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  • Carbon fixation occurs in the stroma, the fluid surrounding the thylakoids
  • Photosynthesis

    1. 1. Photosynthesis<br />Lauren Dever, Madison Devine<br />Lauren Kissel, and Anna Moloney<br />
    2. 2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />The conversion of light energy to chemical energy<br />Stored in glucose or other organic compounds<br />Occurs in plants, algae, and other prokaryotes<br />
    3. 3. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Photosynthesis involves the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. <br />The process uses light energy and simple inorganic substances such as CO2 and H2O to produce organic compounds<br />
    4. 4. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Light from the sun is composed of a range of wavelengths (colors)<br />Plants are photoautotrophs, organisms that use light as a source of energy to synthesize organic substances <br />
    5. 5. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Pigments that absorb all colors except blue appear blue because his part of the sunlight is not absorbed<br />The blue light is reflected and can pass into our eye, to be perceived by cells in the retina<br />A white or transparent substance does not absorb visible light<br />Pigments that absorb all of the light appear black <br />
    6. 6. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Photosynthesis is only able to occur in wavelengths that chlorophyll can absorb<br />Shorter wavelengths have more energy, this leads to higher rates of photosynthesis<br />Medium wavelengths (green) have the lowest rate of photosynthesis <br />
    7. 7. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Chlorophyll is the<br />main photosynthetic <br />pigment<br />Chlorophyll is the<br />green pigment located<br />within chloroplasts<br />
    8. 8. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br /> ATP and hydrogen are used to fix carbon dioxide to make organic molecules<br />The conversion of carbon dioxide into solid or liquid carbon compounds is called carbon fixation <br />
    9. 9. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />The three limiting factors of photosynthesis are light intensity, temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration <br />They can all affect the rate at which a plant goes through photosynthesis if they are below the optimal level<br />There is only one limiting factor at a time and they change throughout the process of photosynthesis<br />
    10. 10. The Effect of Temperature<br />
    11. 11. The Intensity of Light<br />
    12. 12. The Effect of Carbon Dioxide Concentration<br />
    13. 13. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />The various structures<br /> in the chloroplast are<br /> highly visible in this<br /> electron micrograph <br /> image<br />This is where <br /> photosynthesis occurs<br />
    14. 14. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Chloroplasts have such characteristics as<br />A double membrane called the chloroplast envelope<br />A complex system of internal membranes known as thylakoids<br />Small spaces of fluid inside the thylakoids<br />Fluid surrounding the thylakoids known as stroma<br />
    15. 15. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Photosynthesis consists of two different parts of reactions, light- dependent and light- independent <br />Light- dependent reactions involve the production of ATP<br />Light- independent reactions involve the production of glucose, known as the Calvin cycle <br />However, they are a result of the light- dependent reactions so they are indirectly dependent on light <br />
    16. 16. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Light energy is used to produce ATP and to split water molecules (photolysis) to form oxygen and hydrogen<br /> - The light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll<br />Light- dependent reactions produce ATP by means of photophosphorylation<br />The light absorbed takes the form of electrons in the thylakoids <br />
    17. 17. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br /> The process begins in Photosystem II, it then proceeds to the electron transport carrier, and then to the ATP synthase<br />A proton concentration gradient forms in the thylakoid membrane helping to create ATP<br />In cell respiration, this is known as chemiosmosis<br />
    18. 18. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Photosystem I produces NADPH which is used in the light- independent reactions<br />The chlorophyll absorb light and raise one electron to a high energy level, called photoactivation<br />The electron is connected to the electron chain from Photosystem II and used to reduce NADP+<br />Cyclic photophosphorylation<br />
    19. 19. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />
    20. 20. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />Carbon fixation and carbohydrate synthesis are light- independent reactions, these are known as the Calvin cycle<br /> Carbon fixation produces glycerate- 3- phosphate, a three- carbon compound<br />The carbon dioxide mixes with ribulosebiphosphate, a 5- carbon compound to create glycerate- 3- phosphate <br />
    21. 21. PHOTOSYNTHESIS<br />For a carbohydrate to be produced, hydrogen has to be added to the glycerate- 3- compound, ATP and NADPH are needed for this to occur<br />The result of this reaction is a three- carbon sugar called triose phosphate <br />The triose phosphate is used to regenerate RuBP<br />This cycle is called the Calvin cycle <br />
    22. 22. BIBLIOGRAPHY<br /><br /><br /><br />