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Rechargeable Batteries
Presented by
Devansh Gupta
M.ScPolymer Science
Semester 1
Contents
Introduction
Why Do We Need Batteries?
Electrodes & Electrolytes
Brief History About Batteries
Types Of Battery
What If We Use Conducting Polymer In
Rechargeable Batteries
Safety Issues
Reference
Introduction
Battery Is Nothing But A Device Which Converts Stored
Chemical Energy Into Electrical Energy.
It Is Made Up Of Two Electrodes (Anode & Cathode) And
Electrolyte Solution.
Here Oxidation & Reduction Reactions Are
Simultaneously Happens Between These Two Electrodes,
Which Create The Current Flow.
When A Battery Is Supplying Current, It’s +Ve
Terminal Is Denoted As ‘Cathode’ & It’s –Ve
Terminal Is Denoted As ‘Anode’
Symbol of battery
ina circuit diagram
WhyDo We Need Batteries?
Electrodes & Electrolytes
Cathode
– Positive terminal
– Electrochemical reduction occurs (gain electrons)
Anode
– Negative terminal
– Electrochemical oxidation occurs (lose electrons)
Electrolytes
– Allow Ions to move between electrodes and terminals
– Allows Current to flow out of the battery to perform
work
BriefHistory About Batteries
 In 1749, Benjamin Franklin first used the term “battery” to
describe a set of linked capacitors he used for his experiments
with electricity.
 In 1800, Alessandro Volta invented the first true battery,
which came to know as the voltaic pile.
 The voltaic pile consist a pair of silver and zinc discs placed
on each other which is separated by a layer of cloth soaked in
brine (Brine as Electrolyte) Unlike the Leyden Jar, the voltaic
pile produced a stable & continuous current, and lost little
charge over time when not in use.
 Early models of voltaic pile can’t produce strong current to
generate sparks.
C o n t i n u e d
1800 Voltaic Pile: Silver Zinc
1836 Daniell Cell: Copper Zinc
1859 Planté: Rechargeable Lead-acid Cell
1868 Leclanché: Carbon Zinc Wet Cell
1888 Gassner: Carbon Zinc Dry Cell
1898 Commercial Flashlight, D Cell
1899 Junger: Nickel Cadmium Cell
1946 Neumann: Sealed Ni-Cd
1960 Alkaline, Rechargeable Ni-Cd
1970 Lithium, Sealed Lead Acid
1990 Nickel metal hydride (NiMH)
1991 Lithium ion
1992 Rechargeable alkaline
1999 Lithium ion polymer
Voltaic Pile
TypesOf Battery
 Basically batteries can be classifieds as two types as
primary batteries and secondary batteries.
Primary Battery(disposable)
 In primary batteries, the electrochemical reaction is not
reversible.
Used when long periods of storage are required.
During discharging the chemical compounds are
permanently changed and electrical energy is released
until the original compounds are completely exhausted.
Lower discharge rate than secondary batteries.
Thus the cells can be used only once.
Examples Of Primary Batteries
Zinc Carbon – Used in flashlights, toys
Heavy Duty Zinc Chloride – Used in radios,
recorders
Alkaline – Used in all of the above
Lithium – Used in photoflash
Silver Mercury Oxide – Used in Hearing
aid, watches, calculators
Zinc Carbon Battery
 This kind of batteries are generally used in flashlights and toys
Chemistry
Zinc (-ve), Manganese Dioxide (+ve)
Zinc Chloride and Ammonium Chloride paste as
electrolyte
Features
+ Inexpensive, widely available.
– Inefficient at high current drain.
– Poor discharge curve (sloping).
– Poor performance at low temperatures.
Zinc Carbon Battery
Heavy Duty Zinc Chloride Batteries
 This kind of batteries are generally used in radios and recorders.
Chemistry
 Zinc (-ve), manganese dioxide (+ve)
 Zinc chloride aqueous electrolyte
Features (compared to Zinc Carbon)
+ Better resistance to leakage.
+ Better at high current drain.
+ Better performance at low temperature.
Alkaline Batteries
 This kind of batteries are generally used in toys, radios, recorders
and flashlights.
Chemistry
Zinc (-ve), manganese dioxide (+ve)
Potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolyte
Features
+ 50-100% more energy than carbon zinc
+ Low self-discharge (10 year shelf life)
± Good for low current (< 400mA), long-life use
– Poor discharge curve
Alkaline Battery
Secondary Battery(Rechargeable)
In secondary batteries, the electrochemical reaction is
reversible.
Used when short periods of storage are required.
During discharging the chemical compounds which are
changed can be reconstituted by the application of an
electrical potential between the electrodes.
Higher discharge rate than primary batteries.
Thus such cells can be Rechargeable and used many
times.
Some Examples Of SecondaryBatteries
Nickel Cadmium Battery
Nickel Metal Hydride Battery
Lead Acid Battery
Lithium Ion Battery
Nickel Cadmium Batteries
Chemistry
Cadmium (-ve), nickel hydroxide (+ve)
Potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolyte
Features
+ Rugged, long life, economical
+ Good high discharge rate (for power tools)
– Relatively low energy density
– Toxic
Cell Reaction Of Ni-Cd Battery
The half-reactions are:
Cd+2OH- → Cd(OH)2+2e-
2NiO(OH)+Cd+2e- →2Ni(OH)2+2OH-
Overall reaction:
2NiO(OH) + Cd+2H2O→2Ni(OH)2+Cd(OH)2
AdvantagesOf Ni-Cd Batteries
Available in different size and shapes.
Have ability to deliver full power output until
end of cycle
Very low internal resistance
Simple and fast to recharge Over 1000 cycles (if
properly maintained)
Operate in a range of temperatures.
Tolerates abuse well and performs well after long
periods of storage.
DisadvantagesOf Ni-Cd Batteries
 It is three to five times more expensive than
lead-acid
 Self discharge up to 10% in a day.
 Its materials are toxic and the recycling
infrastructure for larger nickel-cadmium
batteries is very limited.
Uses Of Ni-Cd Battery
Ni-Cd batteries may be used individually or assembled
into battery packs containing two or more cells.
Specially Ni-Cd batteries are used in cordless and
wireless telephones, emergency lighting and other
applications.
With a low internal resistance, they can supply a high
surge current. This makes them a favourable choice for
remote controlled model airplanes, boats, cars and
camera flash units.
LeadAcid Battery
Chemistry
Lead
Sulfuric acid electrolyte
Features
+ Least expensive
+ Durable
– Low energy density
– Toxic
Cell Reaction Of Lead Acid Battery
Discharging
(+) electrode: PbO2(s) + 4H+
(aq) + SO4
2-
(aq) + 2e- → PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(L)
(-) electrode: Pb(s) + SO4
2-
(aq) → PbSO4(s) + 2e-
Charging
(+) electrode: PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(L) → PbO2(s) + 4H+
(aq) + SO4
2-
(aq) + 2e-
(+) electrode: PbSO4(s) + 2e- → Pb(s) + SO4
2-
(aq)
Advantages Of Lead Acid Batteries
Low maintenance required
Available in all shapes and sizes.
Best in terms of reliability & working capabilities.
Withstand slow, fast & overcharging.
Capable to withstand long term inactivity with or
without solvent.
Have the longest life cycle and a large
environmental advantage.
97% of the lead is recycled and reused in new
batteries.
Disadvantages Of Lead Acid Batteries
Limited number of full discharges.
Danger of overheating during charging.
In some cases it may releases acid fumes, which
can cause numerous health issues in terms of
long time exposure.
Corrosion may decrease battery life, so must be
avoided through proper maintenance.
LeadAcid Battery Uses
The lead-acid cells in automobile batteries are
wet cells.
Deliver short burst of high power, to start the
engine.
Battery supplies power to the starter and ignition
system to start the engine.
Supplies the extra power necessary when the
vehicle's electrical load exceeds the supply from
the charging system.
Lithium Ion Battery
Chemistry
Graphite (-ve), Lithium cobalt dioxide (+ve)
Non aqueous electrolyte
Features
+ 40% more capacity than Ni-Cd
+ Flat discharge (like Ni-Cd)
+ Self-discharge 50% lesser than Ni-Cd
– Expensive
Charging Phenomena
AL
Current
Collector
Cu
Current
Collector
Electrolyte
LiCoO2Graphite
Lithium-Ion Battery Charging
AL
Current
Collector
Cu
Current
Collector
Electrolyte
LiMO2Graphite
Lithium-Ion Battery Discharging
AdvantagesOf Lithium Ion Battery
The most distinct advantage is high energy
density.
Lower self discharge rate. (In comparison with
Ni-Cd Battery)
No maintenance.
No memory effect.
No requirement for priming.
Variety of types available.
Disadvantages Of Lithium Ion Battery
Require protection from overcharge & fully
discharge.
Shows ageing.
Transportation by air is sometimes difficult.
40% more costly than Ni-Cd batteries.
No established system for recycling large
lithium-ion batteries.
Uses Of Lithium Ion Batteries
What IfWeUse Conducting Polymers In
Batteries
Advantages
Longer cyclic time
high discharge time
Less self discharge time
Flexible shape
Easy fabrication of component in film form
Disadvantage
Cost
The SafetyIssue
Reference
www.wikipedia.org
www.doityourself.com
www.mcabatteries.com
www.Batteryuniversity.com
www.radioelectronics.com
www.duracell.com/OEM
data.energizer.com
www.rayovac.com/busoem/oem
T. R. Crompton, Battery Reference Book, Newnes, 2000
D. Berndt, Maintenance-Free Batteries, Wiley, 1997
C. Vincent & B. Scrosati, Modern Batteries, Wiley, 1997

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Rechargeable Batteries With Conductive Polymer

  • 1. Rechargeable Batteries Presented by Devansh Gupta M.ScPolymer Science Semester 1
  • 2. Contents Introduction Why Do We Need Batteries? Electrodes & Electrolytes Brief History About Batteries Types Of Battery What If We Use Conducting Polymer In Rechargeable Batteries Safety Issues Reference
  • 3. Introduction Battery Is Nothing But A Device Which Converts Stored Chemical Energy Into Electrical Energy. It Is Made Up Of Two Electrodes (Anode & Cathode) And Electrolyte Solution. Here Oxidation & Reduction Reactions Are Simultaneously Happens Between These Two Electrodes, Which Create The Current Flow. When A Battery Is Supplying Current, It’s +Ve Terminal Is Denoted As ‘Cathode’ & It’s –Ve Terminal Is Denoted As ‘Anode’ Symbol of battery ina circuit diagram
  • 4. WhyDo We Need Batteries?
  • 5. Electrodes & Electrolytes Cathode – Positive terminal – Electrochemical reduction occurs (gain electrons) Anode – Negative terminal – Electrochemical oxidation occurs (lose electrons) Electrolytes – Allow Ions to move between electrodes and terminals – Allows Current to flow out of the battery to perform work
  • 6. BriefHistory About Batteries  In 1749, Benjamin Franklin first used the term “battery” to describe a set of linked capacitors he used for his experiments with electricity.  In 1800, Alessandro Volta invented the first true battery, which came to know as the voltaic pile.  The voltaic pile consist a pair of silver and zinc discs placed on each other which is separated by a layer of cloth soaked in brine (Brine as Electrolyte) Unlike the Leyden Jar, the voltaic pile produced a stable & continuous current, and lost little charge over time when not in use.  Early models of voltaic pile can’t produce strong current to generate sparks. C o n t i n u e d
  • 7. 1800 Voltaic Pile: Silver Zinc 1836 Daniell Cell: Copper Zinc 1859 Planté: Rechargeable Lead-acid Cell 1868 Leclanché: Carbon Zinc Wet Cell 1888 Gassner: Carbon Zinc Dry Cell 1898 Commercial Flashlight, D Cell 1899 Junger: Nickel Cadmium Cell 1946 Neumann: Sealed Ni-Cd 1960 Alkaline, Rechargeable Ni-Cd 1970 Lithium, Sealed Lead Acid 1990 Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) 1991 Lithium ion 1992 Rechargeable alkaline 1999 Lithium ion polymer
  • 9. TypesOf Battery  Basically batteries can be classifieds as two types as primary batteries and secondary batteries. Primary Battery(disposable)  In primary batteries, the electrochemical reaction is not reversible. Used when long periods of storage are required. During discharging the chemical compounds are permanently changed and electrical energy is released until the original compounds are completely exhausted. Lower discharge rate than secondary batteries. Thus the cells can be used only once.
  • 10. Examples Of Primary Batteries Zinc Carbon – Used in flashlights, toys Heavy Duty Zinc Chloride – Used in radios, recorders Alkaline – Used in all of the above Lithium – Used in photoflash Silver Mercury Oxide – Used in Hearing aid, watches, calculators
  • 11. Zinc Carbon Battery  This kind of batteries are generally used in flashlights and toys Chemistry Zinc (-ve), Manganese Dioxide (+ve) Zinc Chloride and Ammonium Chloride paste as electrolyte Features + Inexpensive, widely available. – Inefficient at high current drain. – Poor discharge curve (sloping). – Poor performance at low temperatures.
  • 13. Heavy Duty Zinc Chloride Batteries  This kind of batteries are generally used in radios and recorders. Chemistry  Zinc (-ve), manganese dioxide (+ve)  Zinc chloride aqueous electrolyte Features (compared to Zinc Carbon) + Better resistance to leakage. + Better at high current drain. + Better performance at low temperature.
  • 14. Alkaline Batteries  This kind of batteries are generally used in toys, radios, recorders and flashlights. Chemistry Zinc (-ve), manganese dioxide (+ve) Potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolyte Features + 50-100% more energy than carbon zinc + Low self-discharge (10 year shelf life) ± Good for low current (< 400mA), long-life use – Poor discharge curve
  • 16. Secondary Battery(Rechargeable) In secondary batteries, the electrochemical reaction is reversible. Used when short periods of storage are required. During discharging the chemical compounds which are changed can be reconstituted by the application of an electrical potential between the electrodes. Higher discharge rate than primary batteries. Thus such cells can be Rechargeable and used many times.
  • 17. Some Examples Of SecondaryBatteries Nickel Cadmium Battery Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Lead Acid Battery Lithium Ion Battery
  • 18. Nickel Cadmium Batteries Chemistry Cadmium (-ve), nickel hydroxide (+ve) Potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolyte Features + Rugged, long life, economical + Good high discharge rate (for power tools) – Relatively low energy density – Toxic
  • 19. Cell Reaction Of Ni-Cd Battery The half-reactions are: Cd+2OH- → Cd(OH)2+2e- 2NiO(OH)+Cd+2e- →2Ni(OH)2+2OH- Overall reaction: 2NiO(OH) + Cd+2H2O→2Ni(OH)2+Cd(OH)2
  • 20. AdvantagesOf Ni-Cd Batteries Available in different size and shapes. Have ability to deliver full power output until end of cycle Very low internal resistance Simple and fast to recharge Over 1000 cycles (if properly maintained) Operate in a range of temperatures. Tolerates abuse well and performs well after long periods of storage.
  • 21. DisadvantagesOf Ni-Cd Batteries  It is three to five times more expensive than lead-acid  Self discharge up to 10% in a day.  Its materials are toxic and the recycling infrastructure for larger nickel-cadmium batteries is very limited.
  • 22. Uses Of Ni-Cd Battery Ni-Cd batteries may be used individually or assembled into battery packs containing two or more cells. Specially Ni-Cd batteries are used in cordless and wireless telephones, emergency lighting and other applications. With a low internal resistance, they can supply a high surge current. This makes them a favourable choice for remote controlled model airplanes, boats, cars and camera flash units.
  • 23. LeadAcid Battery Chemistry Lead Sulfuric acid electrolyte Features + Least expensive + Durable – Low energy density – Toxic
  • 24. Cell Reaction Of Lead Acid Battery Discharging (+) electrode: PbO2(s) + 4H+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + 2e- → PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(L) (-) electrode: Pb(s) + SO4 2- (aq) → PbSO4(s) + 2e- Charging (+) electrode: PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(L) → PbO2(s) + 4H+ (aq) + SO4 2- (aq) + 2e- (+) electrode: PbSO4(s) + 2e- → Pb(s) + SO4 2- (aq)
  • 25. Advantages Of Lead Acid Batteries Low maintenance required Available in all shapes and sizes. Best in terms of reliability & working capabilities. Withstand slow, fast & overcharging. Capable to withstand long term inactivity with or without solvent. Have the longest life cycle and a large environmental advantage. 97% of the lead is recycled and reused in new batteries.
  • 26. Disadvantages Of Lead Acid Batteries Limited number of full discharges. Danger of overheating during charging. In some cases it may releases acid fumes, which can cause numerous health issues in terms of long time exposure. Corrosion may decrease battery life, so must be avoided through proper maintenance.
  • 27. LeadAcid Battery Uses The lead-acid cells in automobile batteries are wet cells. Deliver short burst of high power, to start the engine. Battery supplies power to the starter and ignition system to start the engine. Supplies the extra power necessary when the vehicle's electrical load exceeds the supply from the charging system.
  • 28. Lithium Ion Battery Chemistry Graphite (-ve), Lithium cobalt dioxide (+ve) Non aqueous electrolyte Features + 40% more capacity than Ni-Cd + Flat discharge (like Ni-Cd) + Self-discharge 50% lesser than Ni-Cd – Expensive
  • 31. AdvantagesOf Lithium Ion Battery The most distinct advantage is high energy density. Lower self discharge rate. (In comparison with Ni-Cd Battery) No maintenance. No memory effect. No requirement for priming. Variety of types available.
  • 32. Disadvantages Of Lithium Ion Battery Require protection from overcharge & fully discharge. Shows ageing. Transportation by air is sometimes difficult. 40% more costly than Ni-Cd batteries. No established system for recycling large lithium-ion batteries.
  • 33. Uses Of Lithium Ion Batteries
  • 34. What IfWeUse Conducting Polymers In Batteries Advantages Longer cyclic time high discharge time Less self discharge time Flexible shape Easy fabrication of component in film form Disadvantage Cost
  • 35.
  • 37. Reference www.wikipedia.org www.doityourself.com www.mcabatteries.com www.Batteryuniversity.com www.radioelectronics.com www.duracell.com/OEM data.energizer.com www.rayovac.com/busoem/oem T. R. Crompton, Battery Reference Book, Newnes, 2000 D. Berndt, Maintenance-Free Batteries, Wiley, 1997 C. Vincent & B. Scrosati, Modern Batteries, Wiley, 1997

Editor's Notes

  1. Benjamin Franklin – 6th President of Pennsylvania.. In 1750 He published a proposal for an experiment to prove that lightning is electricity by flying a kite in a storm… In 10th May, 1752 a French Scientist conducted his experiment using a 40ft tall iron rod instead of a kite and he extracted electrical sparks from cloud.. Leyden Jar – It’s a device that ‘stores’ static electricity between two electrodes on the inside and outside of a glass jar.. A typical Leyden jar consist of a glass jar with metal foil cemented to the inside and outside wall of glass jar… Here a metal terminal inserted vertically through the jar lid to make contact with the inner foil.. It was the original form of capacitor.. This name was given on the name of a city..
  2. First Ni-Cd cell was created by Waldemar Jungner in 1899