Itc infrastructure


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Itc infrastructure

  1. 1. A Technical Report Published inIEEE conference- by Prof. Devendra Nath Pani 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONNow a day’s proliferation of telecommunication technology is at peak level. Generation aftergeneration, new invention in communication sector is getting better and better towardsoptimized sharpening results and susceptible of handling threats. As the development of newtechnology and its implementation in various authoritative sectors, the risk factor for threat isvery high. So this is a very critical issue to handle the various threats came from any aspects.Information and Communications Technologies abbreviated as ICT from the last two decadehas leading to various sector like telecommunications and broadcasting, computing.Interdependency caused ICT infrastructure to more sensitive. Transport and Finance EXPLORATORY EXPLORATORY Logistics OF OF TECHNOLOGY Economics ECONOMY Smart Cities ICT Supply Chains INNOVATION Energy ACCELERATOR IT Network and Communication EXPLORATORY EXPLORATORY OF SOCIETY OF ENVIRONMENT Climate Health Change Resilience Environmental Changes Well-Being Water Natural Disasters Demography Migration Natural and Renewable Resources Conflict War Crime Corruption (ICT: A Typical structure) 2
  3. 3. THE ICT INFRASTRUCTUREThe environment of ICT is very complex and having many aspects causing positive as well asnegative effect in environmental property. An interconnected ICT infrastructure model is givenbelow. ICT INFRASTRUCTURE ENERGY TRANSPORT COMMUNICAIONS WATER CLIMATE THREATS ADAPTIONS INTERDEPENDENCIES SHARED VULNERABILITY (A typical interconnected ICT environmental structure)For the ICT infrastructure there are some basic requirements, those are: Good quality Broadband availability. Wi-Fi of wide bandwidth must available. Secured Fiber network for high speed data transmission. 3
  4. 4. Very good infrastructure for digital industries. To avoid threat there must be security for server. Persistence in Infrastructure to protest the threats comes from climate change.CLIMATE THREAT TO ICT IN COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTUREClimate change has a huge impact throughout the ICT infrastructure due to its sensitivenature. The entire Communication system is based on the principle of transferring andreceiving signals in various ways. The Communication system is interconnected with eachand every sector of ICT infrastructure. If there is one system found faulty then the whole ICTinfrastructure comes to a situation of jeopardy. Climate change encourages increasing thethreats like cyber attack. So it is very important to identify and fix the fault before ICTundergoes such situation [Ref 7].There are various ways of effect of climate and broadly categorized in two classes [Ref 7]: 1. Fast acting direct issue. (Flood and cyclone are the kind of fast acting direct issue which has direct impact on the infrastructure.) 2. And Slow acting direct issue.There are several threats due to climate change that can put the ICT sector in jeopardy. Thosethreats are as below:  Cyclone or high speed wind can damage telephone terminals, which damage the wired ICT infrastructure.  Variation in rain with heavier density can be a reason to attenuation and fading of Wi- Fi signal and mobile signal.  The Ground heave can have an effect on grounded cables. 4
  5. 5.  As wind speed and direction (velocity) varies significance for the stability of high elevation communications platforms.  Building design can be a cause of interrupt wireless communication, for example silvered windows disrupt mobile communications.  Changes in growth of plant could have an impact over interrupted wireless communication.  Changes in atmospheric condition such as humidness could be a cause of gain troposphere scintillation and disturbance [Ref 8].  Some ICT components are made up of rare earth metals; the deficit of those rare physical resources is responsible for the threat due to climate change. The rare metals are used to develop and deploy the equipment of ICT.  Satellite communication is affected by solar storm, although this is not a result of climate change. ICT Climate ChangeAttenuation,damage wired IT Network and High speed wind, Rainconnection, damage density, Ground heave Communicationgrounded cable Wired, Wireless and Interconnected Exploratories and ICT Optical fibre Platforms 5
  6. 6. Now a day’s ICT sectors is becoming more sustainable because most businesses andindividuals are dependent on continuous ICT coverage. Rather it is now a question whether itis sustainable critical situation, because it is not 100% under such risk factors occurred duringclimate change. The system resilience is preponderantly driven towards the business purposeaction to assert good service. There should be a cost effectiveness of the total network to berobust for commercial justification rather it is necessary to motivate the investor for thenetwork infrastructure to focus on its 100% faultless services.In ICT infrastructure the devices used by the end-user day to day is refreshed rapidly, but thechange in climate is quite slow than network element change rate makes this sector verydifferent from others. If one system fails then there is more number of diverse systems toprovide backup in the infrastructure. To get better efficiency in ICT infrastructure the degreeof diversity should be reduced.There should be a minimum resolution distance depending on the vulnerability andgeographical location, for example 50km range of resolution could be most powerful andsusceptible to risk assessments. Climate change varies at different location, so there is avariation in resolution range.The information regarding climate change and forecasting of weather events, provided byICT is a huge advantage of the infrastructure. 6
  7. 7. ADAPTIONSICT IN MOBILE PHONE COVERAGE AND ENHANCED DATA SERVICESThe wireless network plays a major role in ICT infrastructure make the system robust. Theuser of mobile phone in both the urban as well as rural are increasing day by day results abetter coverage all over the network. Mobile phone use as a part of ICT infrastructure canhelp poor people to know and understand important information about health and weather.ICT encourages people to use mobile phones for multiple purposes and provide sharp andclear coverage. Sending and receiving data through wireless media is increasingly adopted ineach and every sector. In 2G and 3G mobile technology there are various services providedsuch as messaging, video calling and image transfer-all are part of mobile data services [Ref12]. Important information sending through message, using internet by mobile phone makesthe ICT service more robust so that one can access mails everywhere in its coverage area.The enhanced mobile data service offering network management service and hosting to makebetter performance of users IT system by high efficiency. Dependency of mobile data serviceis greater than wired data service as there is a climate change like cloudy sky, the broadcastcould be interrupted.. 7
  8. 8. ICT IN MACHINE TO MACHINE SYSTEMS (M2M)The interconnection between physical world such as actuator network and remote sensornetwork creates a machine-to-machine system in the ICT network. This M2M (Machine-to-Machine) system enable devices and implementation in the Infrastructure makes the total ICTinfrastructure like a remote control network [Ref 2]. The remote control of the network is aprocedure of activity like receiving and sending information, processing the information andif required then it can store the necessary information also.The software and hardware part of M2M system is integrated to do some specific operationlike collection of information then processing it, transmit the required information afterprocessing. There is no human involved in the process of M2M system [ref 4].In M2M system, there is various programming are planning and developing it for available itany time anywhere (ubiquitous) usage. 8
  9. 9. INTERDEPENDENCIES-A SYSTEM APPROACH TO VARIOUS EXISTING COMMUNICATION SECTORSInterconnecting all the major important sectors and integrating them with links is verynecessary. Such integrated arrangements like banking, airport, rail road and other governmentsectors have been robust by the help of telecommunication sector.Continuous supply of electricity is absolutely necessary for ICT infrastructure. In all wirelessnetwork and wired network the exchange have a battery backup of two hours [Ref 6]. Thisproves the ICT infrastructure is susceptible to threat in situation like flooding, severeweather. Power supply is affected by flood and so mobile network, thus causing vulnerable tobroadcasting.Bad weather can causing problem for engineer to enter wrong destination. In the comingyears ICT infrastructure will be more comprehensive and complex network, become harder toidentify and resolve the faults.The discontinuity of power supply creates a very complex situation in the energy sector ofICT Infrastructure as a result the smart metering is dependent on this issue. Operations ofantennae are affected by in heavy rain and flood.In future year dependency will be more between Energy sectors, power network such assmart meter and smart grids. Cloud computing will encourages increased homework in ICTinfrastructure and more homework will reduce the pressure from transport network withgrowing data traffic [Ref 5].Substantially, it will be the matter of population distribution, usage of power and water,finally emission of carbon. 9
  10. 10. Threat: Electromagnetic emission, nuclear Threat: Climate radiation. Change: Flood, High wind ICT Infrastructure Communication System Wired Wireless Optical fibreINTERDEPENDENCIES BETWEEN WIRED AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONIn wired communication, signal is transmitted by means of a copper cable. Speed of datatransmission is more in wired communication, because the carrier signals are transmittingthrough a cable wire. It is very effective use in business sectors.Radio signals are communicating between source and destination in wireless communication.There are many workstations in the wireless network having various types of antenna andtransceiver to receive and transmit radio signals. AM, FM, radio signals are part of wirelesscommunication which provide interdependency between various activities in theInfrastructure of ICT. Sensor technology in wireless communication deals a vital role tostrengthen the defense sectors [Ref 12].Wireless telephone can reaches to the rural Infrastructure area and put a big impact on ruralICT in different ways, that are: 10
  11. 11. Easy to access Information. Correct the market inefficiencies. Providing disaster relief communication Infrastructure. Providing useful information about Education and health. In the sector where electromagnetic emission could cause a disaster, for example nuclear reactor can always have a threat from electromagnetic emission generated by using wireless equipments. Oil pipeline and gas pipeline should be kept away from electromagnetic emission. To overcome the situation of tragedy from nuclear fission and explosion from gas pipeline or oil pipeline fiber communication is the secured communication to those sectors of ICT [Ref 1].OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONThere are several advantages of optical fiber communication in ICT sector rather that wiredor wireless communication, few of those are: Enormous bandwidth by total internal reflection with negligible loss. Due to small size and weight easily transportable. Not susceptible to electromagnetic interference and cross talk. Secured transmission of signal due to no significant radiation. Very reliable and easy to maintain rather any electrical conductor. 11
  12. 12. Category/Sectors Dependencies on Dependencies on Dependencies Impact on Infrastructure ICT Sector Climate and on neighbor’s Population ICT (overseas system)Communications In Communication Statistical changes Being a For control system manySector Sector for all and user behaviour global system sectors progressively services energy affects ICT ICT sector dependent on ICT, needed; So Infrastructure. has many For sensing and communication is Example: increased dependencies Coverage the ICT dependency on home working. on other infrastructure increasingly Energy Sector. country. dependent. In communications controlling by command on a battlefield of a very highly sophisticated like in Army is much more dependence on Electronic Warfare. It proves our vulnerability to enemy as well as dependency of communicator. Spread spectrum technology with high band- width is used in this sector for high security. Between this bandwidth different FM ranges are used to sustain the bandwidth with direct sequence spread spectrum [Ref 11]. In a situation where enemy deliberately attempt to intervene with the communication of Army is made by incorrect electronic components, to avoid this issue advance technology with EMC is used [Ref 11]. 12
  13. 13. The interdependencies of different type of communication system such as wired, wireless andfiber network in ICT infrastructure access is as below. ICT Infrastructure Access ICT-Bundled ICT-Enabled ICT-Shared Infrastructure Infrastructure Infrastructure Fiber Communication ICT Wired Communication Wireless Sharing Network Infrastructure Using Power Lines Facilities for ICT Roads+ Power Grid+ Wired Communication Network Sharing Fiber/Telephone cables Fiber/Telephone cables by Power Line Railway roads+ Water Lines+ Broad over Power Line Base Station Sharing Fiber/Telephone cables Fiber/Telephone cables Sewerage Lines+ Oil Pipeline+ Wireless Capacity- Fiber/Telephone cables Fiber/Telephone cables Sharing Satellite Capacity- Gas Pipeline+ Multiple Utilities+ Fiber/Telephone cables Fiber/Telephone cables Sharing Interdependencies of Wired, Wireless and Fiber Communication in ICT Infrastructure 13
  14. 14. STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN FOR THE SITUATIONImplementation of action plan is expected by developing new probabilistic methodology tothe ever-changing climate condition and the issue rooted from complex engineeringinfrastructure. The actions needed are:  Share the infrastructure between all communication medium, in situation one system stops working others are ready to use.  In flood situation, wired communication is in hazard but wireless communication is ok. So place the base station and substation in a comparatively height place and should be connected to the power line.  Backup battery of the exchange should be recharged by solar or wind.  Undergrounded fiber cable could avoid the situation made by high wind or tornado.CONCLUSIONIn ICT infrastructure the devices used by the end-user day to day is refreshed rapidly, but theclimate change is quite slow than network element change rate makes this sector verydifferent from others. If one system fails then there is more number of diverse systems toprovide backup in the infrastructure. The information regarding climate change andforecasting of weather events, provided by ICT is a huge advantage of the infrastructure.Pure commercial outsourcing that lift worries over security, reliability and accessibility ofcapacity coupled with the high costs and relatively slow deployment. If there is barrier in thesignal transferring medium then it affects the total system. The barrier is like signal jamming,trapping or any technical fault occurred during transmission of signal wave. Jamming andtrapping a signal in high bandwidth range is a type of threat from enemy or fraud. ICT sectors 14
  15. 15. can be more efficient and better tolerance to the ever changing climate by good planning andintelligent designing.REFERENCES 1. “We will create a presumption in favour of sustainable development in the planning system.” affairs/ 2. M2M Evolution, "Syniverse Expands Clients Base; Signs Multi-Year Deal with M2M Provider Numerex," October 4, 2010 3. Remote Site & Equipment Management, “Redefining Green Technology: Enabling Smart Controllers for Water Conservation,” August/September 2010 4. M2M Evolution, “Numerex Enables DIY Vehicle Monitoring,” September 13, 2010 5. Hargroves K. C. and Smith H. (Eds.). (2005). The National Advantage of Nations: Business Opportunities, Innovation and Governance in the 21st Century. Section 3: The regulatory measure response. London: Sterling, VA, (182-188). 6. Markle Foundation. Creating a Development Dynamic. 2.2.5 ICT for the Environment. United Nations Development Programme. Final report of the digital opportunity initiative. July 2001, from 7. Sands P. (2003). Principles of International Environmental Law (2nd Ed.). Cambridge University Press. (200-211). 8. The UK Climate Change projections use 30-year periods, designated by the middle decade (i.e. the 2020s refers to the period 2010-2039). 9. 10. Principles of Electronic Communication Systems 3rd Edition – Frenzel – McGraw- Hill (2009) 15
  16. 16. 11. EMC for Product Designers - Tim Williams12. Radio Communication 2nd Edition – D C Green – Longman (2000) 16