`mowtuveyshunThe psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal, the reason for the action: that which gives purpose and direction to behavior --www.hyperdictionary.com Antonym: Deter, Prevent
What do we focus on?• Love• Money• Power• Success
Motivational Theory• Choice T heory • Self-Determination• Belonging Theory• Power • Autonomy• Freedom • Competence• Fun • Relatedness• – Edward Deci and Survival Richard Ryan – Dr. William Glasser
What motivates us?• Goals – Stop smoking, fit into a dress at a wedding, being fit• Rewards – $10 for every A on your report card• Guilt – I promised my roommate that I would clean• Positive language – “ you do that so well!” encourages us to do “ it” gain• Social factors – Meeting a buddy at the gym or running track
Philosophical History• Plato (427-347 BC) • Descartes – Body as a distraction, the – Mind is not attached to enemy in pursuit of? the body or physical • Hunger, thirst, sex drive, world sleep, pain – We can only be certain • Death as release from of our own thoughts bodily limitations
Philosophical History• Husserl (1859-1938) • Merleau-Ponty (1901-1961) – Life world in embodied – Body in the world, how experience, not just does it fit? abstract – Body as mediator – Physical world between internal and external experience
Cues to State of Being• Internal • External – The mind – The physical body • Thoughts, feelings, past • What it looks like tells experience, pain, pleasure others something of our – What we tell others state • Attempt to share our – What we tell others experience of the world • Attempt to share our experience of the world
Wearables & EmbodimentA long-range vision, she says, is full sensoryinteraction: "The wearable computer utilizesall your senses for both input and output, andthat interaction modality is able to configureand change on the fly according to the usersneeds and context.“ –Francis Gemperle, Institute for Complex Engineered Systems.
Embodied Interaction Smart Electrode, Tunde Kirstein The aim of the project is to develop new surface stimulating electrodes that are embedded into garments or gloves and can provide electrical stimulation pulses to different areas of the skin without replacing the electrodes. Use: contract paralyzed muscles of spinal cord injured and stroke subjects in order to generate or improve lost motor function, e.g. for walking or hand grasp.Interactive Motion Technologies,Cambridge, MAPatients using the robot have shown twicethe functional improvement, on standardclinical scales, as patients givenconventional therapy, over the sametreatment periods. And they continue tomake progress in treatment programsmonths or years after the stroke.
Embodied InteractionSmart Jacket: Lucy Vibrotactile ShoulderDunne pads: Lucy Dunne Illustrates concepts ofThe sporty pewter- and integration ofsilver-colored jacket uses technology byembedded sensors that developing pre-regulate an electro- existing garment realconductive textile in the estate (volumes builtupper back to keep the into garments forwearer warm. It also has aesthetic reasons) toelectro-luminescent wires minimize outwardthat light up the jacket at appearance, socialnight, and a physiological weight, andmonitor on the left wrist physiologicalcuff to monitor pulse and discomfort caused byheart rate. embedded electronics.
Computational InteractionXerox ParcPortholesShared spacereveals who isdoing what work.Knowing the personin the cubicle downthe road from you isworking on aparticular projectmay motivate youto do the same.
Discussion• Further thoughts on motivation?• If: – Phenomology suggests we process action, perception, thought – Platonic theory suggests we process perception, thought, action ….which theory best represents human motivation to exercise?