Microlivestock and livelihood security in Hilly regions of India
Micro-livestock based livelihood options in hill farming systems of Himachal Pradesh : An overview Department of Veterinary and AH Extension Education, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University Palampur
Micro-livestock based livelihood options in hillfarming systems of Himachal Pradesh: an overview
Micro-livestock Species"Micro-livestock" is a term coined for species that are inherently small, such as rabbits and poultry, as well as for breeds of cattle, sheep, goats and pigs that are less than half the size of the most common breeds.(FAO,1992), (Angba et al., 2012 )The present presentation is restricted to two major micro-livestock species i.e. sheep and goat .
Do we know that sheep and goat growth rate has been faster than the major livestock species? Cattle Buffalo Sheep Goat 250Population in million 200 150 100 50 0 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2003 Source: Department of Animal husbandry, Ministry of Agriculture
Last few years showed phenomenal growth in micro- livestock species than the major onesSpecies 2003 2007 Growth rateCattle 185.2 199.1 7.50Buffalo 97.9 105.3 7.58Sheep 61.5 71.6 16.41Goat 124.4 140.5 13.01Pigs 13.5 11.1 -17.65
Mutton (sheep and goat meat ) demand has skyrocketed: Thanks to increasing disposable income and urbanization1412108 Mutton demand6 Mutton Supply420 1993 2000 2010 2020 projected Production in million tonnes Source: NCAP
Among all type of meats average Indian consumer spends maximum on mutton 0.9 Goat Meat 34 Buff./Beef 47.4 Pork Per capita expenditure on meat Chicken consumption is 10.98 Rs per month, out of which a sizeable expenditure Others 14.3 (47.4%) is spent on sheep and goat3.4 meat.Source: Gandhi and Zhou, 2010Australian Agribusiness Review
Consumption led demand of meat/mutton domestic and international markets (Asia, Africa)Source: FAO, 2012
International mutton markets remain untapped opportunity ? Meat Export Value in Rs 1. Meat export from Sheep Million and Goat only 3% of60 53 total meat exported from50 India.40 3830 2. GOI imposed ban on20 17 export citing rising prices 7 9 and unmet domestic100 demand. (SAPPLP 2011) Source: APEDA 2012
Hill and mountains farming systems are suitable for sheep and goat based farming Concentration of Goat population has been in marginal regions (mountainous/rainfed-dryland/deserts) of developing countries (Kumar & Chander, 2004). Microlivestock (Small ruminant )rearing is suitable for semi arid and mountainous regions of India (Draft 12th five year plan, 2012). Goats are found across all agro-climatic zones in the country, with higher densities in irrigated eco-systems, followed by hill and mountain eco-systems (SAPPLP, 2011). Further, sheep rearing is a feature of the arid and semi-arid regions of western India, the Deccan plateau and western Himalayas (SAPPLPP, 2011).
Advantages of Sheep and Goat enterprises in hill farming systems Generally wide adaptation to most environments Suitability to small farm systems Less affected by drought, with no after effects on reproduction Browse fodder and feeds more effectively Use marginal land effectively
Advantages of Sheep and Goat enterprises in integrated farming systems Utilize non-marketable crop residues / grazing areas to generate value- added products (meat, milk, fiber and skins) Dung and urine promote soil fertility.
Micro livestock and Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable agriculture emphasis on resource conserving technology and enterprises. Microlivestock sp. are undemanding in their feeding requirements, easy to house, manage
Have we paid adequate attention to Sheep and goat development ? At the national level, small ruminants account for 14% of the meat output, 4% of the milk output and 15% of hides and skin production in the country. Estimated contribution is 24,000 million per annum in rural economy Paradoxically sheep and goat development receives only a paltry 2.5% of the public spending on livestock sector. Absence of serious goat meat development programmes till date (Working group 12th plan A.H.) Himachal Pradesh context: Goat rearing potential (Chegu, Gaddi) still unharnessed ? (12th five year plan draft, 2012)
CRITICAL ISSUES AND APPROACHES FOR MICRO-LIVESTOCKENTERPRISES(SHEEP AND GOAT) IN SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD SYSTEMS Poor awareness regarding the Knowledge sharing platforms needed importance of small ruminants in the between livelihood system SDAH, Researchers, Veterinary Colleges,forest dept., NGO’s. Improvement in knowledge of AHD staff on understanding on small ruminant production systems Absence /lack of active rearer At village level: Organizing goat organizations rearers into common interest groups (institutionalizing services health care, knowledge transfer, management, credit,insurance through them)Pressure on fodder resource base Regeneration of fodder in common lands. Supplementation through feed (Indo-swiss goat project Rajasthan,Alwar goat project PRADHAN, Semi-intensive Goat production systems in Kerala
CRITICAL ISSUES AND APPROACHES FOR MICRO-LIVESTOCKENTERPRISES(SHEEP AND GOAT) IN SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD SYSTEMS Inadequate veterinary Strengthening primary health care health services services (WASSANExperience, Andhra Pradesh) Interventions like stall feeding and basic knowledge of primary health care (such as de-worming) can raise the body weight substantially(SAPPLPP 2011)Reduced access to credit and Community Managed livestockinsurance insurance of sheep and GoatLack of efficient Contractual agreements betweenmarketing mechanisms farmers and traders/buyers. Pooling and dissemination of market information/ Establishing Rural abatoirs
This business of goats -Sometimes it flourishes,Sometimes it yields only ahandful of chickpeas,And sometimes even that isdenied.