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Urheberrechtsschutz für Graffiti-Tag

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Mit seiner vielzitierten „Geburtstagszug“-Entscheidung (BGH, Urteil vom 13.11.2013, Az. I ZR 143/12) hat der Bundesgerichtshof im Jahr 2013 in Abkehr von seiner früheren Rechtsprechung ausdrücklich festgestellt, dass auch für sog. „Werke der angewandten Kunst“, worunter Designleistungen aller Art fallen, grundsätzlich keine anderen oder strengeren Anforderungen zur Erlangung urheberrechtlicher Schutzfähigkeit gelten dürfen, als für Werke der bildenden Kunst oder andere Werke.

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Urheberrechtsschutz für Graffiti-Tag

  1. 1. ∂ Tel. 0049. (0)30. 59 69 66 19 E-Mail info@designerdock.com www.designerdock.com Personalvermittlung für Kommunikation und Marketing Mit seiner vielzitierten „Geburtstagszug“-Entscheidung (BGH, Urteil vom 13.11.2013, Az. I ZR 143/12) hat der Bundesgerichtshof im Jahr 2013 in Abkehr von seiner früheren Rechtsprechung ausdrücklich festgestellt, dass auch für sog. „Werke der angewandten Kunst“, worunter Designleistungen aller Art fallen, grundsätzlich keine anderen oder strengeren Anforderungen zur Erlangung urheberrechtlicher Schutzfähigkeit gelten dürfen, als für Werke der bildenden Kunst oder andere Werke. Und während Urheberrechtsschutz zwar für sog. Gebrauchsschriften, die für gewöhnliche Druckerzeugnisse Anwendung finden und daher eine klare und leicht lesbare Linienführung verlangen, wegen des dadurch in der Regel zu geringen künstlerischen Spielraums trotzdem nur in Ausnahmefällen zu erreichen sein wird, hat das Landgericht München Ende 2014 in konsequenter Anwendung dieser gewandelten höchstrichterlichen Rechstprechung geurteilt, dass die grafische Gestaltung eines als Firmenlogo genutzten Schriftzuges als Graffiti-Tag ein geschütztes Werk im Sinne des UrhG ist, das seinem Urheber Ansprüche auf Unterlassung und Schadensersatz gegen jeden gewährt, der es ohne dessen Zustimmung nutzt (LG München I, Urteil v. 26.11.2014, Az. 37 O 28164/13). Im zugrunde liegenden Fall hatte der Geschäftsführer des klagenden Sportartikel- und Lifestyle- Unternehmens Ende der Neunziger Jahre einen Mitarbeiter in einem Sprayershop beauftragt, die als Wortmarke für die Klägerin geschützte Zeichenfolge K1X in Form eines Graffiti-Tags zu entwerfen, das als Logo zur Kennzeichnung von Basketballmützen verwendet werden sollte. Urheberrechtsschutz für Graffiti-Tag
  2. 2. ∂ Tel. 0049. (0)30. 59 69 66 19 E-Mail info@designerdock.com www.designerdock.com Personalvermittlung für Kommunikation und Marketing Hierbei machte der Geschäftsführer verschiedene weitere Vorgaben, wie dass insbesondere die Ziffer 1 gut lesbar sein sollte und der Tag insgesamt vielleicht mit einem Unterstrich versehen sein könnte. Aus insgesamt 50 verschiedenen Entwürfen des späteren Beklagten wurde letztlich einer ausgewählt und umgesetzt – wofür dieser zunächst mit 10,00 DM und einem Paar Schuhen vergütet wurde. Später wurde die Produktpallette der Klägerin erweitert, das vom Beklagten entworfene Logo auch auf anderen Textilien verwendet, und im Jahr 2002 insofern eine nachträgliche Vereinbarung über die Nutzung des Tags durch die Klägerin „als Logo und/oder Design“ geschlossen, wofür der Beklagte eine weitere Vergütung in Höhe von 2.000,00 EUR erhielt. Mit gesellschaftsstruktururellen Veränderungen auf Seiten der Klägerin und Nutzung des Tags auch durch deren (teilweise) Rechtsnachfolgerinnen bzw. von ihr neu gegründete Unternehmen entstanden zwischen den Parteien Rechtsstreitigkeiten über die jeweiligen Berechtigungen, und das Landgericht München hat in deren Rahmen schließlich entschieden, dass die vom Beklagten entworfene graphische Gestaltung der Schriftzeichen K1X eine persönliche geistige Schöpfung im Sinne des Urheberrechtsgesetzes darstellt und als „Werk“ gemäß § 2 Abs. 1 Nr. 4, Abs. 2 UrhG entsprechend geschützt ist. Hierbei war es nach Ansicht des Gerichtes unerheblich, dass seinerzeit der Geschäftsführer der Klägerin schon bestimmte Vorgaben zur Gestaltungsweise gemacht hatte – bereits, dass der Beklagte selbst unter Berücksichtigung dieser Vorgaben zunächst 50 verschiedene Entwürfe gefertigt hat, spreche für einen großen verbleibenden Gestaltungsspielraum und eine Vielzahl künstlerischer Variationen. Und bei Betrachtung des konkret vom Beklagten geschaffenen und von der Klägerin genutzten Schriftzugs stächen „insbesondere die Neigung der Buchstaben, der „verlängerte“ Buchstabe K und die „Schlaufe“ am Ende des Logos ins Auge. Insgesamt zeichnet sich der hier zu beurteilende Schriftzug durch eine verspieltschwungvolle Ästhetik aus“.
  3. 3. ∂ Tel. 0049. (0)30. 59 69 66 19 E-Mail info@designerdock.com www.designerdock.com Personalvermittlung für Kommunikation und Marketing Auch im Bereich von Firmen-Logos und etwa der Ausgestaltung von Wortmarken als Schriftzügen gilt daher entsprechend der jüngsten BGH-Rechtsprechung, dass bei Werken der angewandten Kunst eine die Durchschnittsgestaltung deutlich überragende Leistung nicht (mehr) erforderlich ist, sondern es allein auf eine eigene geistige Schöpfung in der Ausfüllung eines gegebenen Gestaltungsspielraumes ankommt, deren Gestaltungshöhe es „nach Auffassung der für Kunst empfänglichen und mit Kunstanschauungen einigermaßen vertrauten Kreise rechtfertigt, von einer ‚künstlerischen‘ Leistung zu sprechen“ (BGH, I ZR 143/12 – Geburtstagszug). Dass also der Urheber, obwohl er grundsätzlich vertraglich einer bestimmten Nutzung des von ihm geschaffenen Graffiti-Tags zugestimmt hat und dafür entlohnt worden ist, trotzdem noch Unterlassungsansprüche geltend machen kann, liegt hier daran, dass die Nutzung nicht durch seinen ursprünglichen Vertragspartner, der die entsprechenden Nutzungsrechte erworben hat, erfolgt ist, sondern durch Folge- und Tochterunternehmen, die die entsprechenden Rechte nicht wirksam hatten erwerben können. © 2016 Katja Chudoba, Rechtsanwältin
 Kanzlei Karsten + Chudoba

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