “busy”, unless it is close to the end of the effective window for taking pills.
  • Get example from Nudge book http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/properties/module_5/emphysema.htm
    Spoke with doctors in the UK about patient compliance. They said they have little/no luck regarding quitting smoking – patients don’t care about 40 years down the road, they care about the nicotine craving right now, show immediate negative effects i.e., loss of lung capacity, can’t play soccer with kids,etc.
  • Get example from Nudge book http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/properties/module_5/emphysema.htm
    Spoke with doctors in the UK about patient compliance. They said they have little/no luck regarding quitting smoking – patients don’t care about 40 years down the road, they care about the nicotine craving right now, show immediate negative effects i.e., loss of lung capacity, can’t play soccer with kids,etc.
  • Design doesn’t have to be about a product, it can be a service, a package, a web site, or software or even an experience. The important thing is that the research informs whatever the “it” is – the following strategies can be put in place regardless of the size or shape of the deliverable.
  • Design doesn’t have to be about a product, it can be a service, a package, a web site, or software or even an experience. The important thing is that the research informs whatever the “it” is – the following strategies can be put in place regardless of the size or shape of the deliverable.
  • Kimel anderson getmotivated_final

    1. 1. © 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 11© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential Get Motivated! Hands-on Techniques to Understand Consumers and What Motivates Them to Change Behaviors for the Better Janna Kimel and Gretchen Anderson
    2. 2. © 2010 Proprietary 2© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 2 What Motivates Us? Measurable difference in savings when: Bank accounts are named, not numbered A child’s photo is put on an envelope of savings (nearly doubled the savings rate of every low income parent) Amounts are earmarked for specific events
    3. 3. © 2010 Proprietary 3 Obama’s election raises IQs IQ tests given immediately following Obama’s election eliminated a racial gap in performance. Possibility motivated a change.
    4. 4. © 2010 Proprietary 4© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 4 What Motivates Us? There are very powerful forces that motivate us to do things (for better and for worse) that seem almost transparent to us. By being aware of these forces, you can use them to design products, services and experiences that have a positive impact on people’s lives.
    5. 5. © 2010 Proprietary 5© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 5 What we’re covering today… • An Intro to Motivational Theory: What makes us tick? • Design Principles: Making theory tangible • Recap & Review • Interactive Exercise: Develop a Research plan to help product developers motivate the audience, for the better • Conclusion and Wrap-up
    6. 6. © 2010 Proprietary 6© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 6 About Us Janna Kimel Design researcher, Portland, OR @third_brain/ thirdbrainstudio.com Gretchen Anderson Product designer, SF, CA @gretared / punchcut.com Inspiration: Motivating Wellbeing
    7. 7. © 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 7 About Motivational Theory
    8. 8. © 2010 Proprietary 8© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 8 Harnessing the Power of Motivational Theory Psychology and cognitive science have a body of knowledge we can build on  research-based, elemental Motivational forces are quite powerful as it turns out  but also unpredictable, irrational  requires discipline around techniques and intent
    9. 9. © 2010 Proprietary 9© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 9 With great power, comes great responsibility Our products are becoming more ambitious, as technology and interaction design have enabled more, richer experiences. We must produce positive feedback loops.
    10. 10. © 2010 Proprietary 10© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 10 External Motivators Coercion or payment are two familiar methods of external motivation. External motivators are very powerful for motivating rapid completion of routine, rote tasks, but…
    11. 11. © 2010 Proprietary 11© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 11 External Motivators and Creativity The Candle Problem… An offer of money actually worsened performance in solving this puzzle.
    12. 12. © 2010 Proprietary 12 External Motivators are used… There’s a question about how sustainable external motivators are. Who’s going to pay for your rewards?
    13. 13. © 2010 Proprietary 13© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 13 Internal Motivators and the Positive Feedback loop Internal motivators are highly effective, and self-reinforcing. Making positive choices is a “creative” act, requiring reflection, so external motivators won’t be as effective.
    14. 14. © 2010 Proprietary 14© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 14 Maternalism & Paternalism Motivation can fall into two traps: Maternalism: someone “takes over” for the subject; a “smart glucose meter makes a dumb patient” Paternalism: where an authority figure gives strong guidance Paternalistic Libertarianism: Thaler & Sunstein Some “nudge” can’t be avoided, so we strive to preserve the “freedom of contract.”
    15. 15. © 2010 Proprietary 15© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 15 Different Theories Glasser Choice Theory Deci & Ryan Self Determination Goleman Emotional Intelligence Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Survival Physiology & Safety Freedom Autonomy Ready to act on opportunities Fun Belonging Relatedness Committing to goals of a group Belonging Power Competence Drive to achieve excellence; Persistence Esteem & Self- Actualization
    16. 16. © 2010 Proprietary 16 The Pillars Survival & Safety Autonomy Fun Belonging Mastery
    17. 17. © 2010 Proprietary 17© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 17 Autonomy The ability to control one’s own destiny is motivating.  Habitat for Humanity requires owners to put a certain amount of their own labor into their house.
    18. 18. © 2010 Proprietary 18 A sense of accomplishment is rewarding.  Gladwell:10,000 hours of practice = an expert.  10,000 hours = a lot of love for a skills, game, instrument. © 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 18 Mastery
    19. 19. © 2010 Proprietary 19© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 19 Belonging Being part of a bigger group helps us perform amazing feats.  Reassurance and support of others  Refusal to let others down
    20. 20. © 2010 Proprietary 20© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 20 Fun The more something is enjoyable, the more people stick with it.  People are pulled in initially, and stay engaged.  Keeping engagement allows the positive feedback loop to occur.
    21. 21. © 2010 Proprietary 21© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 21 Choice Architecture Richard Thaler On Choice Architecture: “There is no alternative to choice architecture. It’s not possible to design neutral choice architecture any more than it is to design neutral architecture.” This means that our decisions when making products, services and experiences have an impact, but not necessarily a positive one.
    22. 22. © 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 22 Design Strategies
    23. 23. © 2010 Proprietary 23© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 23 Design Strategies Create products & services that motivate positive behaviors Assist with creating internal motivation – create the desire for people to “do the right thing” Tangible actions and tips for designers and developers informed by thoughtful research Using Design Strategies
    24. 24. © 2010 Proprietary 24© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 24 Harness Inertia Take advantage of choice architecture to make some smart “default” choices for people and let them alter or opt out as applicable.
    25. 25. © 2010 Proprietary 26 Design Strategies Enable Personalization Enable Goal Setting Enable Reflection Cultivate Belonging Enable Competition and Comparison Scaffold Success/Manage Failure Understand Context Play Against Loss
    26. 26. © 2010 Proprietary 27© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 27 Enable Personalization People expect to have control over their experience Generic experiences don’t give people a sense of autonomy or belonging.
    27. 27. © 2010 Proprietary 28© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 28 Enable Personalization
    28. 28. © 2010 Proprietary 29© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 29 Enable Goal Setting Give tools to set meaningful, personal goals Connect choices with the outcome
    29. 29. © 2010 Proprietary 30© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 30 Enable Goal Setting
    30. 30. © 2010 Proprietary 31© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 31 Enable Reflection Give people rich, visual feedback of their actions correlated to outcomes Help them understand actions and how they affect the goal
    31. 31. © 2010 Proprietary 32© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 32 Enable Reflection
    32. 32. © 2010 Proprietary 33© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 33 Cultivate Belonging
    33. 33. © 2010 Proprietary 34© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 34 Enable Competition and Comparison People understand their level of mastery in relation to others People belong to a community or group and need visibility into that group Competition is sticky. www.delmarva.com
    34. 34. © 2010 Proprietary 35© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 35 Enable Competition and Comparison
    35. 35. © 2010 Proprietary 36© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 36 Scaffold Success/Manage Failure To support mastery, people need an environment that “grows with them” Enable mid-process “wins” when working towards a final goal Avoid dispiriting failures.
    36. 36. © 2010 Proprietary 37© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 37 Scaffold Success/Manage Failure
    37. 37. © 2010 Proprietary 38© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 38 Understand Context Take into account time and location  Context Aware Medication Prompting project  Consider the best time/place for a reminder  Enable GPS and accelerometer to determine place and “busyness”
    38. 38. © 2010 Proprietary 39© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 39 Understand Context
    39. 39. © 2010 Proprietary 40© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 40 Play Against Loss People are motivated to avoid loss more than the promise of gaining more Loss of health – imminent, not 40 years down the road Give a consequence for failure
    40. 40. © 2010 Proprietary 41© 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 41 Play Against Loss
    41. 41. © 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 42 Recap
    42. 42. © 2010 Proprietary 43 The Pillars Survival & Safety Autonomy Fun Belonging Mastery
    43. 43. © 2010 Proprietary 44 The Design Strategies
    44. 44. © 2010 Proprietary & Confidential 45 Interactive Exercises
    45. 45. © 2010 Proprietary 46 Exercise: Group 1 The Client 1. How can you motivate positive change? 2. What key data would be needed to affect behavior? 3. Develop a research plan using the design guidelines: what would the team need to learn? A teleconferencing company Reduce travel and increase teleconferencing Frequent fliers ages 30-60 The TargetThe Goal
    46. 46. © 2010 Proprietary 47 Exercise: Group 2 The Client 1. How can you motivate positive change? 2. What key data would be needed to affect behavior? 3. Develop a research plan using the design guidelines: what would the team need to learn? Morgan Stanley Smith Barney Teach financial responsibility, increase savings Recent college grads The TargetThe Goal
    47. 47. © 2010 Proprietary 48 Exercise: Group 3 The Client 1. How can you motivate positive change? 2. What key data would be needed to affect behavior? 3. Develop a research plan using the design guidelines: what would the team need to learn? Therapeutic Associates Help people maintain a regimen and regain range of motion by using a program and equipment Weekend warriors age 30-50 The TargetThe Goal
    48. 48. © 2010 Proprietary 49 Thanks! Gretchen Anderson Design Director, Punchcut @gretared // punchcut.com Janna Kimel Chief Experience Officer, third brain studio @third_brain // thirdbrainstudio.com

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