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Derya Agis; Harvard; ACLA 2009


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Derya Agis; Harvard; ACLA 2009

  1. 1. BY: DERYA AGIS Harvard University International Congress of ACLA, March 2009 09/14/13 Derya Agis 1
  2. 2.  This paper investigates the influence of the Turkish language on Judeo- Spanish Djoha anecdotes.  Djoha is the Judeo-Spanish name given to a Turkish character called Hodja Nasrettin, an Ottoman 'imam' (a religious person working in a mosque). Although some Judeo-Spanish and Turkish anecdotes narrating Djoha and Hodja Nasrettin (Nasrettin Hodja) are similar, some other anecdotes are not. In the Judeo-Spanish anecdotes Djoha can be an old or a young person who is clever, or stupid; however, in the Turkish ones, he is an old religious person, regarded as wise.  This study analyzes the old and young female and male characters in Judeo-Spanish anecdotes. The Judeo-Spanish words borrowed and adapted from Turkish that are used for addressing women who are represented as mothers, wives, and daughters, and addressing men who are represented as fathers, husbands, and sons are investigated.  A cognitive translation method is developed. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 2
  3. 3.  One of the previous studies on the comparison of the Turkish Nasrettin Hoca (Hodja) and Djoha is the article of Bardavid (1997) where she demonstrates that Sephardim called intelligent and funny children Djoha.  Regarding other studies on Nasrettin Hodja, Sakaoğlu (1977) analyzed the diffusion of the Hodja Nasrettin anecdote entitled “Do you believe in the donkey?” around the globe. Additionally, the Hodja anecdotes narrated by eight European travelers who were going from Anatolia to Jerusalem were analyzed etymologically by the same author (i.e. Sakaoğlu, 1981).  Moreover, several studies were conducted on linguistic humor in Turkish humor texts. Most articles on linguistic humor theories’ application to Turkish are on Nasreddin Hodja: Türkmen (1996) applied the superiority theory of Hobbes to the anecdotes of Nasreddin Hoca; he suggested that the anecdotes of Nasreddin Hoca involved acts of being happy, as a bad event had happened to any other living thing, and Nasreddin Hoca ridiculed those who seemed to be more intelligent and / or richer than him.  Besides, Oğuz (1997) discussed the methods to be used in researches on Nasreddin Hodja. He supposed that a Turkish humor element in an anecdote of Nasreddin Hoca would appear as an element, belonging to another culture. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 3
  4. 4.  Spanish Jews came to the Ottoman Empire in March 1492, since the Catholic monarchs of Spain, Isabella of Castilla, Ferdinand of Aragon and their prime minister Torquemada expelled them from Spain, as they did not want to be baptized and become Christians (Şarhon, n.d., para. 1).  Until the end of the sixteenth century, Jews emigrated to Istanbul, Safed, Salonica, Jerusalem, and Cairo (Şarhon, n.d., para. 3).  Besides, the mother tongue of the Spanish Jews is called Judeo-Spanish, or Ladino. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 4
  5. 5. “Nasreddin Hodja was born in 1208 in the village of Hortu, in a district close to the city of Afyon; he moved to Aksehir in 1237 so as to study with reknown scholars, such as Seyid Mahmud Hayrani and Seyid Haci Ibrahim; he had worked as a Muslim judge until he had passed away in 1284” (Sansal, 2005, para. 1). 09/14/13 Derya Agis 5
  6. 6. Attardo and Raskin (1991) propose a theory of verbal and linguistic humor on verbal jokes as its most representative subset. In this paper, a hierarchical organization for six knowledge resources (KRs) is explained. Attardo and Raskin’s (1991) six knowledge resources (KRs), thus parameters of joke difference are the following: 1) Language, 2) Narrative strategies, 3) Target, 4) Situation, 5) Logical mechanism, and 6) Script opposition 09/14/13 Derya Agis 6
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  8. 8.  Concerning the first KR, Attardo and Raskin (1991) argue that many jokes are similar, thus, there is a joke similarity between jokes, and paraphrases and variants of jokes in printed documents, as people retell jokes to others, changing several aspects of these jokes. Here is an example:  (1) How many Poles does it take to screw in a light bulb? Five. One to hold the light bulb and four to turn the table he's standing on. (Freedman and Hofman, 1980) (as cited in Attardo and Raskin, 1991, p. 4)  (2) The number of Polacks needed to screw in a light bulb? Five-- one holds the bulb and four turn the table. (cf. Clements, 1969, p. 22) (as cited in Attardo and Raskin, 1991, p. 4) 09/14/13 Derya Agis 8
  9. 9. Successively, Bucaria (2004) divides (this division is customary in linguistic literature) semantic ambiguity into three main categories of ambiguity, which are indicated below: 1) Lexical, 2) Syntactic, and 3) Phonological 09/14/13 Derya Agis 9
  10. 10. Data from:  Koen-Sarano, M. (compiler). (1986). Kuentos del Folklor de la Famiya Djudeo-Espanyola. Jerusalem: Kana. Koen-Sarano, M. (compiler). (1991). Djoha Ke Dize?: Kuentos Populares Djudeo-Espanyoles. Jerusalem: Kana. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 10
  11. 11.  An important study on the translations of Judeo-Spanish texts is the article of David Marc Bunis entitled “Translating from the head and from the heart; the essentially “oral” nature of the Ladino Bible- translation tradition” that appeared in Hommage à Haïm Vidal Sephiha in 1996.  Besides, Ora Schwarzwald wrote the following articles: a) “Linguistic variations among Ladino translations as determined by geographical temporal and textual factors,” published in Folia Linguistica Historica 17, 1-2 in 1996, b) “Mixed translation patterns; the Ladino translation of Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew verbs” that appeared in Target 5, 1 in 1993, and c) “The Venice 1601 Ladino translation of "Pirke Aboth"” in Folia Linguistica Historica 11, 1-2 published in 1992. As we can see, the previous studies on the translation of Judeo-Spanish texts are mostly based on the translation of religious texts. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 11
  12. 12.  The translation of Judeo-Spanish nouns and verbs borrowed from Turkish, such as ‘dayanear’, ‘to resist’ that derives from the Turkish verb ‘dayanmak’ can be problematic, as the Turkish verb has various meanings, as ‘to resist,’ ‘to rely on,’ and ‘to lean on.’ For choosing the best equivalent of the Judeo-Spanish verb, one should activate a frame where s/he imagines the event depicted in the anecdote.  S/he may pay attention to the events, objects, and actions of people, choosing the best definitions for the words in this imaginative frame. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 12
  13. 13. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 13
  14. 14. HOUSEWIVES = DJOHA’S WIFE = MUJER = HANUM (my dear, Muslim woman, according to Mathilda Koen - Sarano) 09/14/13 Derya Agis 14
  16. 16. PARĺ MUJER KE LA KUENTA YA STA DJUSTA Djoha se kazó. Despues de tres mezes dize la mujer: “Dolores: parir!” “Addió!” Agora parir?! Kuanto ay ke kazimos?’ “Ven aki, asenta, Djoha! Tres mezes estó kazada kon ti. I tres mezes no stamos kazados endjuntos?” “Parί mujer ke la kuenta ya sta djusta!!” THE WIFE FOR WHOM THE STORY WAS RIGHT GAVE BIRTH TO A CHILD Djoha got married. After three months, he tells his wife: “Dolores, give birth to a child!” “Oh, my God! Are you giving birth to a child now? ! How long has it been since we got married?” “Come here, listen, Djoha! I have been married with you for three months. Moreover, we married each other three months ago, didn’t we?” “The wife for whom the story was right gave birth to a child.” 09/14/13 Derya Agis 16
  17. 17. Djogo de palavras La mujer de Djoha se yamava Grasia. Una vez Djoha konbino un amigo and’él. El amigo s’asentò, komiò, beviò, avlò, kontò konsejas. Kuando s’alvantò para irse, disho: “Grasias!” S’alvantò Grasia i se hue kon él. Word play The name of the wife of Djoha was Gratitute / Grasia / Grace (Thanks). One day Djoha took a friend to his house. The friend sat down, ate, drank, talked, gave recommendations, etc. When he stood up to go, he said , “I express my gratitute” / “Thanks!” / “Thanks for your grace!” Gratitude / Gracia / Grace (???) stood up and escaped with him. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 17
  18. 18. Haftona Preventiva Kuando Djoha mandava al fijo kon el kantaro a traer agua del pojo, le dava antes una buena haftona. La djente, kurioza, demandava: ‘Bre, Djoha, ke te fizo la kriatura ke le das haftona?” Al ke Djoha respondia: “Lo aharvo para ke no rompa el kantaro!” La djente, maraviyada, dizia: “A bre! Loko stas? Ainda no rompio’ el kantaro!!” I ”Djoha dizia: “A ke sirviria la haftona, kuando ya lo rompio?” Kuando Djoha mandava al fijo kon el kantaro a traer agua del pojo, le dava antes una buena haftona. La djente, kurioza, demandava: ‘Bre, Djoha, ke te fizo la kriatura ke le das haftona?” Al ke Djoha respondia: “Lo aharvo para ke no rompa el kantaro!” La djente, maraviyada, dizia: “A bre! Loko stas? Ainda no rompio’ el kantaro!!” I ”Djoha dizia: “A ke sirviria la haftona, kuando ya lo rompio?” Preventive Hit / Beating / Punch While Djoha was sending his son with a bottle (weight measurer) to take some water from the pit, he was giving him a good hit / he was hitting him well, he was beating him, offering him a nice punch. The curious people were asking, “Hey man, Djoha, what did your son do so badly that you can beat him? ” Djoha was answering, “I beat him in order that he cannot break the bottle / the weight measurer. ” The astonished people were asking, “Oh man! Are you crazy? Thus, he did not break the bottle / weight measurer.” And Djoha was saying, “Does the punch have a sense / does it serve anything, when he has already broken it?” 09/14/13 Derya Agis 18
  19. 19. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 19 Solusyondelproblema Un dia el ijo de Djoha vieni a kaza i le dizi al padri: “Papa, oy me enkontri kon una ijika, ermoza, intelijenti, i kero kazarmi. Es la ija del marangos.” Djoha lo vey i dizi: “Ijo, no puedis kazarti kon eya, pork’es tu media ‘rmana!” Paso una simana, dos, vieni el ijo le dizi: “Ya tienis razon, papa. Agora tupi una mijor. Es la ija del kasap.” “No puedis, ijo! Es la ija del bakal!” Otra vez lo vey Djoha i dizi: “Ijo, no te puedis kazar kon eya! Es tu media ‘rmana!” El ijo, triste i amargado, se metio a yorar. Vieni madri, le dizi: “Kualo es ijo? Kualo tienis?” “Mama, mi kero kazar kon una ija, es mi media ‘rmana” Mi kero kazar kon otra, es mi media ‘rmana… Esto es lo ke me dizi mi padri!....” La madri vieni, lo abrassa: “No yoris ijo, no ay nada. Tu ti puedis kazar kon ken keris! Djoha no es tu padri!” Solutionoftheproblem One day the son of bDjoha came home and told his father, “Daddy, today I met a nice girl, she is beautiful, and intelligent, and I want to get married. She is the daughter of the carpenter!” Djoha understood it and said, “Son, you cannot get married with her, because she is regarded as your sister!” After a week the son came and said, “You are right, daddy, now I found a better one. She is the daughter of the butcher.” “You cannot do it, son, she is regarded as your sister!” After two or three weeks, the son had come for the third time: “Daddy, today I found the better one. I would like to marry her. She is the daughter of the marketer!” Once again Djoha said, “Son, you cannot marry her! She is regarded as your sister!” The son, who is sad and unhappy, began to cry. His mother came, and asked him, “What is the problem with you, son,? What is the problem? “Mother, I want to get married with the ddaughter of a person, she is regarded as my sister. I want to marry another one, she is regarded as my sister!... This is what my father says!...”His mother came and hugged him: “Don’t cry, dear son, there is nothing. You can marry the one you want to! Djoha is not your father!””
  20. 20.  Linguistic Humor Theory  Importance of cognition and culture in translation  Djoha anecdotes tell us much about the culture, language, and stereotypes of people of the lands of the Ottoman Empire.  Turkish words create some problems, while we are translating texts.  Looking at specific dictionaries can solve the problem.  Linguistic Humor Theory should be applied to other anecdotes in the future. 09/14/13 Derya Agis 20
  21. 21. Attardo & Raskin, V. (1991). Script Theory Revis(it)ed: Joke Similarity and Joke Representation Model. Humor: International Journal of Humor Research 4 (3- 4), pp. 293 - 347. Bardavid, B. (1997). Bizim Hoca - Nasreddin Hoca. Toplumbilim (6), 87 - 96. Bucaria, C. (2004). Lexical and syntactic ambiguity as a source of humor: The case of newspaper headlines. Humor 17 – 3, pp. 279 – 309. Koen-Sarano, M. (compiler). (1991). Djoha Ke Dize?: Kuentos Populares Djudeo-Espanyoles. Jerusalemme: Kana. Koen-Sarano, M. (compiler). (2005). Kuentos del Bel para Abasho. Istanbul: Gozlem. Koşal, H. (1997). Gülme ve dünyayı güldüren tip: Nasreddin Hoca. (Laughter and the Type Who Makes World Laugh: Nasreddin Hoca). Türk Yurdu, pp. 40 – 42. Oğuz, M. (1997). Nasreddin Hoca Araştırmalarında Metot Meselesi. (The Problem of Method in the Researches on Nasreddin Hoca). Türk Yurdu, pp. 25 – 27. Özmen, M. (1999). 1990 Sonrası Mizah Dergilerinde Mizah Dili. (The Linguistic Humor in the Humor Magazines Published after 1990). Papers of the Third International Turkish Language Congress, held in 1996. Ankara: Kılıçarslan Matbaacılık. Meier, S. E. (2008). Physiological Psychology, Brodmann’s area, available from: 09/14/13 Derya Agis 21
  22. 22. Sağlam, S. (1997). Nasreddin Hoca: Kimliği ve Mizahı. (Nasreddin Hoca: His Identity and Humor). Türk Yurdu Pp. 28 – 31. Shaul, E. (1994). Folklor de los Judios de Turkiya. Istanbul: Isis. Sakaoglu, Saim. Bir Nasreddin Hoca Fıkrası”, Yağmur, 1 (3), Haziran 1977, 35-38. Sakaoglu, Saim “Avrupalı Seyyahların Eserlerinde Nasreddin Hoca”, Türk Folkloru Araştırmaları 1981, (1), Ankara 1981, 59-73. Sansal, B. (2005). About Turkey. Retrieved October 06, 2006, from: 09/14/13 Derya Agis 22
  23. 23. CONTACT: 09/14/13 Derya Agis 23