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  2. 2. The EMERGE Framework E - Exploring the leadership system M - Mapping the institutional context for leadership E - Embedding vision, values and norms R - Releasing the energy of yourself and followers G - Guiding improvements in organizations and society E - Enabling good judgment through strategic navigation The EMERGE framework- developed by Professor Marcus Ingle and Dr. Kristen Magis- is based on experience and research of the history and context of Vietnam. I now apply this framework to my plan for incorporating an Non-profit organization that will establish recreation and resource centers in global communities with the collaborative efforts of diverse groups and foreign governments. The project begins in Portland and the first client is El Salvador.
  3. 3. WICKED PROBLEMS Based on the EMERGE framework wicked problems “are complex, nonlinear, constantly changing, and largely intractable and extremely difficult to deal with or solve.” El Salvador faces many wicked problems, some of which the non-profit organization will attempt to alleviate. A few examples of the wicked problems: I. Overpopulation II. Violence III. Environment
  4. 4. POLITICAL CONTEXT In 1524 the Spanish arrived to El Salvador and was conquered by Perdro de Alvarado in 1525. By 1821 El Salvador attained independence from Spain. Prior to forming a Democratic Republic in 1983, El Salvador had experienced different forms of government through the Central American Federation, military dominance, and oligarchy rule. In 1992 a 12 year civil war came to a halt when former FMLN rebels agreed to follow governance reforms after more than 70,000 lives were claimed. Today El Salvador is go verned by one pr esident and an 84 member unicameral legislative system. A judiciary sy ste m with a Supreme Court also forms a component of the national government. Four domi nant political parties of the thirteen that exist are: 1. ARENA- Nationalist Re publican Alliance 2. FMLN - Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front 3. PDC- Christian Democratic Party 4. PCN- Party of National Conciliation President of El Salvador: Francisco Perez Flores Vice President: Carlos Quintanilla
  5. 5. I. Overpopulation Rapid increase of population in El Salvador is a poly-centric issue that has potentially led to an increase in violence, poverty, and pollution. According to statistics provided by freedomhouse.org, 7,399,000 individuals inhabit the land portion of the 20,721 km country- a country that is slightly smaller than the state of Massachusetts. Another result to increasing population leads to children and orphans living in the streets who sometimes also turn to violence in order to survive or who are victimized by violence- a cycle that does not cease. Age Descriptions Percentage
  6. 6. II. Violence According to a public opinion poll about gender based violence, conducted by Oxfam America- a non-profit organization that is dedicated to ending poverty and injustice- more than 15 percent of all Salvadorans do not consider acts of sexual violence a crime. Acts of sexual violence can lead to unexpected pregnancies, children becoming orphans, spread of STDs, and psychological as well as emotional and physical damage. If access to resources were available throughout the country, less than 15 percent of the total population or 1,109,850 individuals would become aware that gender based-violence is indeed a crime, and the result would desirably a substantial decrease in gender-based violence. Other violence issues include street gangs like La Mara Salvatrucha, MS-13. Communities do not feel safe taking public transportation and walking outside of their homes in fear of not only being robbed but murdered by gang members. Prisons overflow with inmates and lack a system that can improve deter further crime from happening within prison walls. Note: poverty and unemployment- El Salvador ranks 113 out 196 countries with the unemployment rate of 6.3 percent as of 2010. Nauru ranks as 1 with an unemployment rate of 90 percent and Qatar as having an unemployment rate of 0.4.
  7. 7. III. Environment Forest resources in El Salvador have been reduced to less than 6 percent in the total land area. 45 percent of the wood taken from the forests is used to sell for fuel. Forest depletion, loss of soil fertility, diminution of groundwater resources and drastic loss of native flowers and animals are among the environmental issues. Pollution is widespread with minimal restrictions of waste disposal. El Salvador's cities produce over 0.5 million tons of solid waste per year. Little environmental protection laws exist and the legislation that does exist is poorly enforced. In 1993, 90 percent of El Salvador's rivers were polluted and safe drinking water was available to 91 percent of the urban population. Of the rural population, only 64 percent had access to safe drinking water. Of the nation's renewable water sources, 46 percent was used for agricultural purposes. The pollution of the environment in El Salvador is a serious threat to the survival of its plants and wildlife. Endangered species in El Salvador include the tundra peregrine falcon, four species of turtle (green sea, hawksbill, leatherback, and olive ridley), American crocodile, ocelot, spectacled caiman, jaguar, giant anteater, and the Central American tapir.
  8. 8. A Solution to Wicked Problems Providing a center where all Salvadorans can have access to resources and information as an effort to promote citizen engagement and individual responsibility for learning more about the issues they face locally, nationally, and internationally. The majority of Salvadorans who grow up in lower and middle income households already know the day to day struggles they face yet if the people feel encouraged to search for details behind the struggles they face, then collaboratively, they can find solutions to those struggles. Many children as well as families live on the streets to survive and some communities set up marketplaces where they live underneath boxed tins with roofs of black plastic garbage bags. Many humanitarian as well as religious organizations have helped establish orphanages and cafeterias were fresh meals are served. While humanitarian services continue to expand, resources for information should also expand, so that the individuals who would not normally have access to resources or education, can someday perform individual responsibility and approach issues by contributing solutions to their societies. This goal emerges from a vision where all individuals engage in caring about the consequences and solutions that may occur through individual decisions and actions. Diminishing violence, poverty, and pollution are desired outcomes of this plan, as well as collaboration among individuals, community building, and recognition of the importance of individual responsibility.
  9. 9. The Plan To incorporate an NGO that will establish resource centers in El Salvador. To have staff members within the NGO work collaboratively with the Salvadoran government. To present a model so that the Salvadoran government can consider to follow while also taking the responsibility to further establish resource centers throughout the country where little information is accessed and where all populations can access information. Such resource centers will also help youth and hopefully prevent youth from contributing to violence.
  10. 10. What kind of information will be provided? Virtual libraries with access to similar databases found within universities where individuals can locate root of problems their countries face. Staff within resource centers can engage in leading orientations and sessions that discuss problems surrounding violence, poverty, and pollution. Staff can also lead training sessions for equipment usage within the resource centers. A project like this could generate more staff with resource building constructions that are eco-friendly, developing an increase in IT demand for training software and educational software, resource maintenance staff, and staff that is dedicated to help the communities they are in. The next paper will provide more of an example of what the resource center would look like, what it will contain, who will be involved, and such management details. The goal is to make the resource appeal to the communities so that they feel motivated in wanting to learn about the problems and mobilized to find solutions to the problems. The resource center would provide these individuals with the tools that can make that goal happen.
  11. 11. Map of El Salvador
  12. 12. <ul>Leadership Problem Statement </ul><ul>The Status : Highly limited access to information and resources for the general <li>Population in El Salvador. </li></ul><ul>High levels of poverty, increasing rapid population, escalating violence, and environmental pollutions <li>are a few of the wicked problems El Salvador faces. The individuals who face these problems daily know of
  13. 13. their consequences and experience the negative effects. The government alone cannot solve these problems
  14. 14. without the collaboration and engagement of the individuals who face these problems. Yet, how can the
  15. 15. people assist in tackling these problems without information and resources to learn about the root causes and
  16. 16. tools to combat such issues? Knowledge and education can empower individuals to take action and can
  17. 17. encourgage individual responsibility so that future wicked problems can decrease significantly. </li></ul><ul>The Objective: Decreasing poverty, violence, and environmental destruction <li>significantly by providing access to resources and information for all Salvadorans
  18. 18. so that Salvadorans may feel empowered and take initiative in solving some of the wicked
  19. 19. problems they face. Also to encourage a safer more collaborative environment for all Salvadorans,
  20. 20. for current generations and future generations. </li></ul><ul>Problem Statement </ul>
  21. 21. Leadership Problem Reflection <ul>Questions I face to developing the foundations for organization: <li>How will these recreation and resource centers benefit Salvadorans?
  22. 22. How to encourage the government in El Salvador to follow a model in continuing to create recreation and resource centers througout El Salvador?
  23. 23. How will the recreation centers prevent violence among Salvadorans and how to outreach towards troubled youth and encourage steering away from violence and gang activity?
  24. 24. How to encourage individuals to have an interest in taking individual responsibility once public access to resources is available?
  25. 25. Will it be safe for staff and volunteers to work on creating these recreation and resource centers?
  26. 26. Will the government welcome this activity?
  27. 27. Understanding the steps to incorporating an NGO </li></ul><ul><li>Salvadorans will benefit by having at hand access to information through online libraries and staff prepared to assist in training for use of libraries.
  28. 28. If one recreational resource center is fully developed and proves successful in one area in El Salvador, such a model would be presented to the government to encourage further developments by the government in El Salvador.
  29. 29. The recreation portion of the resource center would be modeled by after school programs we have in the U.S. where youth can partake in sports, games, and fun learning activities that will encourage them to avoid violence and joining gangs.
  30. 30. Fun software can be developed by Salvadoran engineers-to boost economy and job creation within the country in the tech industry-to train and provide information about international, national, and local problems.
  31. 31. Current public resouces that exist in El Salvador:
  32. 32. Media-Television, radio, and print networks, internet/ Universities (for students, staff, and faculty/Internet Cafes/ Some recreation centers through NPH religious and humanitarian communities </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Draft mission statement
  34. 34. Recruit board members
  35. 35. Hire a lawyer
  36. 36. Open a bank account
  37. 37. Find an accountant
  38. 38. Write articles of incorporation
  39. 39. Draft bylaws
  40. 40. Form a committee
  41. 41. File for incorporation within state
  42. 42. Apply for tax exempt status
  43. 43. Study laws for charitable solicitations
  44. 44. Get a mail permit
  45. 45. Get a federal employer identification No.
  46. 46. Developing corporate structure </li></ul><ul>Incorporating a Non-Profit Organization </ul>
  47. 47. <ul>Leadership Supra-system: Organization agency to other agencies, agency to governments, <li>Governments to governments, agency to citizens, citizens to citizens </li></ul>Multidimensional <ul>Leadership Role </ul><ul>Historical Lessons: Rapid increase in populations <li>government attemps to
  48. 48. placate gang violence and
  49. 49. murders by use of hard power
  50. 50. violence continues to escalate
  51. 51. prisons overflow with inmates
  52. 52. without adequate
  53. 53. maintenance. Many areas
  54. 54. continue to remain polluted
  55. 55. without allowing adequate water
  56. 56. sources for citizens in many rural
  57. 57. areas </li></ul><ul>Leadership Solution: <li>Establishing recreation centers
  58. 58. to encourage a decrease in violence
  59. 59. among youth. Establishing resource
  60. 60. centers to provide access to
  61. 61. knowledge and information to the
  62. 62. public to encourage individual
  63. 63. responsibility and government
  64. 64. engagement to change current
  65. 65. environments for the better. </li></ul><ul>Leadership System Models for Unity Non-profit Organization </ul><ul>Leader Subsystem <li>Values encouraging individual responsibility to
  66. 66. making healthy choices for self, community, and
  67. 67. environment. Belief in public access to resources
  68. 68. and information for all appreciation of humanity
  69. 69. and human collaboration across groups and
  70. 70. cultures. </li></ul><ul>Leadership Subsystem Strong corporate structure <li>based on collaborative efforts
  71. 71. in reaching out to diverse groups
  72. 72. local and foreign governments </li></ul><ul>Leadership Subsystem Structure of organization and individuals <li>within organization demonstrate value
  73. 73. of creating a healthier and safer world one
  74. 74. mission at a time with great focus </li></ul>
  75. 75. Interdependent Model: who's involved? <ul>Reflection on Leadership Role Profile </ul><ul><li>Access to information will help prepare individuals within
  76. 76. El Salvador to understand the local, national, and international
  77. 77. issues they face. Such understanding will lead to helping
  78. 78. them find solutions and to engage within their communities and
  79. 79. governments to find solutions. Such access to information
  80. 80. will also encourage individual responsibility and will motivate
  81. 81. individuals to make healthier choices.
  82. 82. Values and Leadership Strengths: Individual responsibility,
  83. 83. Collaboration, among individuals, encouraging government
  84. 84. engagement and involvement. </li></ul>Models for Unity Communities Government Followers Followers Followers <ul>Interdependent Model: Organization collaborates with <li>Governments and communities, as communities and
  85. 85. Governments collaborate with each other. Followers from
  86. 86. All components also collaborate to make program successful </li></ul>
  87. 87. Step I: Leadership system Identifies Stakeholders and Conveners Step 3: Leader and followers convene stakeholder groups Leaders and followers are stewards of the purpose and are thus stewards for each other. They serve the purpose for a desirable change that will impact the world in a positive way. The interdependent relationship between leaders and followers enable progress to occur. Governments contribute to the process of progression and succeed with a healthy stronger society. Communities bond and unite with common goals of creating a better world for future generations. Volunteers, staff members, contributors, and all involved in the organization share the values and beliefs of progression through unity, hard work, and individual responsibility for a better society and hopefully a better world. Leadership is the center of the network and extends to all of the individuals involved including stakeholders and participating organizations. In this case, the stakeholders would be the community where the resource centers would be built, the Salvadoran national and municipal governments, the volunteers, staff members, and communities making up the organization, and networking partners such as DCL, CIO, and Latino Network of Portland. The use of Soft power can be used within the organization and among networks and stakeholders. Inspiration will allow participants to pursue the goal of creating healthier societies by establishing resource centers. Convincing the Salvadoran governments to partake can lead one to perceive that the governments indeed are stakeholders. If they are not convinced that this is a solution of action and not just of theory, governments develop a better reputation for organizing progressive societies and political officials receive recognition for helping create ideas and act upon ideas that can indeed help current and future generations. <ul>Step 2: Leader supports followers to take leadership roles </ul>
  88. 88. Leader Models for Unity Followers Followers Stakeholder Group 1 Stakeholder Group 2 Stakeholder Group 4 Stakeholder Group 3 Stakeholder individual or organization SHG1: Communities SHG2: Staff, Volunteers, members SHG3: Governments SHG4: Networks Staff Volunteers Members Portland Community Salvadoran Community U.S. Embassy (DOS) Salvadoran National Government Salvadoran Municipal Government The stronger the networks and support for organization the higher chances of influencing outcome nationally so that all areas succeed rather than having one successful area gradually digress. <ul>Convener </ul><ul>Convener </ul><ul>Convener </ul><ul>Convener </ul>
  89. 89. Contextual Intelligence Mapping Tool Leadership Problem:To decrease poverty, violence, and pollution in El Salvador
  90. 90. <ul><li>The mapping tool surrounds some of the Wicked issues El Salvador faces. The map covers The non-profit organization Models for Unity and its basic setup premises. By mapping out ideas that the leader initiates followers can contribute by adding their ideas and thus creating a stronger network and institution. The contextual intelligence embodies what one must consider when analyzing how the individuals and the organization itself will adhere to problems while considering cultural, other social, economic, and environmental implications. </li></ul>Photo taken at the Maria Auxiliadora school for girls in Chalchuapa, El Salvador during a Festive Pinata party hosted by Models for Unity in 2007 Models for Unity <ul>Contextual Intelligence Tool Reflection </ul>
  91. 91. The organizations vision and values To empower individuals by facilitating access to knowledge, information, and resources. To encourage individuals to use empowerment in constructive collaborative efforts to diminish poverty, violence and environmental destruction. To encourage individuals to make healthy choices by understanding the root causes of social, environmental, and economic afflictions. To motivate individuals to act upon individual responsibility to fight wicked problems. Leadership System drafts the implementation plan to implement leadership solution: Models for unity will host benefits, cultural shows, talent and fashion shows to bring communities together locally and abroad. Such events will bring local talent together and will allow individuals to collaborate for an international cause. Such local events can bring together local music artists, fashion designers, culinary specialists, poets, and performers to expose their talents in a welcoming environment that also supports the vision and values of the organization. Similar events can be held in the hosting country of the organization's project- in this case, El Salvador- where individuals will productively spend their time sharing their talents and further create a stronger community. These events are to encourage individuals to find motivation in healthy activities instead of contributing the violence that already exists in the country. A few of the individuals who could be involved: community organizers, event coordinators, political scientists, public administrators, individuals following different academic backgrounds, professors and teachers of El Salvador, Latino Network of Portland, volunteers, US Embassy, Salvadoran municipal and National Government. What do these individuals gain from the organization? Attaining the satisfaction of fulfilling particular visions and values. An ultimate goal is to inspire others to act with productive and progressive ideals in mind to create healthier communities for a more prosperous and healthier future for generations to follow. <ul>Inspire </ul><ul>Commit </ul><ul>Plan </ul><ul>Do </ul><ul>Reflect & Learn </ul><ul>Institutionalize </ul><ul>Vision and Values Norming Tool </ul>
  92. 92. Emotional IQ The ability to manage relationships and charisma. Emotional Self awareness and control Communications Persuasive symbols, words, examples to near and distant followers Vision Attractive to followers, effective- balance ideals and capabilities Soft Power- Inspirational Hard Power- Transactional Organizational Capacity Manage: reward and information systems, inner and outer circles (direct and indirect) Machiavellian skills Ability to : bully, buy, and bargain, maintain winning coalitions Smart Power- Combined Resources Contextual IQ (broad skills) Understand evolving environment, capitalize on trends, adjust stule to context and followers' needs
  93. 94. Strategic Intelligence <ul>Step 1. Framing -Sensing What Is Going On. Generally lay out my problem solving plan. Step 2. Focusing -Deciding what really matters. Given my values, skills, and authorities how can I leverage my leadership role to advance solutions for this problem. What are the key thinks I need to lead from where I am. Step 3. Patterning -Finding patterns that make sense. As the norming cycle iterates we could look to the progress and Learning from each stakeholder or sub-group, compare and contrast the learning and re-examine our problem implementation plan to ensure course direction. Step 4. Re-perceiving -Deepen our understanding. This re-examination will help increase the understanding of the problem and help adjust strategies to continue progress. Great opportunity to bring in some wise judgment. Step 5. Consequences -Define our critical domain of attention. As we learn from interim results should we rethink any aspects of the plan or any strategies. Step 6. Schema -Design our way forward. Plan and after repeating the norming cycle adjust our plan. Keep our thinking Dynamic, alive, and open to new possibilities. Step 7. Enacting -Put plans in action. Advance the work, keeping focused on collaboration, and communicating results. Step 8. Co-Evolving -Monitor the system. As the norming cycle iterates look for the implications of new learning and insights coming from successes or unexpected problems. Heighten collaboration in seeking new directions or needs to re-frame or re-perceive based on new realities. </ul>
  94. 95. As a person who actively wishes to progress by continuously learning to understand various contexts, I can say that the one of the greatest take away concepts I perceived through the emerge framework is that development composes sustainability: &quot;Growth is a quantitative increase in the economy. Growth increases size via assimilation of resources. Economic development is the purpose. Attainment of prosperity is society’s ultimate goal. Development is a qualitative change. It is about transitioning to a better state, an improvement in well-being of people. Development is identified as the new goal to replace the growth model.&quot; (Herman Daley, 1996) When I began approaching the wicked problems that El Salvador faces, I considered the perspective of sustainable development. The Sustainable development working framework is composed of understanding that an idea involving change must acknowledge the social, environmental, and economic connections and the principles that guide those connections. Within the working framework the social component involves sensitivity towards culture, creating ideas that are human-centered, developing livable communities, advocating education, striving for health and wellness among peoples, and respecting the rule of law. The environmental and economic principles are composed of understanding the right to develop while also respecting individuals mutually, understanding markets, demands and needs in moderation, inter-generational and intra-generational equities, partnership expectations, and transparency and accountability within systems. I keep the following components in mind when considering decision making for developments: Social Component: &quot;A socially sustainable system must achieve distributional equity, adequate provision of social services including health and education, gender equity, and political accountability and participation.&quot; Economic Component: &quot;An economically sustainable system must be able to produce goods and services on a continuing basis, to maintain manageable levels of government and external debt, and to avoid extreme sectoral imbalances which damage agricultural or industrial production.&quot; Ecological Component: &quot;An environmentally sustainable system must maintain a stable resource base, avoiding over-exploitation of renewable resources, and depleting non-renewable resources only to the extent that investment is made in adequate substitutes. This includes maintenance of biodiversity, atmospheric stability, and other ecosystem functions not ordinarily classed as economic resources.&quot; (Harris, 2000, p. 5)
  95. 96. <ul>Nye, Joseph S. 2008. The Powers to Lead. New York: Oxford University Press. Ingle, Marcus and Kirsten Magis. 2010. EMERGE, Public Leadership for Sustainable Development. Portland State University, Portland. <li>Presidencia De La Republica De El Salvador </li></ul><ul>References </ul>