What is infra structure? The domestic fish marketing system in India is neither efficient nor modern and is mainly carried out by private traders with a large no. of inter mediaries between producers and consumers. These by reducing the fisherman’s share in consumers rupee. Physical facilities and infra structure in all types of fish markets are far from satisfactory. Infrastructures are common facilities enjoyed by a person or community as a whole.• Physical infrastructure include 2,244 landing centers ,primary markets,6-major fishery harbors and 28 minor harbors.
Infra structures are classified into…….1. Physical infra structure facilities in primary markets.2. Infra structure facilities in the distribution system.
Marketing infra structures…1. Infra structure for storage.2. Infra structure for transportation.3. Infra structure for assembling and selling.4. Infra structure for distribution.5. Infra structure for market linked communication.6. For drying facilities.7. For cleaning facilities.8. For grading and standardization facilities.
Market linked communications Market linked up with road ways, river ways, rail ways and air ways. Attract large number of producers to come up with their product for sale.Assembling facilities Presently there are 7 major fishing harbors,61 minor fishing harbors,1376 fish landing centers are available in India. Covered auction platform protect the produces from natural disasters. These provide facilities for display, storage, distribution etc. Which facilitating better marketing.
Drying facilities Fishes having less moisture content get premium in price fixation. It includes drying yard, modern drying equipments, machines etcCleaning facilities Clean product always attract buyers ,thus getting better market price. Other than manual cleaning some mechanical cleaning devices are available.
Grading and standardization facilities Done by eye estimation ,by considering the shape and size, healthy and non healthy, bright and fed etc..Packaging facilities Normally plastic bags are used. It is necessary to ensure the availability of low cost packaging technology and packaging material.
Storage facilities It avoid wastage and quality deterioration and help to retain the product till the market of favorable price. There are about 484 cold storages present in India mainly under the authority of fisheries cooperation. The total capacity amounts to about 1,08,800 tones and 216 other storages with a capacity of 11,500 tones.
Transportation facilities It start from farm gate to market yard. It include refrigerated van, railway wagons, public carriers et . It is mainly under the authority of state government, central government.Facility for weighing Proper grading is one of the ingredient of receiving due price.
Infrastructure for market price dissemination Complete knowledge of marketing information help the farmers to arrive at a decision for selling of his product. It help in future planning of marketing of products both at personal level and state level.• It can done by using display boards, news papers, all India radio,doordarshan etc.
Selling and distribution facilities Distribution include wholesale market, retail market, venders etc.. Majority of these markets are owned by co operative or panchayat.• There are 20 organized retail market present in India.• These are classified into
Wholesale market• Fish handled by wholesale market in India range from 1 tones to 100 tones.• Most wholesale market where very old ,unhygienic, without proper facilities for handling fish and with limited or no facilities for cold/chilled storage and ice plants.• The poor fish handling at the wholesale market result in poor quality of fish with low keeping quality.
Retail market• Retail fish market are miniature of wholesale markets in our country; the variation being in size of the market in terms of quantity of fish, number of traders facilities, proximity to the consumer etc.• Most retailers where selling fish by the road side without maintenance of quality or hygiene and without access to drinking water and fish dressing platform.• Retail markets where crowded with excess number of traders selling fish even in the passages ,leading to in convenience and hygiene problem.
Fish retail outlet• Retail outlet are fish shops operated by both government bodies and private individuals at consumer friendly location of cities. for eg:NIFHAT fish stall.• The retail outlet were comparatively cleaner and more hygiene than the retail market.• Retail outlet aim to replace the middlemen involved in fish marketing.• It ensures the high returns to fisherman and hygienic fishes to consumers at effortable prices.
• The state government of Kerala, Thamilnadu, Karnataka entered in to the fish retailing industry .In Tamilnadu the Thamilnadu fish developing cooperation Ltd(TNFDC) operates fish retail outlet under the name of “Neidhal”.• In Kerala matsyafed has started a fish retailing outlet under the name of “fresh fish point”.• These retail outlet purchase fish directly from fisherman/fisherman cooperative society and sell to customers at reasonable prices under modern hygienic condition.
Ancillary fish marketing infra structure These are the supporting additional facilities required in a marketing system. It is important for the proper utilization of principal market infra structure.It include parking facilities proper drainage system sewage disposal facility lodging and hoteling facility drinking water facility banking facilities sanitation facility lighting facility
Particulars of the cochin fish harborsand landing centers….particulars details•Location area Cochin, Kerala•Operation details 28 acresNo. of fishing boat 330Main fishing gear used Trawl, gill, long lines and purse seineAverage quantity of fish landed daily 300tonnesMain fish species landed Sardine, mackeral, shrimp, cuttlefish
Continue…..……….•INFRASTRUCTURALFACILITIESWharf area 5 acresIce plants(privately oriented) 12(total capacity of 200 tones)Cold storages(privately oriented) 7(total capacity of 700 tones)Freezing plants(privately oriented) 3Fuel outlets 3Other facilities Marine engine workshop, net repair sheds, rest sheds for crew members, police station ,restaurants,
Infrastructure for fish marketing in Indiaan empirical look • Kolkata and Howrah have 6 fresh fish wholesale market and 3 of them deal in marine fish. except the Howrah fresh fish market all other market are an integral part of retail market. Kolkata municipal cooperation has to 60 retail market and 5000 venders. • In Kerala there are 20 organized retail market, 2 in organized market in cochin. Among these Erklm and kaloor market are biggest in total quantity handled.
Continue……..• In Tuticorin there are 3 organized retail fish markets. In addition there are 43 venders for fresh fish distribution .The max. no. of fish retailers are in the cooperation markets.• Majority of fish market in Andra Pradesh as an integral part of meat and vegetables market and of an avenue by municipal cooperation.• In Tamilnadu there are some week market for the wholesaling of dry fish .now majority of the fish market either wholesale or retail are part of the vegetable or fish market.