11/29/05 Agis 1
PRAGMATIC
PROPERTIES OF THE
JUDEO-SPANISH USED
IN THE FORUMS: AN
APPROACH TO
POLITENESS
Derya Agiş
11/29/05 Agis 2
ABSTRACT
 In this study, I intend to discover which Judeo-Spanish politeness
expressions the chatters wit...
11/29/05 Agis 3
1. INTRODUCTION
 The politeness principles play a crucial role in human communication. It
is important to...
11/29/05 Agis 4
2. THE POLITENESS PRINCIPLE
AND THE GRICEAN MAXIMS
 Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson
first introduced ...
11/29/05 Agis 5
Faces???
 According to the model, there are two types of
face: One is the negative face that you exhibit
...
11/29/05 Agis 6
FTAS???
Figure 1. Flowchart of politeness strategies adapted from Brown
and Levinson (1987) by Morand and ...
11/29/05 Agis 7
FOUR POLITENESS
STRATEGIES
 Brown and Levinson (1987) suggest that four politeness strategies
are develop...
11/29/05 Agis 8
MAXIMS OF GRICE
1. MAXIM OF RELEVANCE
2. MAXIM OF QUALITY
3. MAXIM OF QUANTITY
4. MAXIM OF MANNER
11/29/05 Agis 9
PROPOSALS
 Gricean maxims and politeness
strategies may intersect in Judeo-
Spanish online forums.
 Thes...
11/29/05 Agis 10
3. DATA
 I gathered my data from two forums:
1. Ladinokomunita,
2. SephardicForum
Messages divided in th...
11/29/05 Agis 11
4. POSITIVE POLITENESS
STRATEGY
 1. Attending to the hearer (The speaker
attends to the hearer’s good qu...
11/29/05 Agis 12
(3) “I me plazio muncho saver ke vos vos interesa muncho este tema.” (A.; September
2005).
(“And I am ver...
11/29/05 Agis 13
3. Use of first name or in-group name to
insinuate familiarity
(4) “Keridos amigos de LK” (“dear friends ...
11/29/05 Agis 14
4. Claiming a common view, showing care
(5) “Ya estava en kudiado de ti kea via tanto tiempo ke no ti sin...
11/29/05 Agis 15
5. Giving reasons (One can include the reasons of her / his sayings in he r / hi s
sentences)
(6) “Mersi ...
11/29/05 Agis 16
6. Inclusive forms (Here the speaker tries to imply something with other words)
(7) “Lo felisitamos a Moi...
11/29/05 Agis 17
7. Giving something desired and showing understanding
(8) “Espero ke con el tiempo, ambezando mas muncho,...
11/29/05 Agis 18
5. NEGATIVE POLITENESS STRATEGY
1.Being conventionally indirect (Inquiring into the hearer’s ability or w...
11/29/05 Agis 19
2. Apologizing
11/29/05 Agis 20
3. Impersonalizing the speaker and hearer by avoiding the pronouns ‘I’ and ‘You’
(11) “OLA no es una pala...
11/29/05 Agis 21
4. Use of subjunctive or infinitives
(12) “Vos rogo de mandarlo [el modulo] a bortnickra@aol.com.” (B.; A...
11/29/05 Agis 22
5. Seriousness and formal word choices
(13) “Puesdesh responder en azendo “REPLY” a este mesaje.” (G.; Oc...
11/29/05 Agis 23
6. BALD ON-RECORD STRATEGY
If the speaker wants to do the face threatening act (FTA) with maximum efficie...
11/29/05 Agis 24
7. BALD OFF-RECORD STRATEGIES
If there are prosodic, or contextual clues, or any kinesics, that give indi...
11/29/05 Agis 25
8. CONCLUSION
To conclude, I can say that the Jewish people, using the Judeo-Spanish language, employ
all...
11/29/05 Agis 26
9. REFERENCES
 David, A. Morand and Rosalie J. Ocker: “Politeness Theory and Computer-Mediated
Communica...
11/29/05 Agis 27
THANKS
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Agis, Derya. November 28 – 30, 2005. First International Conference of Sephardic Culture: First Turkish-Sephardic and Spanish Encounter, Pragmatic Properties of the Judeo-Spanish Used in the Forums: An Approach to Politeness, Ankara University, Ankara,

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Agis, Derya. November 28 – 30, 2005. First International Conference of Sephardic Culture: First Turkish-Sephardic and Spanish Encounter, Pragmatic Properties of the Judeo-Spanish Used in the Forums: An Approach to Politeness, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

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Agis, Derya. November 28 – 30, 2005. First International Conference of Sephardic Culture: First Turkish-Sephardic and Spanish Encounter, Pragmatic Properties of the Judeo-Spanish Used in the Forums: An Approach to Politeness, Ankara University, Ankara,

  1. 1. 11/29/05 Agis 1 PRAGMATIC PROPERTIES OF THE JUDEO-SPANISH USED IN THE FORUMS: AN APPROACH TO POLITENESS Derya Agiş
  2. 2. 11/29/05 Agis 2 ABSTRACT  In this study, I intend to discover which Judeo-Spanish politeness expressions the chatters with a Judeo-Spanish origin, living not only in Turkey, but also in other countries all over the world, use especially in making a request, greeting and thanking somebody.  Analyzing the politeness expressions in Judeo-Spanish in terms of Brown and Levinson’s (1987) politeness strategies (among which there are those of positive politeness, negative politeness, bald on- record and bald off-record strategies), I refer to the maxims of Grice, including those of quality, quantity, relevance, and manner.  I conclude that obeying the Gricean maxims, the speakers use many formal and informal Judeo-Spanish politeness expressions, all of which are described in my study.
  3. 3. 11/29/05 Agis 3 1. INTRODUCTION  The politeness principles play a crucial role in human communication. It is important to be polite for expressing our needs and desires to others for not being misunderstood, and also convincing others, as a Turkish proverb says: “A sweet language makes the snake get out of its home.” A part from these, politeness terms can be culture-specific.  In this paper, I wish to examine the politeness terms used by the Jewish people from different countries, who fight against the death of their language, the Judeo-Spanish language. This language is spoken in Istanbul and Izmir in Turkey, and the speakers of this language in Turkey communicate with others, speaking the language around the globe via online forums.  In my study, I used the politeness strategies formulated by Brown and Levinson (1987), and I examined their use in online forums, where the chatters communicate via messages in Judeo-Spanish. Besides, I also observe the convenience of these messages to the Gricean maxims (maxim of relevance, maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, and maxim of manner).
  4. 4. 11/29/05 Agis 4 2. THE POLITENESS PRINCIPLE AND THE GRICEAN MAXIMS  Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson first introduced the concept of politeness in 1978, and then they made a longer introduction to the concept in 1987. They define politeness as “redressive action taken to counter-balance the disruptive effect of face threatening acts (FTAs)” (http://www.universalteacher .org.uk/lang/pragmatics.htm).
  5. 5. 11/29/05 Agis 5 Faces???  According to the model, there are two types of face: One is the negative face that you exhibit wanting your actions not to be inhibited by others, and the other is the positive face, which consists of the positive consistent self-image that people want to have in order to be appreciated and approved by others; as well, people tend to maintain one another’s face continuously in human communication (Brown & Levinson, 1987: 61).
  6. 6. 11/29/05 Agis 6 FTAS??? Figure 1. Flowchart of politeness strategies adapted from Brown and Levinson (1987) by Morand and Ocker (2003) QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  7. 7. 11/29/05 Agis 7 FOUR POLITENESS STRATEGIES  Brown and Levinson (1987) suggest that four politeness strategies are developed to save the hearer’s face:  1) Referring to the positive politeness strategy, the speaker is aware of the fact that the hearer has a desire to be respected;  2) Using the negative politeness strategy, the speaker recognizes that the hearer must be respected, but assumes that s/he is imposing on her / him;  3) The Bald on-Record strategy provides no effort to minimize threats to the hearer’s face; and  4) In the Bald off-Record strategy the speaker does not impose anything directly, but s/he would rather something offered to her / him by the hearer, by taking some of the pressure off her / him (http://logos.uoregon.edu/explore/socioling/politeness.html).
  8. 8. 11/29/05 Agis 8 MAXIMS OF GRICE 1. MAXIM OF RELEVANCE 2. MAXIM OF QUALITY 3. MAXIM OF QUANTITY 4. MAXIM OF MANNER
  9. 9. 11/29/05 Agis 9 PROPOSALS  Gricean maxims and politeness strategies may intersect in Judeo- Spanish online forums.  These may occur also in ways opposed to those suggested by Brown and Levinson (1987).
  10. 10. 11/29/05 Agis 10 3. DATA  I gathered my data from two forums: 1. Ladinokomunita, 2. SephardicForum Messages divided in three groups: 1. Requests, 2. Greetings, 3. Thanking
  11. 11. 11/29/05 Agis 11 4. POSITIVE POLITENESS STRATEGY  1. Attending to the hearer (The speaker attends to the hearer’s good qualities)  (1) “Siempre tus biervos son dulses komo la miel, i te oguro anyo dulse komo la miel tambien.” (R.; September 2005)  (“Your words are always as sweet as honey, and I wish you a year as sweet as honey”)  (2) “Kero darle las grasyas al Sr. Hatzvi por la eksplikasyon de la palavra ‘halihuta’. ” (B.; September 2005)  (“I want to thank to Mr. Hatzvi for explaining the meaning of the word ‘halihuta’.”)
  12. 12. 11/29/05 Agis 12 (3) “I me plazio muncho saver ke vos vos interesa muncho este tema.” (A.; September 2005). (“And I am very pleased that this subject interests you very much.”) 2. Seeking agreement (in this case the speaker and the hearer share the same feeling, and they agree with each other)
  13. 13. 11/29/05 Agis 13 3. Use of first name or in-group name to insinuate familiarity (4) “Keridos amigos de LK” (“dear friends of LK”); “keridos amigos” (“dear friends”); “Keridos Ermanas” (“dear sisters”) “i Ermanos” (“and brothers”) (A.; October 2005); “Kerida Matilda (de Espanya)” (“dear Matilda – from Spain”) (B.; September 2005)
  14. 14. 11/29/05 Agis 14 4. Claiming a common view, showing care (5) “Ya estava en kudiado de ti kea via tanto tiempo ke no ti sintimos la boz.” (B.; September 2005) (“I was worried about you, as I hadn’t heard from you for a long time.”)
  15. 15. 11/29/05 Agis 15 5. Giving reasons (One can include the reasons of her / his sayings in he r / hi s sentences) (6) “Mersi muncho a los ke respondyeron: no tyenen menester de responder de Nuevo.” (“Many thanks to whom replied: they don’t have to respond again.”) (R.; September 2005)
  16. 16. 11/29/05 Agis 16 6. Inclusive forms (Here the speaker tries to imply something with other words) (7) “Lo felisitamos a Moise Rahmani por aver komplido el 60en numero de su re vista maraviyoza, “Los Muestros.” “ (R.; September 2005) (“We congratulate Moise Rahmani for having completed the 60th number of his magazine “Los Muestros”)
  17. 17. 11/29/05 Agis 17 7. Giving something desired and showing understanding (8) “Espero ke con el tiempo, ambezando mas muncho, mi ladino sea muncho mijor.” (J.; October 2005). (“I hope that by making greater effort, my Judeo-Spanish will be much better, as the time passes.”)
  18. 18. 11/29/05 Agis 18 5. NEGATIVE POLITENESS STRATEGY 1.Being conventionally indirect (Inquiring into the hearer’s ability or willingness to comply) (9) “Vos kero rekordar, oy kumple anyos Eliz Gatenio de Istanbul.” (E.; September 2005) (“I want you remind you that today is the birthday of Eliz Gatenio from Istanbul.”)
  19. 19. 11/29/05 Agis 19 2. Apologizing
  20. 20. 11/29/05 Agis 20 3. Impersonalizing the speaker and hearer by avoiding the pronouns ‘I’ and ‘You’ (11) “OLA no es una palavra uzada en muestra lingua.” (R.; August 2005) (“OLA is not a word used in our language.”)
  21. 21. 11/29/05 Agis 21 4. Use of subjunctive or infinitives (12) “Vos rogo de mandarlo [el modulo] a bortnickra@aol.com.” (B.; August 2005) (“I request you to send it [the form] to: bortnickra@aol.com.”)
  22. 22. 11/29/05 Agis 22 5. Seriousness and formal word choices (13) “Puesdesh responder en azendo “REPLY” a este mesaje.” (G.; October 2005) (“You can reply to this message by clicking “REPLY”.)
  23. 23. 11/29/05 Agis 23 6. BALD ON-RECORD STRATEGY If the speaker wants to do the face threatening act (FTA) with maximum efficiency rather than satisfying the hearer’s face, s/he will refer to the bald on-record strategy (Brown & Levinson, 1987: 95). (14) Message title: “ayuda” (“help”) (M.; September 2005; only this message is from the Sephardicforum; the rest is from the Ladino Komunita).
  24. 24. 11/29/05 Agis 24 7. BALD OFF-RECORD STRATEGIES If there are prosodic, or contextual clues, or any kinesics, that give indirectly the intended meaning of the utterances of the speaker, the hearer can understand the intended meaning of the message (Brown & Levinson, 1987; ctd. in Shigemitsu, 2003: 32). Being sarcastic is an example to this, but an allusion, an indirect request can also be regarded as a bald off-record strategy as in (15): (15) “Este mesaje es solo para 546 miembros (de los 633) de Ladino komunita, porke 87 personas ya me me mandaron repuesta – a los kualos les digo demuevo un grande “mersi muncho”.” (B.; September 2005) (“This message is just for 546 members (among the 633) of Ladinokomunita, since 87 people –to whom I say again “many thanks” - have already sent me a reply.”)
  25. 25. 11/29/05 Agis 25 8. CONCLUSION To conclude, I can say that the Jewish people, using the Judeo-Spanish language, employ all of the four types of politeness strategies formulated by Brown and Levinson (1987). As well, in the age of globalization and technology a forum where a language spoken by a minor population in the globe survives becomes a mediator between many cultures, interested in this language, and offers a specific place for an exchange of ideas, discussions, and the diffusion of some cultural and historical information. Additionally, it is crucial that the speakers and hearers cannot see each other while writing messages to a forum, but we see that they manage to express their feelings, respecting politeness strategies without referring to facial expressions or gestures. Words and their uses in diverse sentence structures hide emotions in them. Besides, the Gricean maxims complete the politeness strategies, rendering the meanings of sentences clearer, the messages more relevant, not longer than the necessary amount, and making the speaker obliged to communicate just true information. Many other linguistic researches should be made on Judeo-Spanish, for instance, a study on the stylistics of Judeo-Spanish poems, a cognitive linguistic analysis of Judeo- Spanish idioms, a study on color and shape naming in this language, or the analysis of the subject titles of forum messages… These are all interesting topics for future researches.
  26. 26. 11/29/05 Agis 26 9. REFERENCES  David, A. Morand and Rosalie J. Ocker: “Politeness Theory and Computer-Mediated Communication: A Sociolinguistic Approach to Analyzing Relational Messages”, Proceedings of the 36th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2003.  David. W. Carroll: Psychology of Language, California, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1994.  Penelope Brown and Stephen C. Levinson: Politeness, Some universals in language Usage, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987.  Yuka Shigenitsu: “Politeness Strategies in the Context of Argument in Japanese Debate Shows”, Academic Reports, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Vol. 26, No.228, 2003.  WEB SOURCES:  University of Oregon, “Pragmatics”, U.S.A.  http;//www.uoregon.edu  “Universal Teacher”, England  http://www.universalteacher.org.uk/lang/pragmatics.htm
  27. 27. 11/29/05 Agis 27 THANKS

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