Balancing Cost, Performance and Reliability when Choosing Solenoid Valves


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During this webinar we will review the key attributes of a valve including the mechanical and electrical characteristics as well as the operating condition requirements and valve functionality. You will also discover how to select the best product for an application or industry.
The other topics will range from performance issues like life cycle times to manufacturing techniques, Kanban, Passivation as well as testing and certification. We will also touch upon what makes one valve operate efficiently for the life of an application while others require more power and suffer premature failure.

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Balancing Cost, Performance and Reliability when Choosing Solenoid Valves

  1. 1. Balancing Cost, Performance and Reliability When Choosing Solenoid Valves
  2. 2. Before We Start  This webinar will be available afterwards at & email  Q&A at the end of the presentation  Hashtag for this webinar: #DWwebinar
  3. 3. Moderator Presenter Paul Heney Richard Ronzello Design World Peter Paul Electronics
  4. 4. Balancing Cost, Performance and Reliability when Choosing Solenoid Valves November 20, 2013
  5. 5. Webinar Overview Key Attributes of Valves Demonstrate How to Sort Out Differences How to Select the Best Product for an Application and/or Industry Topics range from performance issues like maximum operating pressure differentials to manufacturing techniques, Kanban, Passivation as well as testing and certification • What makes one valve operate efficiently for the life of an application while others require more power and suffer premature failure • • • •
  7. 7. Key Attributes of a Valve • • • • • • • Anatomy of a Valve Mechanical Characteristics Electrical Characteristics Operating Conditions Valve Temperature Range Maximum Operating Pressure Differentials Valve Functionality
  9. 9. Anatomy of a Valve
  10. 10. Valve Body • Houses orifice and inlet and outlet media ports, contains two drill and tapped holes for mounting • Typically made of Stainless Steel o Brass, Aluminum and Plastic available
  11. 11. Flange Seal • Flange Seals are the O rings used to seal between the sleeve assembly and the body. Flange Seal
  12. 12. Sleeve Assembly • Attaches to body and houses the plunger allowing the plunger to travel • Sleeve assembly is comprised of a non-magnetic metal tube, a magnetic metal flange and magnetic metal end stop. These pieces welded together make up the sleeve assembly
  13. 13. Plunger • Travels up and down to seal the orifice, either starting or stopping flow of the media • The plunger seal is inserted into a cavity in the end of the plunger • The plunger seal insert material comes in contact with the orifice to seal it
  14. 14. Plunger Return Spring • A valve spring attached to the plunger returns the plunger to it’s original position when the solenoid is switched off.
  15. 15. Coil • Electric current passes through a wire wound around a bobbin to create an electromagnetic field which draws the plunger upward.
  16. 16. Housing • Housing is used to carry the magnetic flux around the outside of the coil, allowing for an efficient electromagnet.
  17. 17. Housing
  18. 18. Top Nut • Screws on to sleeve assembly to secure housing and body together, also assists in carrying magnetic flux.
  20. 20. Orifice • Used to control flow, orifice size is directly proportional to the amount of flow. • As you increase the diameter of the orifice, you increase the amount of flow. • As you increase the orifice size, you decrease the pressure rating.
  21. 21. Ports • Threaded holes that allow connection of pipes or other components to the valve. • Ports can vary in size and thread type.
  23. 23. Power Requirements • Coil Voltage: PeterPaul manufactures it’s own coils which range in voltages from 2 to 1040 VAC 50 or 60 HZ. – 1.8 to 300 V DC • Coil Wattage: PeterPaul designs coils for optimal pulling force ranging from .5 watts to 18 watts. • Maximum coil heat rise in our standard valves is 85°C
  24. 24. Typical Response Time on Air • Indicates plunger travel of one complete cycle, open to close. It takes 4 to 16 milliseconds to open and 4 to 16 milliseconds to close
  26. 26. Media • Air water and other fluids compatible with standard Buna seals. Hot water, gasoline and many oils require special seal materials.
  27. 27. Valve Temperature Range • Standard Valves o o 0°F (-18°C) to 104°F (40°C) ambient 0°F (-18°C) to 150°F (65°C) media • Coil can be designed to tolerate much higher or much lower ambient and media temperatures. • Seal material must be considered when temperatures exceed above conditions
  28. 28. Maximum Operating Pressure Differentials • The maximum difference in pressure between the inlet and outlet ports which the valve can be safely operated by the solenoid
  29. 29. Burst Pressure • The maximum pressure, which can be applied to the valve without it rupturing. • Stainless steel valves typically have a burst pressure rating above 10,000 P.S.I.
  30. 30. Leakage • • • Internal leakage; the amount of media that passes between the orifice and the plunger seal when tested at pressure. External leakage; leakage between the internal parts of the valve and external parts of the valve. Typically valves are tested for allowable leakage per UL specifications and are bubble tight at rated pressure.
  31. 31. Vacuum • Vacuum at 30 inches of mercury is equal to 15 P.S.I of forward pressure. • Higher vacuum levels (over 18 inches of mercury) may require seals other than standard Buna
  32. 32. Certifications/Registrations Typical Certifications for Valve Include: • UL Listed/Recognized • CSA Listed/Recognized • NSF Approval • CE Approval • ATEX Certification • ISO 9000
  34. 34. 2 Way Normally Open • A valve in which the orifice is open in the de-energized position and flow exists between the inlet and outlet ports. • In the energized position the plunger lifts and seals the top orifice, shutting off flow between the inlet and outlet ports.
  35. 35. 2 Way Normally Closed • A valve in which the orifice is closed in the de-energized position and no flow can exist between the inlet and outlet ports. (no electrical current to coil) • In the energized position the plunger lifts off the seat allowing flow between the inlet and outlet ports. (electrical current to the coil)
  36. 36. 3 Way Valves • A valve that has two orifices and three ports. • One orifice is always open when the other is closed and one port is always open to one of the other two ports. • Flow is controlled by opening or closing either of the two orifices.
  37. 37. 3 Way Normally Open • A valve in which the inlet orifice is open and the exhaust orifice is closed in the de-energized position. • Full flow can exist between the inlet and cylinder ports.
  38. 38. 3 Way Normally Closed • A valve in which the inlet orifice is closed and the exhaust orifice is open in the de-energized position. • Can be configured to exhaust to atmosphere or pipe exhaust.
  39. 39. 3 Way Directional Control • A valve in which the inlet is open to the normally open port when the coil is de-energized and open to the normally closed port when the coil is energized.
  40. 40. 3 Way MultiPurpose • A valve which will function as 3 way normally open, as 3 way normally closed, and 3 way directional control, depending on the piping. • The valve can have two inlets and one outlet. (This is the inverse of a directional control which has one inlet that can flow to one of two outlets.)
  41. 41. VALVE TYPES
  42. 42. General Purpose (Direct-Acting) • General purpose valves range in port size from 10-32 ports to ¼ inch NPT ports. • Typically utilized for water and air and other media compatible with standard Buna seals.
  43. 43. Explosion Proof • A solenoid valve constructed to meet the specifications of UL and CSA for operation in hazardous locations (locations in which combustible dusts, fibers or gases may be present in the atmosphere around the valve.) • These valves are designed to either completely segregate the combustible atmosphere from the electrical coil (encapsulated coil technique) or contain a potential explosion inside a very substantial housing structure surrounding the coil (flameproof technique using machined metal housings.)
  44. 44. High Pressure • Typically having a maximum pressure rating between 1000 and 5000 P.S.I. • Constructed as impact valves, utilizing a pin which functions as a sealing element. The plunger accelerates a short distance before impacting the pin, opening the orifice.
  45. 45. High Flow • Valves that are typically pilot operated to allow for larger main orifices and therefore higher flow rates.
  47. 47. Considering all the Variables • • • • Flow o Liquid o Gas o CV Rating Pressure o Vacuum o Up to 5,000 psi Connections o NPT, British Pipe Thread, etc. Valve Function o 2Way, 3 Way etc. • • • • Environment o Hot, cold, extreme, o Water resistant o Hazardous Size o Packaging Energy o Power Requirements Media o Liquid, gas, etc. o Temperature
  50. 50. 1. Pipe Port Size Q: What size port connections are appropriate for your application? • Specifying a pipe port size will eliminate any series that does not contain that particular size port.
  51. 51. 2. Function Q: How you would like the valve to function? • Specifying a function will determine type of valve, 2 way, 3 way, normally open, normally closed etc. • If the answer is “I don’t know”, refer to the graphic for flow configuration.
  52. 52. 3. Voltage Q: What is the actual voltage & frequency the valve needs to function at? • Valves are designed to operate at +/- 10% of the nameplate voltage.
  53. 53. 4. Maximum Operating Pressure Differential • Q: What is the maximum pressure the valve will see? o i.e.: 25 PSI., 100 PSI., 500 PSI. etc. Never drops below 100 PSI Valve actually sees 200 PSI 300 PSI
  54. 54. 5. Flow Rate Q: What is the required flow? • Flow rate and CV questions pertain to flow characteristics. • Flow rate is a function of inlet vs. outlet pressure and orifice size, not just inlet pressure. • CV factor is the quantity of 60 degrees F. water expressed in gallons per minute which will flow through the valve at 1 PSI pressure drop. • Orifice size is dictated by either the flow rate or the CV factor.
  55. 55. 6. Electrical Connection/ Housing Q: What is the required electrical connection? • Here are 2 most typical housings available for electrical connections: • Conduit: Coil enclosure that allows conduit pipe to be attached to the valve therefore covering exposed lead wires. • Grommet: Coil enclosure with two exposed lead wires.
  56. 56. Cycle Life PERFORMANCE ISSUES
  57. 57. Cycle Life • This depends on the application but 10’s of millions of cycles on lubricated media is typical • One extreme application, a product was developed to reach 1 billion cycles
  58. 58. Kanban, Passivation and Testing MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES
  59. 59. Kanban Kanban is a lean concept of controlling inventory Customer Experiences •Short lead times •Reduced inventory levels (higher inventory turns – synchronize your production more closely with the purchased material receipts) •Increased flexibility as product demand fluctuates •Improved supplier performance Supplier Experiences •Leveled Demand resulting in: o o o Improved Quality & Delivery performance to the customer Right sized & planned inventories creates smoother production flow & improved cash flow Increased communication (Kanban signals) enhances flexibility & enables faster reaction to changes in demand
  60. 60. Part Finishing/Passivation • Passivation Method o This proprietary method is applied to the various stainless steel components of the valve. This ensures a highly corrosive resistance surface condition. • Part Finish o The orifice geometry and finish help ensure a bubble tight seal.
  61. 61. R&D / Testing Comprehensive valve solutions entail: Valve Design • 3D Modeling • Application Engineering • In-house Prototyping/Sampling • In-house Validation Testing o Thermal (Hot and Cold) Environmental o Moisture (Humidity) o Vacuum to 5000 PSI Gas o Hydraulic Oil Stand to 3500 PSI o Vibration • Pre-Production/Pilot Run (3P) • Plastics Design/Molding • Magnetic Analysis • Electro-Mechanical Design To produce cost effective & reliable product FAE Analysis Modeling/Prototyping
  62. 62. Manufacturing Capabilities • Machining • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Boring Broaching Drilling Facing Filing Finish Machining Grinding Grooving Honing Knurling Lapping Mechanical Milling Milling Reaming Rough Machining Sawing Shaping Swiss Screw Machining Tapping Thread Milling Turning • Molding • • • • • Injection Molding Insert Molding Polymer Molding Pour Molding Fabrication • • • • • • • • • • • • Bending Bonding Conventional Spinning Forming Piercing Plasma Cutting Punching Shearing Sheet Metal Fabrication Slitting Stretch Forming Thread Forming At PeterPaul 85% of solenoid valves are manufactured in-house
  63. 63. THANK YOU
  65. 65. Questions? Design World Paul Heney Phone: 440.234.4531 Twitter: @DW_Editor Peter Paul Electronics Richard Ronzello Phone: 860.229.4884
  66. 66. Thank You  This webinar will be available at & email  Tweet with hashtag #DWwebinar  Connect with  Discuss this on