GENERAL INFORMATION:- Ribbon fish also known as “Hair-tail” or “Cutlass fish”. It is a leading by-catch species in India. Thin, elongated, compressed, ribbon like body, caudal fin absent, body colour silvery with prominent canine like teeth. Mainly marine, but some time found in the estuary.
Ribbon fish have 4 commercially important Varity (found in Indian water) belonging under the:- Family: Trichiuridae Sub family: Sub family: Sub family: Lepidopodinae Aphanopodinae Trichiurinae Trichiurus lepturus Eupleurogrammus intermedius Lepturacanthus savala E. muticus
Lepturacanthus savala (Large-headed ribbon fish) & Distribution Trichiurus lepturus(ribbon fish) & Distribution
Species Length Size-wt. Environme- Climate Identifying in 1st nt character maturity (cm)Trichiurus 46.3 -47 Max length : Marine; Subtropical •Body extremelylepturus 234 cm (M) brackish; elongate, compressed. benthopelagic •Dorsal fin relatively high. •Dorsal spine 3;soft ray 130-135Eupleurogra- - - ,, - •Dorsal spine 3 & soft ray 123-129.-mmus •Caudal fin absent.intermedius •Snout elongated.Lepturacanth - - ,, - • Lateral line running nearer the ventral than the-us savala dorsal side of the body. • Pelvic and caudal fins absent; anal fin reduced to spinules . •Dorsal spine 3-4 & soft-ray 110 -120E. muticus - - ,, - •Dorsal spine 3& soft ray 139 -147
•Among those 4 commercially important speciesTrichiurus lepturus is important dominating speciesfound throughout east and west coast.Other Non- commercial Species:- Trichiurus gangeticus T.russelli Lepturacanthus serrattus etc.
•Ribbon fish are predacious, carnivorous and some time shows cannibalisticbehavior and selective feeding behavior.•Feeding both during day and night.•Intensity of feeding is not related to the spawning activity. Stage Food Post-larvae and juveniles larvae and Small juvenile (anchovy, clupeoids, carangidae), cephalopods larvae, calanoid copepods, post larvae & larvae of penaeid prawns & shrimps, crabs, acetes etc Adults Commercially important fish and other organisms i.e. Stolephorus spp. Kowala coval, Sardinella spp., Leioggnathus spp., Dussumieria spp., polynemids, Carnax spp., Acetes*, Penaeus & metapenaeus prawns, octopus, squilla*,crab larvae, isopods, Sepia spp., megalopa larvae etc.
On west coast, peak spawning season April- June. But in east coast it is February to June , peak in May. Another is November - December.
Spawning period of different species different. The breeding grounds of ribbonfishes are outside the usual fishing ground; ripe fish, eggs, early embryonic stages and larval forms are not very common in inshore waters. Species No. of spawning batches Time (per year)Eupleurogramous 2 March- April , November &intermedius December.E. muticus 2 ,,Lepturacanthus savala 2 ,,Trichiurus lepturus 1 June(Prabhu,1955) 2 May-june & nov-dec(Tampi et al.1971)
It is varies depending upon species to species. The gonads are bi-lobed & lie above the alimentary canal. Species No. of egg Eupleurogramous intermedius 2249(40.9 cm) – 9950 (45 cm) E. muticus 1327 (49.5 cm)- 2087 (55.1 cm) Lepturacanthus savala 9178(37.0 cm) -17347 (54.0 cm) Trichiurus lepturus 4000 (42.0 cm)- 16000 (60.0 cm) FECUNDITY – FOR DIFFERENT SPECIES OF RIBBON FISH (BAL & RAO, 1984)Bal, D.V and Rao, K.V (1984) Marine Fisheries, 1st Edn., p 469, Tata Mc-GrawHill Publication, New Delhi, India
The age & growth of fish varies depending upon species to species & duration of the year. Male grow less than female for every species. Species Year I YearII Eupleurogramous 20.7 cm (For Male) 31.6 cm (For Male) intermedius 21.5cm(For Female) 34.1cm(For Female) Trichiurus lepturus 18cm (For Male) approx. 30cm(For Male) approx. 21.5cm(For Female) 33.1cm(For Female) approx. approx. Lepturacanthus savala - - E. muticus - -Max. size for E. muticus and Lepturacanthus savala------58.4 cm &56.4 cmrespectivelyBal, D.V and Rao, K.V (1984) Marine Fisheries, 1st Edn., p 469, Tata Mc-GrawHill Publication, New Delhi, India
Major and abundant fishery resource among the marine pelagic fin fishes of the Indian seas. Distribution in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific regions and in India they are distributed all along the coast with abundance in the northwest and central east coasts. In India T. lepturus found both east & west coast--- dominating species. Contributed about 92 -95%. Gujarat, Andhrapradesh, West-bengal, northern Maharastra, south-east cost of Tamilnadu, karnataka, Kerala etc are important landing centre.
The ribbonfish landing in India has shown an increasing trend with considerable annual fluctuations. Average Landing(‘000 tonnes)-Throughout the India YEAR QUANTITY 1961- 1970 28.33 1971- 1980 57.32 1981- 1990 65.28 1991-2000 121.27 2001-2005 153.38•Maximum Landings- 197.11 (2002)•Minimum Landing- 16.45 (1963)•Landing for 2007- 114.12
Basically ribbon fish is a by-catch species. So, it is come with other species…. Gear are used- Trawl net, Dol net, Gill net, Seine net, hook etc. are used throughout the India. In kerala mainly used- Trawl net, Gill net, Seine nets. By using trawl net ribbonfish landed 73- 74% . The gill net, purse seine and others contributed to 15- 16% during the decade 1991-2000. For catch juvenile trawl net, boat seine and ring seine net (mesh size less than 10mm) are used. Gear Amount(%) Year Trawl net 74 1991-2000 Drift Gill net, Boat 16 ,, seine, Shore seine, Purse seine and others
STATE-WISE DISTRIBUTION OF GEAR :- STATE GEAR Andhra Pradesh Trawl net, Gill net, Seine nets Orissa Trawl net, Gill net Karnataka Trawl net, Seine nets Goa Trawl net, Gill net Maharashtra Trawl net, Dol net Gujarat Dol net, Gill net West-bengal Bag net, Trawl net, Gill net
MANAGEMENT:- Ribbon fish is very important species as a by-catch, so for save this species many management options like effort regulation, closed season, closed area, gear regulation, mesh regulation. Intensive approach also seen for ensure good brood stock, for fishery industry.
OTHER FAcTOR:- It has low price in the market, so acceptable for poor people as a food- used as a cheap protein. Dried ribbon fish also use as fish product. Pearl essence formed from the guanine(present in the skin) Frozen & dried fish both are exported China, Japan and other southeast Asian countries.