Sarah Burgess - Planning and health: The Evidence

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Sarah Burgess, WHO Collaborating Centre for Healthy Urban Environments, UWE
Planning and Health – The Evidence

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Sarah Burgess - Planning and health: The Evidence

  1. 1. Planning and health - the evidenceSarah BurgessWHO Collaborating Centre for Healthy Urban Environments, UWE, BristolSarah2.Burgess@uwe.ac.uk
  2. 2. Health and planning• Overview: a growing agenda• Current research• Challenges and priorities
  3. 3. A growing agenda
  4. 4. Current research• Healthy planning audit• Walking-friendly environment• Healthy built environments
  5. 5. Healthy planning audit • Key findings: – Knowledge sharing – Cross-discipline working – Evidence and best practice – Evidenced standards – Health impacts http://www.apho.org.uk/resource/item.aspx?RID=119706 http://www.idea.gov.uk/idk/aio/28692849
  6. 6. Walking-friendly environments Study report available at: http://www.livingstreets.org.uk/ professionals/making-the-case- for-investment-in-the-walking- environment
  7. 7. The benefits of increased walking • Physical health • Reduced risk of all-cause mortality by up to 20% • Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease by up to 30% (2004: £29bn) • Reduced obesity (2001: £7bn, 2015: £27bn) • Mental health (2009: £106bn) • Improved self-esteem, mood and mindset • Reduced stress • Increased social interaction  Sense of community  Social capital
  8. 8. Long-term decline in walking tripsTrips per person per year Source: National Travel Survey (various years)
  9. 9. Types of study Adapted from Williams and Dair (2007)
  10. 10. Higher densityConsistent evidence that higher density neighbourhoods are associatedwith greater utility walking levelsSource: Morag Lindsey Source: Morag Lindsey
  11. 11. Greater land use mixConsistent evidence that neighbourhoods with more destinations areassociated with greater utility walking levelsSome evidence that the number of destinations is also related torecreational walking levelsSource: Morag Lindsey Source: e-architect.co.uk Source: Morag Lindsey
  12. 12. ConnectivityConsistent evidence that neighbourhoods with better connectivity areassociated with greater utility walking levels
  13. 13. Pedestrian facilities Consistent evidence that neighbourhoods with a more pedestrian facilities are associated with greater recreational walking levels Some evidence that more pedestrian facilities are also related to utility walking levels Source: Morag Lindsey Source: Morag Lindsey Copyright: The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea
  14. 14. AestheticsConsistent evidence that neighbourhoods with a more interesting orattractive features are associated with greater recreational walkinglevelsSource: Morag Lindsey Source: Morag Lindsey Copyright: Gehl Architects
  15. 15. Personal safetySome evidence that neighbourhoods with greater levels of personalsafety are associated with greater recreational and utility walking levelsSource: Morag Lindsey Source: Morag Lindsey Source: Morag Lindsey
  16. 16. Parks and open spaceSome evidence that neighbourhoods with greater access to good qualityparks and open spaces are associated with greater utility walkinglevelsSource: Morag Lindsey Source: Morag Lindsey Source: Morag Lindsey
  17. 17. Built environment characteristics associatedwith more walking Consistent Mixed evidence No evidence evidenceUtility walking Higher density Parks/open space Traffic Land use mix Personal safety Aesthetics Connectivity Pedestrian facilitiesRecreational Pedestrian facilities Personal safety Higher densitywalking Aesthetics Land use mix Connectivity Parks/open space Traffic
  18. 18. Built environment interventionsContext InterventionsResidential streets Traffic calming, Home ZonesBusy, mixed use streets Mixed priority routes, shared spaceSchools Safe routes to schoolsTraffic-free connections Shared use pathsUrban centres Public realm improvements, pedestrianisationArea-wide Lower speed limits, mixed infrastructure and marketing
  19. 19. Healthy built environments
  20. 20. Review of BE & physical activity769 articles 55 review papers (published 2000- 2010) 37 studies reviews
  21. 21. Key themes• Distance, density and mixed uses• Connectivity of street networks• High quality and well maintained infrastructure and facilities• Designing for safety• Incidental movement (visible stairs)• Access to good quality and safe open spacehttp://www.be.unsw.edu.au/programs/healthy-built-environments-program/literature-review
  22. 22. Challenges and priorities• Causality• Self-selection• Monitoring interventions• Consistent and objective methods• Evidence to justify policy change
  23. 23. With thanks• Walking-friendly environments: • Danielle Sinnett, Centre for Sustainable Planning and Environments, UWE • Kiron Chatterjee, Centre for Transport & Society, UWE • Katie Williams, Centre for Sustainable Planning and Environments, UWE • Nick Cavill, Cavill Associates http://www.livingstreets.org.uk/professionals/making-the-case-for-investment- in-the-walking-environment• Healthy Built Environments: • Susan Thompson, University of New South Wales, Australia http://www.be.unsw.edu.au/programs/healthy-built-environments- program/literature-review
  24. 24. Thank you.Sarah BurgessWHO Collaborating Centre for Healthy Urban EnvironmentsUniversity of the West of England, Bristolwww.uwe.ac.uk/research/whoSarah2.burgess@uwe.ac.uk

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