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This presentation cross-cuts the four workshop themes and explains a method for measuring urbanization and its impacts in relation to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which aim to reduce poverty by 50% 2000- 2015 and create pro-poor and healthy cities. The UN-Habitat Global Urban Observatory identifies five indicators for this: water, sanitation, living space, safe housing, and tenure. It is often assumed that urban mirrors economic growth, but while there has been poverty reduction in Asia (especially China) 1990-2010, this has not been the case in Africa, where, in many places, 70% or more of urban populations live in slums. Measurements of income inequality show serious disparities especially in many African cities, Johannesburg being particularly unequal. While the rich benefit from urban growth, the poor and women generally do not. The urban poverty observatory in Angola funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has identified that, in terms of coverage and access to housing and urban services, affordability is the key determining factor.