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CRITICAL FACTORS FOR ENABLING NORTH AMERICAN LI-ION CELL MANUFACTURING

James Trevey Forge Nano

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Electric Vehicles
Battery Tech USA 2022
March 2022
James Trevey Ph.D
Chief Technology Officer
Critical Factors For Enabling North American Li-ion Cell
Manufacturing
Introduction to Forge Nano
Confidential
3
End-to-End Material Solutions Provider
R&D Services
Toll-Coating (milligrams to kilotons)
Equipment Sales (Lab to Commercial-Scale)
*End Products*
• Founded in 2011
• 70 employees, 100% YoY growth past 3 years
• 40,000 ft2 facility near Denver, CO
• Scaled a nano-coating technology called ALD
• Typically engaged as innovation partner
• Technology demonstrated at giga-factory scale
• Developed a Li-ion battery formulation for 300Wh/kg
Confidential
4
ALD for Batteries
• ALD is applicable in many markets
• In Li-ion/Beyond Li-ion Batteries:
• Increases energy density
• Increases power density
• Increases cycle life
• Increases safety
• Decreases cost
ALD precision coatings deliver:
• Engineer the SEI enabling long-term
material integrity
• Cleans and protects surface, keeps
resistance low
• Reduces the occurrence of key
exothermic reactions
Confidential
Forge Nano ALD Battery data examples
(up to 100Ah)
Confidential
High Energy
Density
Increased
Lifetime
Safer
Faster Charge Lower Cost Future Proof
(1) Independently validated by major auto manufacturer.
(2) Quantified by % reduction in exothermic energy from arc test.
(3) Projected for full-scale production based on detailed cost modeling.
~20%
increase in range
for same battery
size and chemistry
2-10x
increase in cycle
life(1)
50%
decrease in heat
generation(2)
Decrease rating to
EUCAR3(1)
10 minute
fast-charge without
sacrificing battery life
20%
lower cost per kWh(3)
Increased capacity and
voltage
Lower degradation rate
of time
More temperature
tolerant and lower fire
risk
Allows for higher
charge voltage
Replaces costly
processing steps
Keep up with battery
chemistry evolution
Improved
Li-metal and
solid-state
batteries
6
ALD is a Customer Validated Technology Platform that Enhances Battery
Performance

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CRITICAL FACTORS FOR ENABLING NORTH AMERICAN LI-ION CELL MANUFACTURING

  • 1. Electric Vehicles Battery Tech USA 2022 March 2022 James Trevey Ph.D Chief Technology Officer Critical Factors For Enabling North American Li-ion Cell Manufacturing
  • 3. Confidential 3 End-to-End Material Solutions Provider R&D Services Toll-Coating (milligrams to kilotons) Equipment Sales (Lab to Commercial-Scale) *End Products* • Founded in 2011 • 70 employees, 100% YoY growth past 3 years • 40,000 ft2 facility near Denver, CO • Scaled a nano-coating technology called ALD • Typically engaged as innovation partner • Technology demonstrated at giga-factory scale • Developed a Li-ion battery formulation for 300Wh/kg
  • 4. Confidential 4 ALD for Batteries • ALD is applicable in many markets • In Li-ion/Beyond Li-ion Batteries: • Increases energy density • Increases power density • Increases cycle life • Increases safety • Decreases cost ALD precision coatings deliver: • Engineer the SEI enabling long-term material integrity • Cleans and protects surface, keeps resistance low • Reduces the occurrence of key exothermic reactions
  • 5. Confidential Forge Nano ALD Battery data examples (up to 100Ah)
  • 6. Confidential High Energy Density Increased Lifetime Safer Faster Charge Lower Cost Future Proof (1) Independently validated by major auto manufacturer. (2) Quantified by % reduction in exothermic energy from arc test. (3) Projected for full-scale production based on detailed cost modeling. ~20% increase in range for same battery size and chemistry 2-10x increase in cycle life(1) 50% decrease in heat generation(2) Decrease rating to EUCAR3(1) 10 minute fast-charge without sacrificing battery life 20% lower cost per kWh(3) Increased capacity and voltage Lower degradation rate of time More temperature tolerant and lower fire risk Allows for higher charge voltage Replaces costly processing steps Keep up with battery chemistry evolution Improved Li-metal and solid-state batteries 6 ALD is a Customer Validated Technology Platform that Enhances Battery Performance
  • 7. Confidential Forge Nano batteries serve key application relevant to the US market 7 ~20% increase in range(1) True 10-minute fast charge(2) Increased safety 20% lower cost per kWh(3) Electric Vehicles Extended cycle life Heat tolerant Grid Storage Heat tolerant fast charge/discharge Improved calendar life Longer battery life Consumer Durables In-space demonstrated Increased temperature performance Aerospace and Defense (1) Projected performance in standard automobile. (2) Using Forge Nano’s proprietary anode coating technology. (3) Projected for full-scale production based on detailed cost modeling.
  • 8. Confidential 8 “…this [is a] high-quality technology is scalable and able to be incorporated cost-effectively into everyday products.” “…Forge Nano has developed the technologies that enable scale-up production and commercialization of this innovation for both automotive and non-automotive applications.” “ …We are acting as a partner to Forge Nano and intend to provide the team with opportunities to carry out industrial trials with its innovative technology.”
  • 9. US Li-ion Battery Manufacturing and Supply Chain Update
  • 10. Confidential 10 What do we have? https://www.knowmade.com/press-release/news-power/e-mobility-new-eldorado-li-ion-batteries/ Consumer visibility • Strengths and weaknesses of US • Strengths come from previous initiatives • Didn’t go far enough down the chain • Didn’t support demand (nobody did) • Demand not enough for proper volume/pricing
  • 11. Confidential 11 What was the result? https://cicenergigune.com/en/blog/north-america-battle-electric-car-battery-gigafactories
  • 12. Confidential 12 Now what? • Assessment • FCAB • 100 Day Report • National Blueprint for Lithium Batteries, 2021-2030 • Li-Bridge • FOA-0002677 ($3B) “Through the investments in the American Jobs Plan, we can re-establish U.S. leadership in electric vehicles and batteries…these investments will ensure we manufacture the next generation of vehicles right here in America, lead the world in EV and battery innovation…” - President Joe Biden, May 18, 2021
  • 13. Confidential 13 What worked for those who are leading? • China • Secured partnerships for raw materials • Built-out processing facilities • Co-location and vertical integration • Domestic prioritization • Recycling • Good policy • EU • Get going on steel in the ground • Tesla • All of the above • Innovation
  • 14. Confidential 14 Moving Forward with Innovation • Manufacturing is the US weakness • Innovation is the US strength US Innovation example data from https://www.drugcostfacts.org/how-does-us-maintain-its-leadership-innovation Innovation
  • 15. Confidential Innovation-led material, capital, and operational cost savings enabling competitive US cell production (Elon, 2020) 15
  • 16. Confidential 16 Innovation in the US • Two paths toward commercialization of innovation • 2 years of giga-scale operation (lots of capital and risk) or • Co-development between the big and the small https://climatetechvc.substack.com/p/staying-current-with-the-battery?s=r
  • 17. Confidential 17 Forge Nano the Innovation and Commercialization Partner • Solving materials challenges • Improved manufacturing (lower cost) • Aqueous cathode processing • Dry coating • Reduced formation • Reduced supply chain risk • Improved performance • Improved silicon performance • Reduced moisture sensitivity • Improved interfaces (lower resistance) • Improvements upon state-of-the art • Enabling/Improving upon next gen https://www.build-electronic-circuits.com/current-voltage-resistance/
  • 18. Confidential 18 “…this [is a] high-quality technology is scalable and able to be incorporated cost-effectively into everyday products.” “…Forge Nano has developed the technologies that enable scale-up production and commercialization of this innovation for both automotive and non-automotive applications.” “ …We are acting as a partner to Forge Nano and intend to provide the team with opportunities to carry out industrial trials with its innovative technology.”
  • 19. Confidential Thrust #1: Disrupting production of Graphite Anodes for LiB’s 19 Forge Nano coatings Traditional Petroleum (Pitch) coatings Process overview Single step, continuous Low temp 150C operation Multi-step batch process >1200C post processing Capital cost $10M >$20M 50% lower CAPEX Operating cost ~$0.5 – 1 / kg ~$1 – 2 / kg Much lower OPEX cost Processing time Hours Days ~4x faster throughput Quality Consistent quality from high-purity chemicals Risk of contamination from Tar 1. Based on estimated BTU consumption of pitch coating to Forge Nano equipment electricity consumption Material loading 0.001 weight % 5-30 weight % >100x lower CO2 emissions
  • 20. Confidential Phased approach for up to 500MWh Entry into Battery Value Chain Intent to Directly Serve a Broad Range of Niche Applications and Partner/License for Large Applications Auto EV OEMs 20 Cell Manufacturing • Leading Li-ion battery formulation enabled by ALD • Safest and highest quality cells • Lower cost with higher performance • Unlimited future roadmap • America-only supply chain possible • Active Supply and Development Agreements Raw material Chemical Process Cathode / Anode production Cell assembly Final product assembly Consumer Power tools Consumer durables Defense Airforce, DOD, Federal fleet electrification Industrial ESS, Marine, IoT Thrust #2: Forge Nano is Building a Battery Demonstration Facility Battery pack production
  • 21. Confidential 21 Be mindful of constraints • The demand is there (critical), we must figure out how to remove constraints • Government to provide catalytic financing to get ball rolling • Fund ready technology to reduce scalability constraints • Incentivize partnerships to resolve manufacturing risk and speed up innovation adoption • Incentivize co-location to reduce costs and shipping delays • Improve upon permitting to reduce timing constraints • Improve policy to ensure long term success • Industry • Focus on domestic needs • Connect with right communities • Work to reduce/remove constraints Austin Devaney, Piedmont Lithium, NAATBatt 2022
  • 22. Confidential 22 Constraints on US Li-ion Battery Production UNCONSTRAINED DEMAND by 20xx MATERIALS SUPPLY CONTRAINT PERMITTING CONSTRAINT CAPITAL CONSTRAINTS (FINANCIAL, HUMAN, EQUIPMENT) TECHNOLOGY CONSTRAINT $$ $$$$
  • 23. Confidential US cell producers need to execute differently across to win in the market  Leverage existing chemistries to deliver scaled production now Established Supply chain 23 Requirements for long-term, competitive US cell production  Must have path to maintain future performances needs Improved Performance  Don’t make an offering unless it is safe to use Increased Safety  Play on key American strength: Innovation Lower cost
  • 24. Confidential 24 Next Steps • Set realistic timing expectations around constraints • Capabilities • Hardware • Construction • Existing supply chain difficulties • Must support sustainable innovation plans • Standardize testing and evaluation • Can’t rely on administrations • Must consider the competition • China will do with batteries what Saudi Arabia does with oil • Continue R&D, we’re good at that • Integration of ready technologies (like ALD) • Adapt tech from other markets (semiconductor) • Must just get started (on parallel paths) • Can’t hold our breath forever on step change technology (leap frogging) • Need to find our way to the driver's seat of the supply chain (reduce risk) • Safety, traceability, visibility, responsibility (think of agriculture) https://www.shell.com/inside-energy/a-growing-role-for-sulphur.html ?