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IPv6 Address Planning

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IPv6 Address Planning

  1. 1. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ IPv6 Address Planning Dan York Deploy360 Programme www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/
  2. 2. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Objectives After this section, you should be able to: •  Understand the value of an IPv6 address plan •  Plan how you will assign IPv6 subnets •  Estimate the IPv6 addressing needs of your network •  Subnet an IPv6 prefix
  3. 3. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Why Create An IPv6 Address Plan? •  Routing tables can be smaller and more efficient •  Security policies can be easier to implement •  Application policies can be implemented •  Network management/provisioning can be easier •  Troubleshooting can be easier, particularly with visual identification •  Easier scaling as more devices or locations are added
  4. 4. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ IPv4 Subnetting Concepts To Forget! Why do we do subnetting? •  IPv4: Conserve address space •  IPv6: planning and optimization for routing and security Subnets vs hosts – number of hosts irrelevant in IPv6 •  There will rarely be a need to expand a /64 subnet (264 hosts) •  264 = 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 hosts
  5. 5. www.internetsociety.org IPv6 Address Planning Basics 9/25/13
  6. 6. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ A Typical IPv6 Address For A Device (Host) 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) Prefix (/64)
  7. 7. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Network Prefixes 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) /16 /32 /48
  8. 8. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Address Block Assignments 9/23/13 Prefix Assignment Number of Addresses /32 LIR (Local Internet Registry) – often an ISP 296 /48 Organization 280 /64 Organization network 264 /128 Individual host (PC, server, router, etc.) 1
  9. 9. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ /32 Prefix 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) Prefix (/32) Subnet (/32)
  10. 10. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ /48 Prefix 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) Prefix (/48) Subnet (/16)
  11. 11. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Common Prefixes - /48, /52, /56, /60 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Prefix (/48) Subnet (/16) 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Prefix (/52) Subnet (/12) 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Prefix (/56) Subnet (/8) 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Prefix (/60) Subnet (/4)
  12. 12. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Common Subnet Prefixes 9/23/13 Prefix Number of /64 Subnets /48 65,536 /52 4,096 /56 256 /60 16 /64 1
  13. 13. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Common Subnet Prefixes - # of Subnets 9/23/13 Prefix /52 Subnets /56 Subnets /60 Subnets /64 Subnets /48 16 256 4,096 65,536 /52 16 256 4,096 /56 16 256 /60 16 /64 1 Ex. a /52 prefix could have: •  16 /56 subnets •  256 /60 subnets •  4,096 /64 subnets
  14. 14. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example Allocation 9/24/13 Core Region 1 Site 1 Site 2 Region 2 Site 3 Site 4 Site 5 Region 3 Site 6 Site 7 Internet LANLANLANLAN LAN LAN LAN /48 /52 /64/64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /64 /52 /52
  15. 15. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Using "Nibbles" as boundaries •  A "nibble" is one hexadecimal digit (or 4 bits) •  You don't have to subnet based on nibbles. You can use other prefixes, ex. /49, /51, /54 •  But it is MUCH easier to identify addresses if you do. hex 1234 binary 0001:0010:0011:0100
  16. 16. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example: Very Simple Subnets 2001:db8:1234:1000::/64 Prefix (/48) Subnet (/16) 2001:db8:1234:2000::/64 2001:db8:1234:3000::/64 2001:db8:1234:4000::/64 2001:db8:1234:f000::/64 …
  17. 17. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example: Very Simple Subnets 2001:db8:1234:1::/64 Prefix (/48) Subnet (/16) 2001:db8:1234:2::/64 2001:db8:1234:3::/64 2001:db8:1234:4::/64 2001:db8:1234:f::/64 …
  18. 18. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Key Point: Focus on the 16 bits (and 4 nibbles) 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) Prefix (/48) Subnet (/16)
  19. 19. www.internetsociety.org Subnet Planning 9/25/13
  20. 20. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Next Step: Plan Your Subnet Scheme •  Multiple ways to use the 4 nibbles (assuming a /48) •  Plan nibbles by: •  Region and site •  Location •  Use type (ex. employees, students, guests) •  Business units •  Applications (ex. data, voice, video) •  Combinations of some of the above •  THERE IS NO ONE RIGHT ANSWER! •  Will depend upon your site and your objectives 9/24/13
  21. 21. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example Planning Considerations •  Do you want to optimize for your security policies? •  Do you want to make it easy for firewalls to filter based on… location? user type? applications? •  Do you want to optimize for router policies and performance? •  Do you want to have the smallest and most efficient routing table possible? •  Do you have a higher or lower quantity of certain types of objects? •  For example, do you only have 2 locations but 20 types of applications?
  22. 22. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example #1: Location and Use Type 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Prefix (/48) Subnet (/16) Location (16): •  Building 1 •  Building 2 •  Building 3 Use Type (16): •  Employees •  Servers •  Infrastructure Individual networks (256)
  23. 23. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example #2: Locations (many) and Use Type 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Prefix (/48) Subnet (/16) Location (256): •  Building 1 •  Building 2 •  Building 3 Use Type (16): •  Employees •  Servers •  Infrastructure Individual networks (16)
  24. 24. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example #3 – business units first Start by allocating based on business units: •  Corporate: 2001:db8:1a:0000::/52 •  Finance: 2001:db8:1a:1000::/52 •  Marketing: 2001:db8:1a:2000::/52 •  Engineering: 2001:db8:1a:3000::/52 •  Customer Support: 2001:db8:1a:4000::/52 Then allocate on applications (here for one unit): •  Engineering - Data: 2001:db8:1a:3000::/56 •  Engineering - Voice: 2001:db8:1a:3200::/56 •  Engineering - Video: 2001:db8:1a:3400::/56 •  Engineering - Wireless: 2001:db8:1a:3800::/56 •  Engineering - Management:2001:db8:1a:3c00::/56 9/24/13
  25. 25. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example #3, continued Next allocate based on region (here for "Data"): •  Engineering - Data – Eastern region: 2001:db8:1a:3000::/60 •  Engineering - Data – Northern region: 2001:db8:1a:3080::/60 •  Engineering - Data – Western region: 2001:db8:1a:3040::/60 •  Engineering - Data – Southern region: 2001:db8:1a:30c0::/60 Then allocate on individual sites: •  Engineering - Data - Northern region - Site 0: 2001:db8:1a:3080::/64 •  Engineering - Data - Northern region - Site 1: 2001:db8:1a:3081::/64 •  Engineering - Data - Northern region - Site 2: 2001:db8:1a:3082::/64 9/24/13
  26. 26. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example #4 – applications first Start by allocating based on applications: •  Data: 2001:db8:1a:0000::/52 •  Voice: 2001:db8:1a:8000::/52 •  Video: 2001:db8:1a:4000::/52 •  Wireless: 2001:db8:1a:c000::/52 •  Management: 2001:db8:1a:2000::/52 Then allocate on regions (here for one unit): •  Voice – Eastern region: 2001:db8:1a:8000::/56 •  Voice – Northern region: 2001:db8:1a:8800::/56 •  Voice – Western region: 2001:db8:1a:8400::/56 •  Voice – Southern region: 2001:db8:1a:8c00::/56 9/24/13
  27. 27. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Example #4, continued Next allocate based on business unit: •  Voice – Southern region – Corporate: 2001:db8:1a:8c00::/60 •  Voice – Southern region – Finance: 2001:db8:1a:8c10::/60 •  Voice – Southern region – Marketing: 2001:db8:1a:8c20::/60 •  Voice – Southern region – Engineering: 2001:db8:1a:8c30::/60 •  Voice – Southern region – Cust Support: 2001:db8:1a:8c40::/60 Then finally on individual sites: •  Voice – Southern– Marketing – Site 1: 2001:db8:1a:8c2a::/64 •  Voice – Southern– Marketing – Site 2: 2001:db8:1a:8c29::/64 •  Voice – Southern– Marketing – Site 3: 2001:db8:1a:8c2e::/64 9/24/13
  28. 28. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Again: focus on the 16 bits (and 4 nibbles) 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) Prefix (/48) Subnet (/16)
  29. 29. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Subnet Numbering: Planning For Growth Multiple ways for numbering individual subnets: •  Numerical (monotonic) – just increment by 1: •  2001:db8:1234:0000::/64 •  2001:db8:1234:1000::/64 •  2001:db3:1234:2000::/64 •  Sparse allocation (RFC 3531) •  2001:db8:1234:0000::/64 •  2001:db8:1234:8000::/64 •  2001:db3:1234:4000::/64 •  Random allocation •  Randomly choose numbers 9/24/13
  30. 30. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Calculating The # Of Required Subnets •  Determine primary factor you want to use •  Ex. location •  Determine number of needed groups •  Ex. 15 locations, 2 administrative groups, 5 future = 22 total •  Round up to nearest nibble •  Ex. 22 would fit within 2 nibbles (256 values) •  Decide what to do with remaining nibbles (if any) •  Continue subnetting with a secondary factor •  Don't subdivide and just have large subnets 9/24/13
  31. 31. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ How Many Nibbles? 9/24/13 # of nibbles Number of subnets 1 16 2 256 3 4,096 4 65,536 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af
  32. 32. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Other Subnet Schemes •  VLAN Numbers •  Organization may already have location/type planned into VLANs •  Mirroring IPv4 Networks •  Point-to-point / inter-router links •  RFC 6164 suggests use of /127 prefixes •  You may want to reserve a /64 and then assign a /127 9/24/13
  33. 33. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Subnetting on non-nibble boundaries •  Again, you can subnet on non-nibble boundaries •  Can make more efficient use of space, just may be harder to use •  Calculate # of bits necessary by finding the nearest power of 2 greater than or equal to value •  If 6 locations, 8 (23) is closest so 3 bits would be needed. •  If 20 locations, 32 (25) is closest so 5 bits would be needed. •  Example of subnet boundaries using 3 bits (/51): •  Subnet 1 – 2001:db8:1a:0::/51 •  Values – 2001:db8:1a:0:0:0:0:0 – 2001:db8:1a:1fff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff •  Subnet 2 – 2001:db8:1a:2000::/51 •  Values – 2001:db8:1a:2000:0:0:0:0 – 2001:db8:1a:3fff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff •  Subnet 3 – 2001:db8:1a:4000::/51 9/24/13
  34. 34. www.internetsociety.org Subnets at an Internet Service Provider (ISP) or Local Internet Registry (LIR) 9/25/13
  35. 35. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ ISP/LIR Customers Typically Receive A /48 Prefix 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) Prefix (/48) Subnet (/16)
  36. 36. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ ISPs/LIRs Typically Receive A /32 Prefix 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) Prefix (/32) Subnet (/32)
  37. 37. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Allocating a /32 at the LIR Level 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) Prefix (/32) Subnet (/16) Subnet (/16) Prefix (/48)
  38. 38. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Again a focus on 16 bits (4 nibbles) 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Host (/64) Prefix (/32) Subnet (/16) Subnet (/16) Prefix (/48)
  39. 39. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Using Nibbles: # of /48 Subnets In a /32 9/23/13 Prefix /36 Subnets /40 Subnets /44 Subnets /48 Subnets /32 16 256 4,096 65,536 /36 16 256 4,096 /40 16 256 /44 16 /48 1 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af 2001:db8::/32 2001:db8:1000:/36 2001:db8:1200:/40 2001:db8:1230:/44 2001:db8:1234:/48
  40. 40. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Subnetting At A Bit Level 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af 0001001000110100
  41. 41. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Bits And Subnets •  Helpful to think of number of possible subnets for each bit used: •  Using 1 bit gets you 2 subnets, 2 bits gets you 4 … •  May be more helpful to view it in this form: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192 16384 32768 65536 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 65536 32768 16384 8192 4096 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2
  42. 42. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Subnetting At A Bit Level •  If you use __ bits, you will have __ subnets and use a __ prefix •  Ex: 2001:db8:1230::/44 – 16 subnets - entire last nibble 2001:db8:1230::/47 – 2 subnets •  2001:db8:1230:: - 2001:db8:1237:: •  2001:db8:1238:: - 2001:db8:123f:: 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af 0001001000110100 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 65536 32768 16384 8192 4096 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 /32 /33 /34 /35 /36 /37 /38 /39 /40 /41 /42 /43 /44 /45 /46 /47 /48 Prefix (/32) Subnet (/16)
  43. 43. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Assigning Individual Subnets •  2001:db8:1230::/44 – 16 subnets – entire nibble (increment by 1) •  2001:db8:1230::/47 – 2 subnets •  2001:db8:1230::/47 - 2001:db8:1230:: - 2001:db8:1237:: •  2001:db8:1238::/47 - 2001:db8:1238:: - 2001:db8:123f:: •  2001:db8:1230::/46 – 4 subnets •  2001:db8:1230::/46 - 2001:db8:1230:: - 2001:db8:1233:: •  2001:db8:1234::/46 - 2001:db8:1234:: - 2001:db8:1237:: •  2001:db8:1238::/46 - 2001:db8:1238:: - 2001:db8:123b:: •  2001:db8:123c::/46 - 2001:db8:123c:: - 2001:db8:123f:: 2001:db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af Bits 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Subnets 65536 32768 16384 8192 4096 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 Prefix /32 /33 /34 /35 /36 /37 /38 /39 /40 /41 /42 /43 /44 /45 /46 /47 Nibble Hex Increment 1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 1 2 4 8 Prefix (/32) Subnet (/16)
  44. 44. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Requesting IPv6 Addresses •  Many ISPs/LIRs simply request a /32 •  2001:db8::/32 •  You can request larger address space •  How many /32s do you want to have? •  See: •  http://www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/resources/how-to-get-ipv6-addresses/
  45. 45. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Requesting Greater Than A /32 •  If you use __ bits, you will have __ subnets and use a __ prefix •  If you want 2 /32's, request a /31 •  RIRs may have different policies about what size address blocks you can obtain 2001:0db8:1234:152c:12b4:5678:d334:9af 0000110110111000 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 65536 32768 16384 8192 4096 2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 /16 /17 /18 /19 /20 /21 /22 /23 /24 /25 /26 /27 /28 /29 /30 /31 /32
  46. 46. www.internetsociety.org Recommendations and Resources 9/25/13
  47. 47. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Closing Recommendations •  Ensure that all prefixes fall on nibble boundaries •  Plan a hierarchical scheme for easy aggregation or enforcement of policies •  Allocate /64 prefixes for all end subnets •  Consider scalability and future potential growth •  Think about how well your plan might handle renumbering •  Document your planning thoroughly
  48. 48. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Resources AFRINIC IPv6 Foundations •  http://learn.afrinic.net/index.php/en/resources/ipv6 SURFnet / RIPE NCC "Preparing an IPv6 Address Plan" •  http://www.surfnet.nl/Documents/rapport_201309_IPv6_numplan_EN.pdf Internet Society Deploy360 Programme •  http://www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ipv6/basics/ •  http://www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/resources/ipv6-address-planning/ 9/25/13
  49. 49. www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ york@isoc.org http://www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/ Dan York Senior Content Strategist Internet Society Thank You!

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