Catherine Wangari Muthuri Enhancing food security

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  • Different resource endowments make different options appropriate. Many system interactions work via the whole livelihood system. For example provision of fuelwood on the farm means less time taken to collect it from elsewhere, so children can go to school or women spend more time weeding maize or weaving baskets.
  • Work with farmers through national partners
  • Figure 1
  • Tie into Allanblackia story if possible and note that we conduct rigorous studies but also disseminate the results to those who can use it such as governments, development organizations and donors.
  • As a most recent example of our work, IFAD came to us to tell us that they are impressed by the regeneration of trees in the landscapes of the Sahel. However, before they would be willing to invest more in their scaling up, they wanted to know to what degree households are benefiting economically from the trees.
  • Catherine Wangari Muthuri Enhancing food security

    1. 1. Enhancing food security and livelihoods through agroforestry practices: Key lessons from the ‘trees for food security’ project in Ethiopia and Rwanda Catherine Muthuri, Amos Gyau, Miyuki Iiyama, Abayneh Derero, Evelyn Kiptot, Amini Mutanganda, Anja Gassner, Jeremias Mowo and Fergus Sinclair
    2. 2. The challenge in taking trees to scale • Fine grained variation in: soil (biota) climate (altitude) farming practices Livelihood systems market opportunities social capital  policy
    3. 3. The Trees for food security project A four year four country project on food security Rwanda Ethiopia Scaling up in Ethiopia Flash flooding in Rushubi,Nyakiliba Rwanda Scaling out Burundi Uganda
    4. 4. Challenges to food security in Rwanda study areas Cultivation of steep slopes Soil erosion Land fragmentation Water scarcity and low tree density Trees for fuelwood Flash flooding Tree management and design Low tree density Need for trees in pasture
    5. 5. Challenges to food security in Ethiopia study areas Communal grazing vs. enclosure High demand of tree products Water scarcity Low tree diversity
    6. 6. The Approach • Characterize variation in context across scaling domain – acquire local knowledge • Match options to the variation in context – identify strengths and weaknesses (knowledge gaps) • Design scaling domains so that options are tested across sufficient range of variation with planned comparisons • Work with farmers, through national partners, to embrace uncertainty and risk and progressively reduce them: – leave to farmers what they do best but – learn collectively and systematically from experience
    7. 7. Initial matrices of agroforestry options and contextual factors that affect their suitability (soils, climate, farming system, planting niche, resource availability, institutions etc ) Simple to use tools to match agroforestry options to sites and circumstances across the scaling domain refined options Interpretation of performance data to refine matrices of agroforestry options and characterisation Characterise variation in drivers of adoption (context) across scaling domain refined characterization Influence development projects so that best-fit options are offered to farmers across a range of variation in context Participatory monitoring and evaluation system for the performance of options Co-learning paradigm that embeds research in development Coe, R., Sinclair, F.L. and Barrios, E. in press. Scaling up agroforestry requires research ‘in’ rather than ‘for’ development. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability.
    8. 8. Key lessons 1. Drivers and coping mechanisms Rwanda Water scarcity Protecting and promoting appropriate trees Soil erosion and flooding Terraces contour farming, water harvesting Land fragmentation Land consolidation Deforestation Reforestation programs, relocation programs Ethiopia Water scarcity Water conservation structures, define trees niches Free communal grazing Institutional arrangements and good political will No specific AF extension Development of extension packages Deforestation and weak culture of tree planting; Plant/protect trees Limited species and products: Coping by diversifying tree species
    9. 9. 2. Trees on farms are associated with higher food security Higher Food Consumption Score (FCS)on farms with trees in Melkassa but not Bako More livestock on farms with trees in Bako but not Melkassa. Greater diversity of farm produce on farms with trees in both Melkassa and Bako
    10. 10. 3. Common species utilities and niches- Rwanda Species Eucalyptus Alnus acuminata Grevillea robusta Erythrina abyssinica Vernonia amygdalina Markhamia lutea E/N Utility E Timber, firewood, E Timber, Mulch, sticks, erosion, firewood, E Timber, firewood, erosion control, N Hedge, erosion control, timber, firewood, N Fodder, fertilizer, fence, firewood, erosion N Firewood, timber, erosion control, fence Niche Woodlot, boundary Along radical terraces, field and contours terraces, Homestead, Boundary – scattered, contour lines Live fence, boundary, along contours, bottom of fields Homestead, Boundary scattered Homestead, Boundary scattered
    11. 11. 4. Markets and Extension Ethiopia 1. Participatory extension system with main focus on crops. 2. Preferences are for fruit trees and cash crops 3. Farmers' preferences positively correlated with market 4. Extension is supply driven Rwanda 1. Qualified extension workers and infrastructure 2. Farmers‘ preferences are biased towards fruits trees 3. Many trained and progressive farmers in the country. 4. Interventions must focus on planting materials training Note: Limited participation by women in extension
    12. 12. Experiences from Elsewhere in Africa The Impact Assessment office undertakes studies to learn whether and to what degree: 1. We (ICRAF, CGIAR) are delivering the impacts expected by our investors 2. Agroforestry is making a difference in people’s lives, including economic, social and environmental aspects
    13. 13. Economic impacts of trees and their diversity on households in the sahel Crop yields 15 – 30 % of cereal yields in the sites are attributed to the presence of useful trees for soil fertility Presence of trees induce more investment of manure and fertilizer, Harvested and marketed tree products e.g. baobab fruits & leaves, shea nuts & butter, and wood generate an average >$200 per household/ yr More than 1000 households in over 50 communities were surveyed,

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