Dear DFAmily, Design for America(DFA) is all about creating leaders of innovation and impact through the implementation of DFA projects. We use the human-centered design process to help us achieve these goals. However, this process is rarely a linear progression, and while it might appear very neat here it can be more like a roller-coaster when you’re in the middle of it. That’s why we’ve made this guide- to provide you with an overview of what you’re getting into and guidance along the way. This DFA process guide includes three main phases-D D Understand, Create, Implement, with three steps within each phase. In here, you’ll find an overview to each step, a story from a real DFA project, actions to take in each step, and aR R list of criteria to help determine whether or not to move on or iterate. You can read the guide on your own, share it with friends, or bring it to your next team meeting to discussAF AF what you may want to do next in your project. If you’re in a time crunch, we recommend skipping to the criteria sections of each step to get a quick overview. This guide, is still a work in progress. Like all good designs, this is meant to be improved on and to do this we need your T T help. Please send any suggestions to: email@example.com Thank you for joining us in this journey to use design to create local and social impact. Sincerely,
DFA PROCESS OVERVIEW Understand UNDERSTAND What is the challenge you are trying to solve? The Understand phase involves identifying a challenge in your community you are passionate about solving, immersing yourself in the context where people confront the challenge and reframing how you perceive your challenge to determine where design could make a difference. The more you understand your community the better the solutions your team is likely to develop and improve theIDENTIFY Immerse Reframe world around you.D D Create CREATE R R What are all the possible solutions that fulfill the need? The Create phase is where you make and test your ideas with community members, mentors, and professional experts. It AF AF involves ideating solutions, building prototypes and testing these prototypes to see what works. You build and test different parts of the solution tossing out the parts that don’t work, and keepingIdeate BUILD Test the parts that do. Through this iterative process, you can develop the best possible solution for your community. T T implement IMPLEMENT How will you get your solution into the world? The Implementation phase is about making sustainable impact with your solution. This stage involves pitching your solutions to secure needed resources, piloting your solution with the community and creating an impact by getting your solution into the hands of people who will use your design. Pitch Pilot impact
DESIGN JOURNEY TIPSThe design process is a journey. There is no one right or wrongpath, but below are some tips to help you along the way.D DLook Ahead: Write it Down: Ask for Help: Tell Stories: Iterate: Reflect:Life is busy. As a Don’t assume you’ll No one has all the Don’t just tell people You are not supposed Throughout yourstudent, you have a remember something answers. There are what you are doing, to get it right the process, it will be R Rmillion things going later. Always carry a people all around us tell them a story. first time. Learning important to reflecton so it takes a pen and notebook and who have unique and Tell them about the the design process on how you’re feelinglittle bit of planning write down a thought potentially helpful people you’ve met, is never-ending. and evaluate yourahead. Create a or observation when expertise. It’s easy their lives, something You become better work. By reflecting, AF AFtimeline and a list of it hits you. When to waste time being they said, and how and better at it over you become moremilestones for each appropriate, take afraid of not knowing they can help. Think time and so do your aware of what you’veterm, email people a picture of what what to do. Reach about your audience ideas. Don’t stop learned, what you arewell in advance and inspired you. These out and ask for help. and what they would after one good idea uncomfortable with,put agendas together artifacts will help you Celebrate what you be most excited to or building one good and when to ask forbefore a meeting so down the road to don’t know and what hear about. If they’re prototype. Go back help. T Tyou know what you make sense of your you can learn from excited to hear your to the communityhope to achieve. observations and tell others. story, they’ll be more continuously to learn your story later on. likely to help. how to improve your solutions.
10 11 INTRODUCTIONU U Identify is the step when you find a challenge that excites your team, has the potential to make a positive impact, and when you establish a community partner.C C The design process begins with identifying a challenge I I that you aim to solve. Don’t try to solve everything Intro IDENTIFY at once. A good challenge is daring, feasible, and applicable; this means that when you talk about your duction challenge most people will agree that it’s a big problem, IDENTIFY D D you should be able to access community members experiencing the problem, and is relevant across the country. R R During this step, you’ll want to establish a community partner. A community partner is someone within a local organization working on your selected challenge. Your AF AF community partner can share his or her expertise and connect you to individuals experiencing the challenge. Actions in Identify: • Seek challenges in your community T T • Establish a community partner • Evaluate and select challenge How does Identify set you up for success in Immerse? Identifying provides the team with an area of focus. It also provides the team with a community partner who can provide expertise on the challenge and access to users. Nana and team identifying challenges to kick-off the school year studio (2010)
STORY: WATER CONSERVATION Establish a community partner 13 Working with a campus group who had expertise in water U conservation gave us access to a lot of information about the challenge and had the potential to help us apply our solution later in the process. Although it took some time to find the right person to talk to, over time, we also established a relationship with our campus cafeteria. They didn’t let us in C the kitchen at first, but we established a good rapport with I the manager and were able to work with the staff on the Story IDENTIFY project to observe how they used water. For these reasons we felt that the challenge was applicable. Evaluate and select challenge DD The project team identifies that water conservation in the cafeteria We did a bit more research to narrow the challenge down was a daring, feasible, and applicable challenges (2009) and identify a place and a specific user. One of the things that we looked at was the water usage in dining halls and R R restaurants. A huge amount of water is used in dining hallsSeek challenges in your community and restaurants! Since we were able to establish a relationshipWe were looking for a challenge and we knew we were with a community partner within a cafeteria, we decided tointerested in the environment and sustainability. We read focus our efforts here. At this point our challenge became AF AFthe local newspaper, and talked to a number of friends and “how can we reduce the amount of water usage in cafeterias?”professors to come up with a number of different generalchallenges. Through talking about our challenge to friends wediscovered that there was an organization on campus that wasworking on water conservation, and this was a topic our teamwas passionate about. T TThrough these discussions we felt that there would be lots ofopportunities to innovate – after all, water is used all over theplace. At this point one of our challenge questions was “howcan we reduce water usage?” We looked at our challengesand felt that water conservation had the most potential fora number of reasons. We realized that this might be a great Skills to Practice:place to make an impact because water conservation is a • A strong ability to communicate DFA’s mission - to create positivehuge problem. We were really excited about it, and felt it social impactwould make it a really daring challenge. Also, water is used • Communicating with a potential community partner that DFA projectseverywhere, and so we would be able to access, observe and draw on understanding community members, and that this requiresinterview community members in a number of different places, having access to observe and test with these community members.so it seemed feasible.
14 ACTIONS 15U U Seek challenges in your community Decide as a group your project time-frame and which challenge theme you want to focus on within the areas of Health, Education, Economy or the Environment. You can doC a big brainstorm of potential challenges at the beginning or C decide who is going to look into what before regrouping and I I determining your challenge direction. It’s often a good idea ACTI IDENTIFY to generate a number of project ideas at first. You can seek challenges from sources such as: competitions for social good, ONS existing campus initiatives, the local or national news, or by D D simply asking those within your community on and off-campus Yuri Malina talking to a community partner about her experiences what they think is a big need. with asthma. (2011) Phrase your potential challenges as challenge statements. community partner who is close to campus - 15 minutes travel Challenge statements are ‘how can we...’ statements, such is a good rule of thumb. R R as ‘how can we reduce water usage?’ or ‘how can we reduce Reach out to someone within the organization. You’ll want to childhood obesity?’ Challenge statements describe the contact someone who has the time to help you coordinate problem that a project team is trying to solve. They are a tool interviews and visits. For example, if you’re doing work AF AF for you to evaluate and reflect upon your project direction. with autistic children in a school this might be their teacher. At this stage challenges should point to a general problem, but Overtime, you may need a manager or key decision maker to not suggest how you will solve the problem. You won’t have ensure you can continue working with the group. learned enough about the problem to know how to make an When speaking to your community explain what you are trying impact. ‘How can we reduce water usage within cafeterias?’ or to achieve and the types of challenges that DFA teams tackle. ‘how can we improve the lives of the mentally disabled?’ don’t Focus the conversation on those the organization serves and T T tell you much information or how you will tackle the problem. try to avoid projects that treat the partner as a client such as This is the level of specificity you want at this stage of the website re-designs, volunteer engagement strategies, or fund- process. This challenge statement will become more specific raising campaigns. We find focusing on the challenge is where after establishing and talking with a community partner. DFA teams can best deliver. Establish a community partner Having decided upon a possible challenge you’ll need Keep an eye out for: staying in your comfort zone to establish a relationship with a community partner. A It’s important to push yourself outside of your comfort zone. It can be community partner is an organization that can provide you intimidating to talk to strangers. It will often take time and multiple tries to get a hold of people but persistence is key. Your projects will with domain expertise and give you access to community benefit enormously if you get advice and feedback from experts in members so you can really look into the problem. If you’re design and the domain in which you are working. It will also benefit looking at childhood obesity for example, your community enormously if you can access the community members for whom you want to design. partner might be a local school. It works best to have a
16 17 Evaluate and select the challengesU U Now that you have identified potential challenge statements and established a community partner, evaluate potential challenges based on whether they are: DaringC Successful projects tend to tackle an exciting and big C challenge. I I Ask yourself: If you are successful, is there an opportunity ACTI IDENTIFY to make an impact on a serious problem? Can you make explain within 30 seconds why your challenge is a big ONS problem? D D Sean Hammett evaluating potential challenge statements. (2011) Feasible Successful projects require access to the community As you identify and talk to a community partner you’ll begin to members experiencing the challenge. R R narrow down your challenge statement further so you can be Ask yourself: Do you have access to community more focused when you get to the Immerse stage. Ask your members? Will you be able to observe community partner: Who do you serve? What are the biggest challenges members experiencing the challenge? Can you test or your community faces? At this point, you can evaluate your AF AF photograph the challenge? challenge statement to include a particular person and place. For example, the water conservation challenge went from Applicable reducing water usage in general to, “how can we reduce water Successful projects tend to solve problems that are waste in cafeterias and restaurants?” They also knew from a present in many places across the country, but are within little bit of online research that water waste was a big issue, a domain in which the team could have influence. so it’s important to look up some key statistics to determine T T Ask yourself: Will solutions to this problem be applicable whether or not your challenge is a big problem. to lots of places in the US? Is it in a domain that is within How can we reduce water usage? your sphere of influence? How can we reduce water waste in Use the following DFA Project Scoping wheel with your team cafeterias? to help identify your challenge. Once you have identified a few potential challenge statements, share them with others and How can we get customers to your community partner to determine which one might be the scrape their plates? best to pursue.
18U DFA Project Scoping Wheel CRITERIA Now use this guide to help you think about your own project. 19 U DFA Project Scoping Wheel Have we done the following? Allowed team members to give input on the challenge Created a broad challenge statement that defines a problem, and a potential location to observe the challengeC If I had 30 seconds C with the President, Do I know who Secured a community partner(s) with established access to is this what I would my users are? I talk about? community members-within 15 minutes travel of your campus is I If I had 30 seconds with the President, Do I know who a good rule of thumb Can I Criteria IDENTIFY When I explain my users are? it, do people say is this what I would photograph or Obtained evidence and statistics to communicate why the talk about? m? le Is i test the “oh yeah,that ob ta challenge is a big problem is a big pr ne problem? Can I Established design mentors who have professional experience When I explain g e bi problem!”? it, do people say photograph or em? Is i with the design process (challenging, but recommended) d test the obl D D ta y “oh yeah,that in pr lly eall problem? Can I Established additional advisers who have expertise in the is a big FE ne reach users g my n m Can I problem!”? bi G A e domain of your challenge - these may often be the same as your r feel in under es it tacklit aar kle a IN the excitement d 15 minutes? comm coty? SIB SI community partner (challenging, but recommended) i in the air? DAR DAR Can I FE ea reach users A es e t c G R R LE BLE Can I feel in under y unimmunity? IN the excitement 15 minutes? in the air? Can I How do we know we’ve identified the right challenge for our team? Does it ask partner a new ques- with a local Our challenge is Daring: it is a really big problem PP Do A BL tion? E organization? Our challenge is Feasible: we have access to users and can LIC A AF AF Can I observe the problem Does it ask partner S? a new ques- it with a local Our challenge is Applicable: it is a problem across the country PP Do Is U A B L he tion? E a L organization? and is within our team’s sphere of influence e d t I C A h out t Is it in ne the news? h g ro u Is it in my sphere S? it Is U of influence? How do we know if our team should pause or take a step back? a he ne t out Is it in ed Is it thAre thereh We don’t have an established community partner the news? implementable? ro u g companies Is it in my sphere or non-profits inter- We have no evidence that our challenge is a big problem T T ested in this problem? of influence? We can’t reach our community members to interview and Is it Are there companies observe them implementable? or non-profits inter- Our team members are not excited by the challenge ested in this problem?
20 21 INTRODUCTIONU U Immersing yourself in the challenge means becoming an expert on the issue and experiencing your challenge first hand.C It’s important to immerse yourself in the challenge, C learning everything you can about the subject matter I I and to truly empathize with your user’s experience. Intro IMMERSE This step can help reveal gaps in existing solutions and highlight interactions and relationships to uncover duction unexpected patterns. IMMERSE D D Immersing oneself includes researching a variety of sources for background knowledge, but then really jumping in to learn as much as you can from people R R by talking to them and observing them. You’ll want to collect enough information and artifacts to help you better determine where design can make a difference. AF AF Actions in IMMERSE: • Get a Google PhD • Interview experts and users • Observe the challenge in context T T How does Immerse set you up for success in Reframe? Provides the team with research and behaviors to derive to help Yuri and Sheila spending time with kids from the Academy for uncover new perspectives for looking at the challenge. Global Citizenship to more deeply understand children’s relationship to the environment (Summer 2010)
STORY: HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS encouraged to wash their hands. However, in reality, studies 23 showed hospital staff only washed their hands 40% of the U time! Interview experts and users We partnered with two hospital units, one near the Northwestern University campus, and another in downtown C Chicago. In both cases we were connected with a small unit I within the hospital, which meant we had easier access to Story IMMERSE people to talk to. We spent most of our time observing in the hospital near the University, but we also made sure to build off the knowledge of those who have been doing this for a long time. We interviewed hospital staff as well as nurses to DD Hand hygiene team (clockwise: Yuri Malina, Mert Iseri, KC learn more about what they do and what they find difficult Porter, Hannah Chung photographed by coach Jeanne Olson) about keeping up with their sanitation regulations. These during observations, (Summer ‘09). conversations helped us understand how big the challenge is R R and what to look for when doing our observations.Get a Google PhDAn advisor recommended to us the challenge, “How can wereduce hospital-acquired infections?” Our initial research Observe the challenge in context AF AFtold us that hospital-acquired infections were indeed a BIG For the first few weeks of the project we spent a long timeproblem – responsible for 100,000 deaths every year in the US observing in shifts at the hospital. The hospital ran 24/7 soalone! However, beyond our assumptions that it was related to we would carry out observations at all times of day. In thehand-hygiene we realized that there was a lot we didn’t know observations we were looking to see the hospital staff’sabout the problem. So we decided to investigate the ways that working life. During this time, we noticed that staff neverinfections were passed around hospitals and different factors washed their hands if they were carrying something. We also T Tthat affected hospital acquired infections. noticed that staff would wipe their hands on their scrubs afterSome of us read up on different factors and interventions holding something wet and before shaking hands. One of ourthat have affected the rate of hospital-acquired infections. team members even ended up in the hospital due to injuryOur research helped us see that although people knew the and counted the times the staff did and did not sanitize their‘solution’ to the problem – regularly cleaning with antibacterial hands! This experience gave us a lot of insight around hospitalsoap or gel - this never seemed to happen in reality. There had staff’s current practices and where design might make abeen countless interventions that had all failed. This helped us difference.see that one possible route was looking at ways to increasehow regularly cleaning occurred in the hospital. Skills to Practice:When we researched current hospital best practices, we found • Ethnography - capturing specific, accurate and objective data aboutthat there were five check-points where hospital staff were community members in the context of the challenge.
24 25 ACTIONSU U Get a Google PhD Discuss as a team your assumptions about the problem to acknowledge your current understanding and identify areas that need further investigation. Determine who is affectedC by the problem and why the problem persists. You’ll want to C look for “slap-stats.” Slap-stats are statistics that when you I I share them, they feel like a slap and surprise to your listener. There are numerous sources you can look to help answer IMMERSE ACTI your questions and learn more about the challenge including: wikipedia, websites of organizations, forums and online Mert Iseri, interviewing nurse and staff at the local hospital. ONS communities about the issue as well as academic literature to (Summer 2009) D D see what research is already out there. Observe the challenge in context Interview experts and users Observing the challenge is a great way to find differences The purpose of interviews is to understand why people do between what people say and do. Determine the best location R R what they do. Throughout your research, share your findings to observe people interacting with the challenge. While in the with each other and look for surprising information that field, position yourself in a place that doesn’t interfere with the challenged your assumptions. Before an interview, determine flow or normal behavior of the community members you are AF AF what information you need to know, and a list of questions to observing. Focus on what is happening and avoid making any help you find these answers. judgements, simply record what you see. For example don’t Your questions should start out broad and become more record “child was jealous of his brother’s toy” rather “the child specific. Ask open ended questions, avoiding questions that cried when his brother was given a toy.” lead to yes or no answers. For example, “How do you decide Take notes, photos and look to capture many different aspects which tool to use?” instead of closed and leading questions of the community member’s experience. When you notice T T such as “Do you think education is important?” something important or interesting make a note or a quick Ask follow up questions such as “what do you mean?” “Can sketch. It’s vital to capture what you see, when you see it. you tell me more?” or often the best question can simply be, Focus on interactions and relationships. A good rule of thumb “why?” is to look at AEIOU: Activities, Environments, Interactions, Try to elicit stories and don’t be afraid of silence. Silence offers Objects, and Users so that you can really see all the variables up more time for the other person to elaborate. that influence your challenge. Interviews can be short and informal or prepared and Keep an eye out for: leading the witness scheduled to better understand how and why a person acts a Sometimes, after you do background research, you may think you know certain way. Ask your community partners for 20-30 minutes what the challenge is and you can start to look for evidence to support of their time or to connect you to other experts and users you this. This is called “confirmation bias.” When doing interviews, be can speak to. Thank them profusely for their time and give careful to not ask leading questions to confirm your assumptions. them a way to contact you.
26 CRITERIA 27U Now use this guide to help you think about your own project. U Have we done the following? Gathered information from a variety of credible sources Identified potential gaps in existing solutions Distilled slap-stats and research illustrating why the challenge isC C a big need I Established relationships with experts and community members I who we feel comfortable asking for guidance and feedback Criteria IMMERSE Collected quotes or stories from community members or experts that help us and others understand the problem Taken photos and notes throughout our research and shared with team D D How do we know if we immersed in the challenge well enough? We can explain why our challenge is a big deal in under a R R minute We can highlight potential gaps within existing solutions We can hold a conversation on the subject throughout dinner or a party AF AF We have some sense of how it feels to experience the challenge We can tell real stories as to how the challenge affects the community How do we know if our team should pause or take a step back? We have only done online research T T We have not talked to community members confronted with the challenge We have no evidence that our challenge is a big need or community members and experts don’t think the challenge is a big problem Our challenge can only be solved by a means beyond our ability to influence
28 29 INTRODUCTIONU U Reframing means finding patterns from within your research, more clearly defining the challenge you aim to solve, and setting goals for what you hope to achieve.C C Reframing helps you find patterns within your research. I I During this step, you are looking for “truths” or insights REFRAME Intro that help explain why people make the decisions they do, what motivates them, and what influences them. These duction patterns then become the driving force and rationale for REFRAME D D the solutions you come up with. This step entails finding patterns and insights from your research, looking at the problem from multiple R R perspectives and defining key moments where design can make a difference. AF AF Actions in REFRAME: T T • Make sense of your research • GENERATE & Choose challenge statements • Define DESIGN goals How does Reframing set you up for success during Ideation? Provides the team with narrowed down challenge statements Lulu and others evaluating their challenge statements using the DFA and insights that help the team come up with solutions Project Scoping Wheel (Leadership Studio 2011)
31STORY: CHILDHOOD OBESITY GENERATE & Choose challenge statements U After we looked for patterns within our research, we still weren’t completely sure of the direction we were headed. So we individually brainstormed all the potential challenge statements we could according to different people and locations the challenge occurs, coming up with close to 40 C different challenge statements. I We all then starred the ones we liked the most, which narrowed things down to about 10 statements. We made a REFRAME Story matrix with one axis being a scale of how excited we were about the statement and the other axis was how feasible it was. We took all of our starred challenge statements and DD discussed each one to evaluate it. Feasibility and accessingJames, from Fruit Buddi, mapping the in-store grocery experience to users became a big issue for us and so as we discusseddetermine where design might make a difference. (Summer 2011) our options, we decided that we could access children and R R families in a grocery store nearly any day. Therefore afterMake sense of your research going through all of the options the statement, “How can weWe did a lot of research both online and mostly by provide kids with their own shopping experience and reward healthy choices?” was both the most feasible and the most AFinterviewing and observing kids, parents, schools, and AFcommunity centers. It was somewhat overwhelming to exciting to us as a team.have so much information, but luckily, we connected with Define DESIGN goalsprofessional designers to help us make sense of all of our Based on our insights, we determined the following designinformation. We used a variety of techniques to help us look goals for our project: encourage ownership, provide a senseat all of our information in different ways such as asking of reward, and make a game out of selecting fruits andourselves, what is it about flaming hot cheetos that kids love T T vegetables. We then used these goals to help guide ourso much? What are all the moments throughout their day brainstorm and ideation session.when they decide to eat? Who controls these decisions? Wemade diagrams of their day, we listed out all the differentstakeholders involved in these decisions and how they affectedthe situation according to their own motivation and biases.From this pattern finding, we were able to derive insights andkey lessons such as: kids want to eat healthy, culture plays abig role in food choice, kids have most control over their snackchoices above other meals. Fruit Buddi’s brainstorm of Challenge Statements according to different stakeholders and locations. (Summer 2011)
32 33 ACTIONSU U MAKE SENSE OF YOUR RESEARCH Below are a list of ways you can make sense of your research. Each one can lead your team to uncovering new ways to look at your challenge.C C Clustering I I Write down each individual observation you’ve made on a post-it note, especially things that surprised you while REFRAME ACTI immersed in your challenge. As a team, cluster words or topics that seem similar or related. Circle each cluster and ONS label them with a theme that ties them together. This will D D Fruit Buddi’s clustering their observations to look for patterns. help you find broad themes about your challenge. (Summer 2011) Journey Map After using some of these or similar methods, write down Reflect on the stories you heard from your users and R R 3-5 main take-aways you have from doing this process. community. Diagram a person’s day and highlight These take-aways are called insights. An insight is a new moments where they are interacting specifically with the understanding of the problem. challenge. This will help you see potential key moments GENERATE & Choose challenge statements AF AF where design can make a difference. Generating new challenge statements can help your team Stakeholder Matrix look at your project from new perspectives and more clearly Create a grid using marker or masking tape. On one axis, understand what you aim to solve . There are several ways write down all the various people who impact or influence you can generate new challenge statements. You can use your your challenge. On the other axis, write down all the stakeholder matrix or journey map to think to stimulate many places where people interact with the problem. This will difference challenges statements. T T help you uncover opportunities for design you may not have considered before. Pain Points & Bright Spots On post-it notes, write down and cluster all the moments that seemed to cause the most difficulty for those Keep an eye out for: analysis paralysis interacting with your challenge. Similarly, write down all It is easy to feel like there is always more to understand and more the times where a person or group of people overcame research is needed before moving forward. However, you can spend a challenge that the rest of their peers still face. This will so much time researching that your team might lose steam. Although help you uncover extreme scenarios and gaps for where deep understanding is key, it’s also important to be confident in your knowledge and fearless in moving forward. The process is iterative design can make a difference. and you can always come back to do more research, while still making progress on the project.
34 35 Ask yourself: Do you have stories from the communityU depicting how they experience your challenge? When you U share your insights with your community partners and users do they confirm this is a challenge? Applicable Successful projects tend to solve problems that areC C present in many places across the country, but are within I a domain in which the team could have influence. I REFRAME Ask yourself: Do others share their own stories about ACTI how they or someone they know has experienced the challenge? ONS D D Fruit Buddi’s evaluating their potential challenge statements. Once you have 1-3 Challenge Statements, share them and their (Summer 2011) rationale with your community partners to get their feedback to decide if they are challenges worth pursuing. Define DESIGN goals R R Another method is to create a map of existing solutions Design goals are properties you intend for your solution to and see where the gaps are. These gaps can then help you have. It is simply taking your insights and translating these generate new challenge statements. into goals. For example- an insight that “kids are more likely to AF AF To choose a challenge statement you can start out by voting eat food they pick out themselves” becomes a design goal of on your favorites as a team. Then use these and evaluate them “encourage children to select their own food.” Therefore your using the DFA Project Scoping Wheel previously discussed on solution should encourage children to pick out their own food. page 18. It’s good to have 3-5 of these design goals before starting Unlike the identifying step, your challenge statement after your ideation. These design goals are important to help guide reframing should be one that inspires solutions and prepares your team before ideation and evaluate your ideas afterwards. T T your team for ideation. At this point in the process, a well defined challenge is: Daring Successful projects often highlight a challenge that everyone can agree is a big challenge. Ask yourself: When you share your challenge, are they surprised by your insights and excited to learn more? Feasible Successful projects base their solutions directly from insights from the community.
36 CRITERIA 37U Now use this guide to help you think about your own project. U Have we done the following? Shared our research with our team members Analyzed our research to gain new perspectives Written down 3-5 key insightsC C Established 3-5 design goals I Developed a Challenge Statement with a specific user and I context based on research REFRAME Criteria Collected quotes or stories from community members or experts that help you understand the problem Re-told these stories from community members or experts that help others understand the problem D D Shared your challenge statement(s) with your partner or experts to get feedback on your project direction How do we know we’re ready to start ideating solutions? R R We can identify specific behaviors we would like to encourage with our design We’ve uncovered insights about our community members that AF AF are not obvious We’ve uncovered insights about our community members that give us a sense of how you might start to solve the problem Our challenge statement make us imagine many different types of solutions How do we know if our team should pause or take a step back? T T We have not talked to community members confronted with the challenge We have only done online research We feel really overwhelmed by the challenge and don’t feel we can make an impact Community members and experts don’t think the challenge solves a big problem