body is elongate and laterally compressed having a row of scutesalong the ventral edge. Lateral lines is .absent and the scales are deciduous. elongate body which is rounded and not laterally compressed. Abdomen is not keeled and ventral edge of the body is with out scutes.
. .Family :Family : clupeidae dusumeiridae They are seen in the coastal along Arabia,inshore waters along both India, Sri Lanka , MalayanEW coast regions, further archipelago andnorth of cape Comorian, Philippines ..etc.along the entire east coastof India, east coast ofAfrica, Madagascar, Arabia,Malayan archipelago.Australia, Polynesia,Philippines, china, Sri Lanka,red sea, Pakistan.. etc
. Lesser sardines are shoaling fishes, largershoals striking the costal waters seasonally result in quite good catch. This shoaling behavior is advantageous in escape from predators, provide more opportunity for food , and also decrease the energy.
.In lesser sardines the sexual maturity is attained in most of the species is in 1 year. Eggs are pelagic with segmentedyolk and with a single clear oil globule.Usually females are bigger than males.
.In lesser sardine , spawning of an individual fish is a shorter duration comparing to thespecies as a whole. On east coast spawning happens between feb. and lasts till June and peak at Feb. - April. In gulf of manna region Dec -march. In Tuticorin bay it is Oct-Nov. Malabar coast it is April- June. West coast march April to June in pre monsoon period. According to the region , availability of food, and species the time varies
. It has been observed to be 10000 to13000 eggs a female can produce [ fish of 14.6 to 15.5 cm in length]. The gonads are asymmetrical lobes inclupeidae the left lobe larger than rightone. In dussumieridae the right one is larger than left one.
Egg is 1.1-1.56 mm in diameter with an oil .globule. Spawning at about 4.00am and it hatch 2 pm. Just hatched larvae is about 2.3-2.6 mm in length . The eyes, otocyst , heart and the full compliment of myotomes are formed in theembryo . Pigmentation is also developed in the numerous small dark chromatophores.Species differ in having different number of pre anal and post anal myotomes . In 2 or 3 days whole yolk is absorbed.
.Auditory vesicle and vent are well developedand unpaired fin folds had scattered pigment spots.Juveniles are distinguished by the number of post ventral scutés about 1 year the attain maturity.
. .STATE KERALA TAMIL NADU KARNATAK WEST BANGAL A A.PGEAR gill net – gill net – choodai Gill net Drift nets vala Shore seine Chhandi- jal Gill net – chalai Shore seine Drift net Shore seine – ber jal kili vala vala Boat seine – Cast net Shore shore Madi valai seine- Cast valai – pedda seine – veechu valai vala kara val Boat seine boat – iragru vala seine – kolli vala cast net- veesu vala
. In Gujarat bag net is used . Boat seines and gill nets arecommonly used gill nets are of 2 types they are 1. Chooda valai 2. Mathi chala valaiWhen at the peak season catch is large boat seine - paithu vala is used
BOATS masula boat Pablo boat catamaran Dug out canoes ran pani boatmechanised boat [ A.P, T.N,KERALA, KARNATAKA]
Contribution of lesser sardine in all india marine landing – 2.9-7.3%Average annual yield during the landing ~= 7800tIf we analyse a data from 1986-2000 we can see landing Is low with 68267t in 1986 . Production high at 1995 – 128000 t East coast -65% West coast- 35% Tamil nadu ranked first -43% Followed by kerala – 22% Andhra Pradesh – 17%
Karnataka – 6%Along the coastal states of west bangal , orissa and AP.. On the east coast the peak season is nov-aprl- may. .While in the south east coast of TN, pondicherry .. Catches are available almost throghout the yearwest coast in kerala the catches – aug – jan/ feb In karnataka better landing seen in- sep -nov
peak catch – sep- feb along the goa coast. Maharashtra coast – dec- aprilMore than one species contribute to the lesser sardine fishery through out the year Goa ,karnataka coast – s. gibbosa . s . dayi s . fimbriata s. albella Kerala coast – s. gibbosa s. Sindensis s. sirm
Pak bay and gulf of manna – s.albella s. gibbosa Between vizhinjam and tuticorin – s.sirmCentral coast . All most all species are equally caught. .
The Dorab, seer fishes, lactarius and some . of the sciaenids are predate them . Copepod parasite of the genera NOTHOBOMOLOCHUS , CLAVELLISA AND PSUEUDOPETALUS are known to beparasitic on Dussumeiri hasseltii in the gillarches, branchial cavity and buccal cavity.