Politics In Planning


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Politics In Planning

  1. 1. -Topic- Politics of Planning By : Desy Rosnita Sari P28017016 NCKU Urban Planning Department 1st Presentation Seminar 4th course March 28th 2014 1/19
  2. 2. Planning in the Face of Power -- John Forester -- Published in : Planning in the Face of Power (1989) -- Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p;437 Keywords : Information, Power, Planning, and Political communication ARTICLES : To be professionally effective, be politically articulate -- Norman Khrumholz and John Forester -- Published in : Making Equity Planning Work (1978) – Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p;456 Keywords : Politic planning, Planning practice, Planning profession, and Cleveland Looking back; Making city planning work -- Allan B. Jacobs -- Published in : Making city planning work (1980) – Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p;426 Keywords : Politic of planning, Planning profession, Planning process, and San Francisco 2/19
  3. 3. Motivesfor choosing the Topic and Articles Allan B. Jacobs : Looking back; Making city planning work John Forester : Planning in the face of power Norman Khrumholz : To be professionally effective, be politically articulate John Forester 1. Classic readings in urban planning 2. Intercourse between previous topics (last semester) Ethics in profession, the environment, and conflicting priorities/planning goals scope of the profession Ethics in the profession Challenge in the profession “Planning is political” Planning profession certainly operate within the web of political relationship 3/19
  4. 4. Making city planning work (1980) Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p;426 Allan B. Jacobs December 29, 1928 (age 85) Looking back; Making city planning work BOOKS The Boulevard Book (2003), Great Streets (1995), Looking at Cities (1985), Making City Planning Work (1980), The Urban Design Element of the San Francisco General Plan, Toward an Urban Design Manifesto (well-known paper describes how cities should be laid out) • Bachelor of Architecture, Miami University • Master of City Planning, University of Pennsylvania in 1954 • Graduate School of Design, Harvard. • Study City Planning as a Fulbright Scholar at University College London (1954 – 1955) Present; Professor emeritus of city and regional planning. Berkeley University (1975 – 2001), twice served as chairman Prior; Taught; Berkeley, University of Pennsylvania Worked; The Pittsburgh City Planning projects, Ford Foundation in Calcutta. India 8 years as Director of the San Francisco Department of City Planning (1967 – 1974) (A city and regional planner, urban designer, architect) Keywords: Politic of planning, Planning profession, Planning process, San Francisco 4/19
  5. 5. Looking Back. Jacobs’ reflection on his experiences as a planner ----- mostly during his duty as San Francisco’s planning director (1967 - 1974). • Pictured the flavor of doing planning under governmental setting (win/fail the battle) • Conveying clear sense of the alternate moods of excitement, disappointment, challenge and frustration • Revealing some strategies and tactics used by Jacobs and his agency in trying to influence various policy decisions in San Francisco. • Both explicitly and implicitly informed that planning can indeed work if skilled, dedicated and committed people are willing to devote sufficient energy into it. 5/19
  6. 6. Comprehensive plan Master plan San Francisco √ X Based on large-measure on an assessment of the social and economic needs Accompanied by a set of recommendation for programs and actions, which is all separate plan elements related **Program that could be achieved via legislative action and directly under planning department of SF Government , is more likely to be successful 6/19
  7. 7. Long-range development goal Policy documents, statistic picture of future, Dictated plan, inefficient planning process (too vague, too biased, too subjective, etc) A frame work of plan that could lead planner to be easier to explain their idea and proposal that are preferable to the people 7/19
  8. 8. The post of city planning division Planning as Legitimate product Executive in local government • Comprehensive planning with long-range action • More likely understand people needs • Planning proposal can be propose before election • Another option for people to connect with government • Legitimate action / top-down plan (dictated plan / copy from favorite type) but tends to success • Inefficient planning process (too many programs) • Commission as buffer from private’s demand Planning commission • Mayor’s short range-plan (practical an visible goal) • Planning director limited by administrative set-up decentralization Semi-autonomy 8/19
  9. 9. Jacobs’ stressed points: • Qualified, trained, dedicated planner • Bottom-up planning with qualified planner (responsiveness than efficient) • Planner limitation may substitute by consultant (cooperation) • Planner have strong argument upon their utopia prediction/vision • Best plan is planed locally, developed locally, and used local resource (advocacy planning) 9/19
  10. 10. “Victory today, over the wrong thing in the wrong place, does not ensure that the same battle will not have to be fought tomorrow or the next day, .....................,city planners may have a hard time knowing when they have been successful, it is hard to know what constituted a good batting average......in many cities, success is measured by what happens, by what gets done, by what is accomplished..... we are accustom to think that way, BUT sometimes it is better to measure success by measure what does not happen"..............Allan B. Jacobs - Making city planning work (1978) Quotations Aceh Comprehensive planning (social economic relationship and strategic) • HRD VS quality of urban environment (scholarship VS Museum) • Women empowering VS physical project (skill raining VS Elegant Mall) • Conservation VS Urban artifact (forest protection VS city park) 10/19
  11. 11. John F. Forester Planning in the face of power English Town Planner, Urbanist, Geographer Professor and Director of Graduate Studies - Department of City and Regional Planning Cornell University. Critical Theory and Public Life (1987), Planning in the Face of Power (1989), The Deliberative Practitioner (1999), Dealing with Differences: Dramas of Mediating Public Disputes (2009). Graduate from University of California, Berkeley **City Planning BOOKS (emphasis on participatory planning) Published in : Planning in the Face of Power (1989) -- Classic Reading In Urban Planning 1995. p;437 Keywords : information, power, planning, and political communication 11/19
  12. 12. Vulnerability of democracy Professional responsibility Political action domination inequality Ideology Illegitimate authorityResistance Democratizing practices 1. How planners work to fulfill their legal mandate for foster a genuinely democratic planning process? 2. What power can planner have? 12/19
  13. 13. • Information is an important source of planner’s power in the planning process • requests planners to be progressive practitioners Forester’s argument 5perspectives of how planner use information: 1. The technician 2. The incremental pragmatist 3. The liberal advocate 4. The structuralist 5. The progressive 13/19
  14. 14. Type of misinformation / distortion Incidental / Ad Hoc Systematic structural inevitable cognitive limits of communication division of labor unnecessary interpersonal manipulation structural legitimization • Comprehension (distorted by problem framing) • Sincerity or trust (distorted by false assurance) • Legitimacy (distorted by lack of consent) • Knowledge (distorted by misrepresentation) Managing Misinformation: distortion 14/19
  15. 15. BOOKS To be professionally effective, be politically articulate Published in : Making Equity Planning Work (1978) Keywords : politic planning, planning practice, planning profession, Cleveland Norman Khrumholz John Forester Professor in Levin College of Urban Affairs President of the American Planning Association (1986-1987) President of the American Institute of Certified Planners (1999) Planning Director of the City of Cleveland from 1969-1979 (10 years) Planning practitioner in Ithaca, Pittsburgh, and Cleveland Norman Khrumholz Making Equity Planning Work (1978) Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods (1999) Reinventing Cities: Equity Planners Tell Their Stories (1994) *Legacy : Center for Neighborhood Development. Cleveland State University. President Jimmy Carter asked him to serve on the National Commission on Neighborhoods, whose members traveled around the country and held hearings on neighborhoods’ needs. M.C.R.P., Planning, Cornell University, 1965
  16. 16. To be professionally effective, be politically articulate • A review of Cleveland political experience in the practice of equity planning during his duty (Planning Director; 1969-1979) • In the time of equality and racial justice issues emerged in the nation • Progressively program and policies that resulted; *changes in Ohio’s property law *improvement in public-service delivery *protection in transit services for the most transit-dependent *rescue of city parklands and beach Question : How was this successes accomplished ?
  17. 17. “To play an effective role in the messy world of urban politic, planner have to be professional able, organizationally astute, and, most of all, politically articulate.”
  18. 18. 1. Anticipating problems and organizing support 2. Shaping the new agenda 3. Building a reputation for practical equity-oriented analysis 4. Practical rhetoric and publicity 5. Relation with the media 6. Strengthening planning analyses by using outside expertise 6 aspect planner should has for being politically articulate :
  19. 19. Xie Xie Ni Thank You Terima Kasih