TYPES OF MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION
SOURCES OF BIOCATALYSTS AND TECHNIQUES FOR
PROCEDURE FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION
• Biotransformation is a process by which organic compunds are transferred from
one form to another ,aided by organisms such as bacteria,fungi and enzymes.
• This mechanism has been developed by microbes to acclimatize to
environmental changes & it is useful in a wide range of biotechnological
• The most significant aspect of biotransformation is that it maintains the original
carbon skeleton after obtaining the product.
Biotransformation is of 2 types:
I. Enzymatic :-elimination is the biotransformation occur due to various
enzymes present in the body.
II. Non-enzymatic:-for highly active.
Enzymatic are further devided in to 2 types
a. Microsomal :-caused by enzymes present within the lipophilic membranes of
b. Non-mirosomal:-involves the enzyme which are present within the
Microbial biotransformation is widely used in the transformation of various
pollutants or a large variety of compounds including hydrocarbons,pharmaceutical
substances and metals.
TYPES OF MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION/BIOCONVERSION
Chemically these transformations can be grouped under the following
Formation of new C=C double bond,Introduction of functional group.
For centuries MBT has proved to be an imperative tool in alleviating the
production of various chemicals used in food,agrochemical and other
SOURCES OF BIOCATALYSTS AND TECHNIQUES FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION
• Growing cells
• Resting cells
• Killed cells
• Immobilized cells
• Cell-free extract
• Enzymes and immobilized enzymes
MICROBIAL CELLS ARE IDEAL CHOICE FOR
BIOTRANSFORMATION DUE TO
CERTAIN REASONS LIKE:
I. Surface-volume ratio: Microbial biotransformation has high
II. Growth Rate: Higher growth rate of microbial cells reduces
the time of biomass transformation.
III. Metabolism Rate: Higher rate of the metabolism in microbes leads to
efficient transformation of substrate.
IV. Sterility: It is easier to maintain sterile conditions when microbes are
PROCEDURE FOR BIOTRANSFORMATION
• The desired cells are cultivated in a suitable medium.
• As the growth of the cell occurs(6-24hours),a concentrated substrate is
added to the culture.
• Sometimes addition of emulsifiers (Tween,organic solvents)is required to
solubilize substrate or products.
• In some steroid transformation the substrate is added and converted in
fine crystalline form.
• For the biotransformation of lipophilic materials it is possible to
employ a polyphase system. The aqueous phase containing the cell
material or the enzyme is overlayed with the water immisible fluid
phase in which the substrate has been dissolved.
• Biotransformation is the basis of life.
• Biotransformation is good to handle the environmental problems like
degradation of xenobiotics and petroleum hydrocarbons as they are
real world problem. Therefore, based on the present review, it may
be concluded that microbial biotransformation is a boon for the
current world with its wide range of applications.
Hong, Y., and Gu, J. D. (2009). Biotransformation of
bacteria. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation,
Duetz, W. A., Bouwmeester, H., Van Beilen, J. B., and
Witholt (2003). Biotransformation by bacteria. Applied
microbiology and biotechnology, 61(4): 269-277.
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• Dr.Yashaswi nayak ,HoD and Dean SoAs.
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