Occupy Development!
Social Movements and Future Directions for Development

Photo Credit: Flickr Creative Commons/Asterix6...
Overview
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Personal Background
The Occupy
Movement
Freire, Alinsky and
Social Movements
Dimensions of
learning...
Personal Background
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Thirty years in local & international development

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Seven years in Timor-Leste & Zambia

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Confr...
Occupy Movement
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Linked to Arab Spring as well as protests in Spain & Portugal
Spread to 95 global cities & 600 U...
Social Movements
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Hard to define! Charles Tilly: “consist of a sustained challenge to
power holders ... by means of...
Paulo Freire and Social Movements
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Analysed link between colonisation
and “banking method of education”
Proposed ...
Freire and Social Movements (2)
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In agreement with Occupy’s key issues: challenge
corporations’ power, broaden d...
Saul Alinsky and Social Movements
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Reveille for Radicals (1946) & Rules for
Radicals (1971)
Organised neighbou...
Alinsky and Social Movements (2)
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Would agree with key issues behind Occupy protest
Emphasise need to focus...
Social Movements and (I)NGOs
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INGO focus is more:
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Communities to be, enlisted, organised, herded

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Partnering wit...
What Might We Do Differently?
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Look for & befriend social movements, particularly poor people’s movements,
community gro...
From A Ladder of Participation, Sherry Arnstein
From A Ladder of Participation, Sherry Arnstein
Slum Dwellers International
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Across 33 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America (18 in
Africa)
Movement owned b...
Further Reading
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www.sdinet.org/
www.pedagogy4radicals.wordpress.com/
www.reflect-action.org/
Alinsky, S. ...
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Tim Budge - Development! Social Movements

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Tim Budge - Development! Social Movements

  1. 1. Occupy Development! Social Movements and Future Directions for Development Photo Credit: Flickr Creative Commons/Asterix611
  2. 2. Overview       Personal Background The Occupy Movement Freire, Alinsky and Social Movements Dimensions of learning for NGOs Slum Dwellers International Further Reading Photo Credit: Flickr Creative Commons/tranZland
  3. 3. Personal Background  Thirty years in local & international development  Seven years in Timor-Leste & Zambia  Confronted by “How change does or doesn’t happen”  Re-invigorated by Paulo Freire, Saul Alinsky & others who sought bottom-up, grassroots, people-led change  Currently: PhD (Deakin) focusing on change led by people in informal settlements in Zambia & South Africa
  4. 4. Occupy Movement     Linked to Arab Spring as well as protests in Spain & Portugal Spread to 95 global cities & 600 US communities, from mid July to mid October, 2011 “Occupy” as the 2011 Word of the Year The 99% and the 1%:     In 30 years, pre-tax income of bottom 90% decreased by $900, top 1% increased by over $700,000 Movement was vague on specific goals, strong participatory ethic, “horizontal” leadership focus Images of movement coloured by mainstream media Initial official sympathy, but eventually forceful evictions
  5. 5. Social Movements    Hard to define! Charles Tilly: “consist of a sustained challenge to power holders ... by means of the repeated display of that population’s worthiness, unity, numbers and commitment” Dispersed control, decision making processes, authorities Four characteristics (Diani and Della Porta):      informal interaction networks; shared beliefs and solidarity; collective action focusing on conflict; use of protest Empirically: power & potential to trigger wider change: eg Occupy, Civil Rights Movement, International Campaign to Ban Landmines
  6. 6. Paulo Freire and Social Movements     Analysed link between colonisation and “banking method of education” Proposed alternative of “conscientisation”, critical literacy and “problem posing education” Ideas reflected in Landless Workers Movement (MST) in Brazil Linked to Robert Chambers, Amartya Sen, ActionAid’s REFLECT and to others concerned about poor people’s participation in development Photo Credit: Flickr Creative Commons/josemota Philosopher of Education, Catholic, Marxist
  7. 7. Freire and Social Movements (2)     In agreement with Occupy’s key issues: challenge corporations’ power, broaden democracy, participatory democracy Belief in important role of teachers/leaders Action on its own insufficient: revolutionary praxis as “constant process of action and reflection” Contrast between focus of Landless People’s Movement and broad approach of Occupy
  8. 8. Saul Alinsky and Social Movements      Reveille for Radicals (1946) & Rules for Radicals (1971) Organised neighbourhood, civil rights and union campaigns across the USA Influenced Barack Obama (First job), Hillary Clinton (Honours thesis) & Bill McKibben (350.org) Model of local leadership, organisation of organisations, facilitated by outside organisers Winnable fights, use of conflict, highly targeted Photo Credit: Flickr Creative Commons/Floyd Brown Tactician, pragmatist, small “d” democrat
  9. 9. Alinsky and Social Movements (2)        Would agree with key issues behind Occupy protest Emphasise need to focus on a few key messages Turn around power of ridicule Target specific individuals Match power of money with people power Broaden support base (communicate out) Tactics, tactics, tactics – protest marches not enough
  10. 10. Social Movements and (I)NGOs  INGO focus is more:   Communities to be, enlisted, organised, herded  Partnering with governments as organisational consequence of rights based approach   Good governance, accountability, community development, civil society strengthening Participation is usually about participating in (our) NGO programmes NGOs uncomfortable with language and consequences of:  Dissent, defiance, conflict, “challenge to power”  Amorphous locus of power associated with social movements  Usually an asymmetry of power in NGO-community relationships  (I)NGOs often speak on behalf of “poor people” but basis of this “voice” not so clear
  11. 11. What Might We Do Differently?  Look for & befriend social movements, particularly poor people’s movements, community groups, emerging leaders  Give away power and control  Spend more time reading and sharing ideas of Freire, Alinsky and others  “Serve” movement priorities rather than organising or conscripting  Understand, learn and use tactics in support of movement goals  Recognise necessity of dissent, opposition and conflict  Recognise what’s at stake for us (eg potential irrelevance in times of massive change)  Acknowledge change is like innovation, sometimes requires marginal improvements, other times disruptive change/paradigm shift (which we find
  12. 12. From A Ladder of Participation, Sherry Arnstein
  13. 13. From A Ladder of Participation, Sherry Arnstein
  14. 14. Slum Dwellers International     Across 33 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America (18 in Africa) Movement owned by people living in informal settlements (750,000 members in India) Technical and other supported provided by local, independent NGO (eg SPARC, CORC) “Rights” work (eg land tenure, upgrades) linked to community savings, health and sanitation Typically, NGOs have been established by middle-class people whose vision of the world reflects their own social and economic backgrounds; as such, they are poorly placed to determine priorities for a movement of the urban poor. - Shelia Patel,
  15. 15. Further Reading         www.sdinet.org/ www.pedagogy4radicals.wordpress.com/ www.reflect-action.org/ Alinsky, S. D. (1969). Reveille for Radicals. Vintage Books. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Penguin Books. Arnstein, S. R. (1969). A Ladder Of Citizen Participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners. Giugni, M., McAdam, D., & Tilly, C. (1999). How social movements matter. University of Minnesota Press. Piven, F. F., & Cloward, R. A. (1977). Poor people’s movements: Why they succeed, how they fail. Random House.

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