Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Endangered Species Bulletin - Spring 2011


Published on

Special DoD-Focused issue of the Endangered Species Bulletin

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Endangered Species Bulletin - Spring 2011

  1. 1. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Spring 2011 Volume 36, No.1Wildlife Stewardshipand National Defense
  2. 2. In This Edition The Department of Defense and the military services work hard to ensure that soldiers have high-quality natural environments in which to train. They also work to sustain our nation’s natural resources for future generations. Achieving these dual missions requires commitment and perseverance. A few of the many projects dedicated managers Spring 2011 Volume 36, No. 1 have undertaken in the past 10 years are featured in this edition of the Endangered Species Bulletin. These projects not only Editor: Mike Bender enable the military mission, but also help to defend and sustain endangered species and Associate Editor: Sarah Leon their habitats. Art Director: Jennifer A. Hennessey To learn more about DoD’s stewardship efforts and successes, take time to read the stories in this edition of the Bulletin. You Contributors L. Peter Boice R. Fischer Priya Nanjappa can also learn more at its website, Alison Dalsimer M. Convertino Ernesto Garcia Erica Evans M. Chu-Agor Michael Lannoo Kathryn Sabella G. Kiker Christopher Dobony Jane Mallory C.J. Martinez Eric Britzke Hannah E. Anderson R. Muñoz-Carpena Mark Ford Send Us Your Comments David Clouse H.R. Akçakaya Raymond Rainbolt Todd Zuchowski M. Aiello-Lammens Dr. Joseph M. Szewczak We are very interested in your comments and Bernd Blossey Richard A. Fischer Jim Brannen suggestions about the Endangered Species Victoria Nuzzo Jonathon J. Valente Josh Wilhelm Aaron Moody Michael P. Guilfoyle Howard Jelks Bulletin. Please send them to Donald George Sidney A. Gauthreaux Bill Tate or mail them to Endangered Species Bulletin, Nancy Natoli T. Mitchell Aide Frank Jordan Carlos Corrada-Bravo U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Suite 420, Tammy Conkle Robert E. Lovich Eric Wolf Lorri Schwartz Verl Emrick 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA I. Linkov Chris Petersen Douglas Ripley 22203-1610. You can also call us at 703-358-2171. The Endangered Species Bulletin is available online at dangered//news/bulletin.html. To be notified when a new on-line edition has been posted, sign up for our list-serv by clicking on “E-Mail List” on the Bulletin Web page. The Bulletin welcomes manuscripts on a wide range of topics related to endangered species. Please send an inquiry before drafting the article. We invite you to visit the Endangered Species Program web site ( www. ), where you can download podcasts and find links to follow us on Twitter and Facebook. On the cover: 2011 has been designated “The Year of the Turtle” by Partners in Amphbian and Reptile Conservation (, an organization that counts the Department of Defense as a member. Last summer, personnel with the Air National Guard participated in a green sea turtle nesting beach clean-up on the Hawaiian island of O’ahu in cooperation with “Malama nu Honu,” a non-profit group that works to protect the species through education, public awareness and conservation. Photo by © Martin Strmiska / Alamy. Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  3. 3. FEATURES 4 Why We Care About 31 Radaring in on Migrating Endangered Species Birds 6 Defense Secretary 32 Automated Biodiversity Announces Monitoring Environmental Awards 34 Developing a Strategic 7 National Public Lands Plan for Herpetofauna Day on Military Lands 8 Cooperative 36 Do Frogs Still Get Their Conservation on the Kicks on Route 66? Puget Sound Prairies 40 DoD Joins the Battle to 10 Sustaining the Mission Save Bats at Joint Base Lewis McChord 42 A Call in the Night 12 Conservation Frontiers 44 Restoring the Pallid Sturgeon 16 Banking Seeds for the 46 Weapons Testing and Future Endangered Fish Coexist in Florida 18 Connecting Landscapes for Biodiversity 48 Defending Mussel Populations on Military 20 The Readiness and Lands Environmental Protection Initiative 50 Conserving Biodiversity on Military Lands 22 Partnerships from Hawaii to North Carolina 24 From Sea to Shining Sea 51 USFWS Contacts 28 The Proof of Sea-level Rise is in the Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin
  4. 4. by Kathryn Sabella,interviewing L. Peter Boice Why We Care About Endangered Species The DoD Natural Resources ProgramT he Department of Defense driven DoD’s successes during his KS: Why does DoD care about (DoD) mission is to defend career. Our conversation provides a endangered species? our nation, train our troops, glimpse into the extensive conservation LPB: DoD protects endangeredand test equipment needed for efforts underway within the United species to comply with the Endangerednational defense, peacekeeping, and States military, and reveals that the Species Act and to avoid the need foremergency response. It requires air, link between our military services and critical habitat designations, whichland, and sea space for training and environmental stewardship is clear. could restrict training. To achieve thistesting activities. Such activities may wildlife protection goal, the militarynot immediately conjure thoughts of KS: What is DoD’s natural resources services must also comply with theenvironmental stewardship. However, mission? requirements of another law, the SikesL. Peter Boice, Deputy Director of LPB: DoD’s core mission is to enable Act. Congress passed this law inNatural Resources for the Office of our military service men and women, 1960, requiring DoD to assess naturalthe Secretary of Defense, offers 20 soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines to resources on installations, completeyears of experience and a different train as they would fight. DoD pursues Integrated Natural Resourcesperspective on this subject. During its natural resource goals to provide Management Plans (INRMPs), anda short interview near his office in realistic training lands while at the coordinate with the U.S. Fish andArlington, Virginia, Peter spoke same time meeting legal requirements Wildlife Service (FWS) and state fishwith me about DoD’s commitment to to provide habitat for a wide variety of and wildlife agencies to manage naturalnatural resources conservation, and he threatened, endangered, and at-risk resources with no net loss to thediscussed some of the natural resource species. military mission. However, legislativepolicies and partnerships that have compliance is not the sole reason for Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  5. 5. protecting endangered species on Readiness and Environmental in Flight, a public/private conservationmilitary lands. DoD manages over Protection Initiative Program works partnership, is celebrating its 20th29 million acres of land and more with communities that surround year by working with airfield operatorslisted, threatened, endangered, and military installations and training areas to promote better habitat for speciesat-risk species per acre than any to create buffer zones of protected and reduce bird/animal aircraft strikeother federal agency. As development habitats. This allows our soldiers to hazards, resulting in potential costincreases in areas surrounding military have more training space while the savings. The Nature Conservancyinstallations, some installations have species that depend on those habitats works with DoD to identify lands onbecome islands of biodiversity that can better flourish. The Strategic or surrounding bases that are primeprovide habitat for certain species. In and Environmental Research and for protection. Together, DoD andfact, more than 40 species occur only Development Program (SERDP) The Nature Conservancy populated aon DoD lands. DoD recognizes that and the Environmental Security database for future land managementpart of defending our nation involves Technology Certification Program decisions aimed at preventing the needdefending these natural resources for (ESTCP) fulfill DoD-specific needs to list at-risk species in places such asfuture generations. for all DoD environmental programs, Fort Lewis, Washington, in the Puget including munitions, restoration, Sound area.KS: Which DoD programs weapons platforms, and naturalare involved with threatened, resources. SERDP focuses specifically KS: What do you hope readers willendangered, and at-risk species on research and development, take away from this issue of theconservation efforts? while ESTCP funds technology Endangered Species Bulletin?LPB: There are four main programs demonstration and validation. LPB: I hope that our readers willinvolved with conservation efforts understand that DoD’s mission is towithin DoD. I head the Natural KS: What are some key conservation defend our nation and its resources.Resources Office, which is part of successes that have resulted from Our natural resource managersDoD’s Environmental Management DoD partnerships? care about and protect threatened,Office. We implement the Secretary of LPB: DoD conservation successes endangered, and at-risk species, andDefense’s priorities; conduct program not only prevent critical habitat I hope readers will appreciate theoversight, advocacy, and outreach; designation and loss of training, but range of habitats and species underand develop policy. The DoD Legacy also create realistic training grounds DoD stewardship. Most importantly,Resource Management Program is the for soldiers. During my career, many I hope that our readers leave withfunding arm for the Natural Resources accomplishments have resulted from the knowledge that defending theseOffice, and it provides money for DoD partnerships with programs species and other natural resourcesnational and regional projects in such as Partners in Flight and The truly enables the military’s testing andsupport of stewardship needs. The Nature Conservancy. DoD Partners training mission. L. Peter Boice, Deputy Director of Natural Resources at the Department of Defense, can be reached at peter. (Opposite page): L. Peter Boice visiting O‘ahu, Hawaii. (This page): Capt. Aaron Cudnohufsky, Commanding Officer, Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), along with Dennis Rowley, Tom Clements, Don Heacock, and Bobby Ragassa, carry an injured green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) to an all-terrain vehicle at Nohili Ditch on PMRF. The turtle was later transported to O‘ahu for medical treatment and released back into the wild. Photo by MC2 Jay C. Pugh, U.S. Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin
  6. 6. Defense Secretary Announces Environmental Awards by Erica Evans and Kathryn SabellaT he Secretary of Defense and the promotion of the cultural • Mr. Stephen M. Seiber, Eglin recognizes the importance of resources ethic; Air Force Base, Florida: Natural defending our nation’s natural Resources Conservationresources to support the military • prevent or eliminate pollution at – Individual/Teamtraining and testing mission. Each the source, including practices thatyear since 1962, the Secretary has increase efficiency and sustainability • Mr. Awni M. Almasri, Navalhonored military installations, teams, in the use of raw materials, energy, Facilities Engineering Commandand individuals for their outstanding water, or other resources; Europe Africa Southwestachievements to sustain the natural Asia: Environmental Qualityand cultural resources entrusted to • protect human health and the – Individual/Teamthe Department of Defense (DoD). environment by cleaning upFor 2010, DoD’s Environment, Safety identified DoD sites in a timely, cost- • Ms. Regina Dixon Butler, Patrick Airand Occupational Health Policy efficient, and responsive manner; and Force Base, Florida: EnvironmentalBoard approved 17 awards within Restoration – Individual/Teamthe categories of natural resources • incorporate environmental,conservation, cultural resources safety, and occupational health • Aeronautical Systems Centermanagement, environmental quality, requirements into the weapon Environmental and Occupationalpollution prevention, environmental system acquisition program’s Health Team, Wright-Patterson Airrestoration, and environmental decision-making process. Force Base, Ohio: Environmentalexcellence in weapon system Excellence in Weapons Systemsacquisition. The 2010 Environmental Award Acquisition – Team winners are:The DoD environmental awards Each year, a growing number ofrecognize small and large military • Fort Custer Training Center, outstanding nominees present theirinstallations, teams, and individuals Michigan Army National Guard: work for consideration. These awardsthat: Natural Resources Conservation acknowledge some of the premier – Small Installation environmental projects that DoD• promote natural resources supports. For more information on conservation, including the • Camp Guernsey, Wyoming Army DoD’s award winning environmental identification, protection, and National Guard: Cultural Resources efforts, visit http://www.denix.osd. restoration of biological resources Management – Installation mil/awards/. and habitats; the sound management and use of the land and its • Marine Corps Base Hawaii: resources; and the promotion of the Environmental Quality – Non- Erica Evans, with the consulting conservation ethic; industrial Installation firm Booz Allen Hamilton,can be reached at,• promote cultural resources • Fleet Readiness Center Southwest, and Kathryn Sabella, also with Booz management, including the California: Sustainability – Industrial Allen Hamilton, can be contacted at identification, protection, and Installation restoration of historical buildings and structures; archaeological sites; • Hill Air Force Base, Utah: Native American tribes and Native Environmental Restoration Hawaiian sacred objects and sites; – Installation Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  7. 7. National Public Lands Day Engaging Volunteers in Natural Resources Conservation by Jane MalloryS ince 1991, the Department ofprojects, and teams of volunteers long way toward conserving species Defense (DoD) has participated provide the labor. Throughout the and habitat under DoD stewardship. in National Public Lands Dayyears, they have worked together on(NPLD), an annual event that bringsa variety of projects: building batvolunteers and public land managersboxes, bee condos, and bird houses; Jane Mallory (contracted support), atogether to work for the restoration, pulling invasive plants; planting native botanist working with the Departmentconservation, and protection of essential species; creating pollinator gardens; of Defense Legacy Resourcenatural resources. With the help ofand clearing trash. Whether it is work Management Program, can bethousands of on- and off-post volunteers that benefits a specific sensitive species contacted at Jane.Mallory.ctr@osd.since 1999, and with funding from the (such as clearing debris from desert mil.DoD Legacy Resource Management tortoise habitat on the Marine CorpsProgram, more than 320 individual Logistics Base in Barstow, California)projects throughout the country, and or improving landscapes to benefit Volunteers installing native plants and weedingon Kwajalein Atoll and Guam in the multiple species (such as planting invasive species to improve coastal marsh habitat onPacific, have benefitted military base healthy native trees, shrubs, and Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, CA.environments. forbs on Greenbury Point at the Naval Photo by Robert Schallmann. Academy in Annapolis, Maryland), theThe DoD Legacy Resource Management annual NPLD events prove that a littleProgram provides supplies for NPLD hard work from volunteers can go Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin
  8. 8. CooperativeConservation on thePuget Sound PrairiesThe Joint Base Lewis-McChord ArmyCompatible Use Buffer Programby Hannah E. AndersonN ative prairie habitat once species and preclude the need to list candidates. The overall goal is to occupied 150,000 acres them under the ESA. preclude the need to list or, if listing (60,000 hectares) in the does occur, minimize the consequences.southern Puget Lowland of western One significant conservation programWashington State. Ninety percent of in the region is the JBLM Army The team does this through acquiringthis habitat has disappeared or been Compatible Use Buffer (ACUB) important prairie lands, restoringecologically degraded. Human uses program. Most ACUB programs degraded habitats, and increasingincompatible with conservation, along throughout the nation are geared the numbers and sizes of candidatewith the suppression of fire across the towards acquiring and protecting land species populations on the acquiredlandscape, threaten the remaining around military installations to serve lands. By supporting conservationprairies. Conifers and non-native as a buffer, which reduces the threat actions on lands outside the base, thevegetation are encroaching on the once of “encroachment” (constraints on military shares the burden of recoveryopen ecosystem. military training) due to incompatible with the other ACUB partners: The development. The JBLM ACUB is Nature Conservancy, the WashingtonA variety of rare species rely on prairie different. In 2006, a team began using Departments of Fish Wildlife andhabitat for survival. Among them are a cooperative approach to help sustain Natural Resources, and Wolf Havenfour that are candidates for listing military readiness by implementing International. The partners haveunder the Endangered Species Act conservation actions for the four listing acquired the prairie preserves and the(ESA): two rare butterflies - Taylor’scheckerspot (Euphydryas edithataylori) and the Mardon skipper(Polites mardon) - the streakedhorned lark (Eremophila alpestrisstrigata), and the Mazama pocketgopher (Thomomys mazama). Thelargest expanse and the highest qualityprairie habitat in the region occurs onJoint Base Lewis-McChord (JBLM),a 91,000-acre (37,000-ha) militaryinstallation 40 miles (65 kilometers)south of Seattle, Washington. If any ofthese species were to become listed, theU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service couldimpose significant military trainingrestrictions. A group of concernedpartners in the south Puget Soundare working together to recover these Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  9. 9. Department of Defense has provided ha) that were already in conservation when working together rather thanessential funding support ($3.3 million status, and reintroduced Taylor’s individually. Each entity is able to learnto date) for on-the-ground conservation checkerspots and Mazama pocket from the others, exchange information,actions. gophers onto several ACUB properties. and integrate its expertise into the The team has answered significant collaborative effort. Most of theThe team is overcoming a common questions about the target species, projects involve multiple years, sites,problem in conservation: insufficient such as specific habitat requirements and partners. The goal is to promoteresources for managing protected and predator identification. It has continued military training, specieslands. In this case, management also conducted wall-to-wall vegetation recovery, open space protection, and theincludes activities such as controlling mapping of all protected sites, mutual respect and trust that come withinvasive plants; using prescribed fire information that has already been cooperating toward a common restore historic natural ecological extremely useful for identifying newprocesses; growing, planting, and non-native species infestations andseeding native plants; breeding and targeting areas for intensive habitat Hannah E. Anderson of The Naturereintroducing butterflies; reintroducing restoration. The JBLM ACUB Conservancy of Washington can bepocket gophers to ACUB properties; projects have contributed significantly reached at planning, monitoring, and research. to the regional recovery of these rare native species. (Opposite page top): Streaked horned larkSince the program’s inception, the (Eremophila alpestris strigata). Rod Gilbert.JBLM ACUB has acquired 1,025 The collaborative nature of the JBLM (Opposite page bottom): Managers prepare for aacres (415 ha) of new conservation ACUB is one of the main strengths prescribed burn. Photo by, conducted ongoing restoration of the program. The partners agree (This page): Taylor’s checkerspot butterfly.of these lands and 3,222 acres (1,303 that they accomplish much more Photo by Aaron Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin
  10. 10. Sustaining theMission at JointBase Lewis McChordby David Clouse and Todd ZuchowskiA t the Joint Base Lewis current and future uses of the area creates habitat for nesting bald eagles. McChord (JBLM) in western for training purposes. Compatibility Since 1982, eagle nesting territories Washington State, each of its is based on the requirements of the have increased from two to 10.major ecosystems -- late-successional species targeted for augmentationforests, wetlands, and prairies -- and reintroduction. The following are In addition to managing forests, naturalprovide unique opportunities to support examples from each of our ecosystems resource managers at JBLM work toboth conservation and the military in which this process has been protect wetland habitats for variousmission. In fact, projects to improve successful for both military training plant and fish species. Wetlandswildlife habitat frequently enhance and species recovery. management focuses on controllingmilitary training opportunities. This non-native plant species and protectingmakes it possible for managers to Managing for late-successional forests Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchusmaintain viable populations of native on the military installation maintains tshawytscha), steelheadflora and fauna, including listed species. overhead cover for training and a (Onconrhynchus mykiss), and water relatively open understory. This allows howellia (Howellia aquatilis), anNatural resource personnel manage trainers to maneuver through the area aquatic plant federally listed assites on military lands for the recovery and potentially enhances the site for threatened. A major managementof listed and federal candidate the western gray squirrel (Sciurus problem within wetlands and streamsspecies, but they focus on areas of the griseus), a species of concern and at JBLM is the spread of reed canaryinstallation that are compatible with a state threatened species. It also grass (Phalaris arundinacea). This10 Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  11. 11. non-native grass species can completely choke off stream channels and displace other wetland plants. Sites that are overgrown with reed canary grass can lose their effectiveness for such military training uses as practice zones for airdrops. Prairies in the Puget Sound region are the focus of yet another stewardship effort. They were once naturally maintained by periodic burning, but fires have been suppressed there for more than 100 years. As a result, trees and invasive species, such as the nonnative Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius), have colonized prairie habitats. This shrub, which can grow up to 10 feet (3 meters) in height, significantly impedes military training and reduces habitat for prairie- dependent species. The Joint Base Lewis-McChord Fish and Wildlife program has responded by using the likelihood of federal listing and squirrel augmentation are now a prescribed burning, which benefits both significant impacts on military training. cornerstone of management practices the ecosystem and military training. In some cases, limited disturbance of on the installation, and a model for non-native ground cover can benefit the recovery of rare species on other When present on a site, Scotch broom a native species by recreating open military bases. degrades open prairie habitat for four habitat. Such is the case with the federal listing candidates. Eliminating streaked horned lark (Eremophila this noxious shrub is the first step alpestris strigata), which prefers David Clouse, Joint Base Lewis- to recover a site’s natural state, some bare ground on which to locate McChord Fish Wildlife Program although efforts to restore habitats its nests. Other species, such as the Manager, can be reached at david. for native plants take place only on Taylor’s checkerspot (Euphydryas or - - sites where the designated military editha taylori) butterfly, require nectar . Todd Zuchowski, Joint Base use is compatible. By increasing the producing native plants and larval host Lewis-McChord Wildlife Biologist, populations of rare species, we reduce plants, which grow on sites with limited can be reached at todd.zuchowski@ ground disturbance, such as drop or - -. zones. (Opposite page top): Taylor’s checkerspot butterfly By focusing on a regional cooperative (Euphydryas editha taylori). Photo by DoD. approach to natural resources management with partners such as the (Opposite page bottom): Muck Creek Channel filled Nisqually Indian Tribe, Washington with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) State Department of Fish and Wildlife, before and after mechanical removal enhancement. Photo by Rod Gilbert. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and The Nature Conservancy, JBLM is working (This page top): Taylor’s checkersport. Photo by Ted to conserve rare species and prevent Thomas, USFWS. Endangered Species Act impacts onPhoto by Rod Gilbert. training. JBLM’s use of sustainable (This page bottom): Mazama pocket gopher programs, such as ecological (Thomomys mazama). Photo by Rod Gilbert. burning, Taylor’s checkerspot reintroduction, and Western gray Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin 11
  12. 12. Conservation Frontiers fragmentation, the spread of invasive plants, animals, and diseases and climate change. Protecting the last remaining populations of rare plantPlants Conservation on Military Lands and Beyond species from extinction, re-building and restoring larger populations of these species, and preventing further declineby Bernd Blossey and Victoria Nuzzo of species currently at risk of extinction is paramount to conservation efforts. With funding provided by theH undreds of plant species often at the center of conservation Strategic Environmental Research and in the United States face actions for land managers at military Development Program (SERDP), a extinction, despite significant installations, their declines are team of ecologists from the Departmentefforts to protect these species and troubling and threats are often multi- of Natural Resources at Cornelltheir habitats. Because plants are facetted, among them habitat loss and University is working to disentangle the effects of various threats, or stressors, that contribute to the rarity of four state-listed or vulnerable plant species in New York – beaked agrimony (Agrimonia rostellata), Virginia snakeroot (Aristolochia serpentaria), reflexed sedge (Carex retroflexa) and red trillium (Trillium erectum). The team conducts their work at West Point Military Academy (USMA), 50 miles (80 km) north of New York City in the Hudson Highlands ecoregion. Established in 1802, USMA is the oldest of five service academies in the United States. The site, which overlooks the Hudson River, boasts significant forested areas and wetlands, where the team is able to investigate different stressors including invasions by a number of European and Asian earthworms, particularly Amynthas and Lumbricus spp.; invasions by three plant species, garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), barberry (Berberis thunbergii), and Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum); invasions by European slugs, mainly Arion subfuscus, and root weevils (Barypeithes pellucidus); nutrient loading through aerial deposition; and the impact of overabundant white- tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This work is conducted in multiple venues: large (30x30 m) deer exclosures erected at USMA paired with similar-sized unfenced control areas,1 Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  13. 13. experimental plantings and seedings toassess potential restoration techniques,and a variety of common garden andlaboratory experiments to tease apartthe contribution of individual andcombined stressors on demographyof the four state-listed plant species.The team selected the target plantspecies not only for their status asregionally listed species, but also fortheir assumed different vulnerabilityto earthworm invasions, or deerherbivory.Based on the results of previousresearch, the team assumed deerherbivory and earthworm invasionswould overwhelm the importance ofother stressors in the demise of theserare target plant species. In an attemptto assess deer browse intensity at thevarious field sites, the team employs asentinel approach using 3-month oldoak seedlings. The team monitors theseoak seedlings, along with individuallymarked specimens of the target nativeplant species growing inside andoutside of deer exclosures, for theirsurvival, growth, and deer browseintensity.After only 2 years of field observation,the team’s results show that deerherbivory on oak seedlings and threeof the four ‘rare’ plant species isexcessive, and considerably reducesgrowth, flowering, and fruiting. This isfurther increasing concerns for long-term survival of rare browse-sensitivespecies.Work by other scientists demonstratesthat for the closely related whitetrillium (Trillium grandiflorum),browse intensity exceeding 15 percentof reproductive individuals leads to(Opposite page): Virginia snakeroot.(This page top): West Point oak seedling.(This page bottom): Red trillium. Photos by Bernd
  14. 14. long-term population decline. Unlike importance of deer herbivory inindividuals exposed to deer, individuals the decline of many plant species inof the listed plant species growing eastern forests. Conservation efforts,inside exclosures show strong signs of particularly managing invasive plantrecovery, and the taller, more robust species in preserves or on militaryplants bear little resemblance to the installations, should focus on the sourcetiny individuals initially encountered. of degradation to prevent furtherIn the absence of deer herbivory, native decline. Merely removing invasiveplants are better able to stand their plant species will not achieve the sameground against invasive plants, at least level of conservation benefits for stateagainst the three invasive plants that and federally listed browse sensitivethe team monitors in eastern deciduous plant species as reducing overabundantforests. deer herds across much of North America would.Managers often blame invasiveplants for deteriorating native plant (Inset): A good example of rich groundlayercommunities, but the team’s work vegetation protected from deer herbivory.indicates it is a complex of stressors Photo by Victoria Nuzzo.responsible for this degradation. Theresults of this research, although (Opposite page): Deer exclosure.preliminary, point to the overwhelming Photo by Bernd Blossey.1 Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  15. 15. Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin 1
  16. 16. D epartment of Defense (DoD)-Banking Seeds for managed lands contain habitats that support 186 plant species that are listed underthe Future the Endangered Species Act or are candidates for listing. Because listed species on DoD lands can lead to restrictions on training and operations, working towards species recoveryAn Essential Tool for Plant Recovery whenever possible benefits not only the species but also installation operations and the military mission. To conserve these rare species, the DoD Legacyby Jane Mallory Resource Management Program enlisted the assistance of the Center for Plant Conservation, a non-profit network of institutions dedicated to conserving and restoring America’s native plants. According to the Center, a number of recovery plans for federally-listed plants propose the reintroduction of nursery-grown stock as one way to increase wild populations to a sustainable level. Such reintroductions originate from ex-situ (off-site) collections of plant cuttings, seeds, spores, and/or tissue cultures. However, existing collections are distributed widely among many institutions, and there was no public database on the amount, condition, and age of material potentially available for restoration work. The DoD Legacy Program addressed this problem by funding the Center to conduct a comprehensive study on the state of ex-situ material for all DoD-protected plant species. The Center’s report provides detailed information for each species, a description of ex-situ material and the collection sites, and identifies species that lack such material. DoD installations and the military services can use this information to examine efforts to secure the genome of vulnerable plant species and improve the potential for any future reintroductions. For example, the study revealed that 130 of the1 Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  17. 17. 186 imperiled plant species found on and restoration work. They will store DoD managers and presented it duringDoD lands lack any DoD site-specific the actual seeds and cuttings at the a workshop in Honolulu, Hawaii, ancollections. They also found that ex- U.S. Department of Agriculture’s area that supports the lion’s share ofsitu material for 61 of the 186 species National Center for Genetic Resources imperiled plants in the United States.had never been collected and stored Preservation in Ft. Collins, Colorado. Thirty DoD personnel, state agencyanywhere, possibly hindering recovery This effort will secure DoD site-specific personnel, DoD contracted support,efforts and leaving these species wild-collected seed for the most and partners attended this workshop.particularly vulnerable to extinction. vulnerable species and help safeguard Over the course of six days, nine PhD the genetic integrity of declining faculty members taught 17 differentIn 2010, the DoD Legacy Program populations. This research can be topics, such as Concepts of Rarityawarded the Center additional funding used to provide a seed bank resource and Imperiled Plants, Importance ofto use the study results as a guide for for immediate and future restoration Systematics, Population Evaluationthe next DoD endeavor, the “Seed needs and create a safety net against using Demography Population ViabilityBanking Federally-listed Mainland unforeseen threats to wild populations. Analysis, and Recovery Criteria. ThePlant Species on DoD Lands” project. These seed collections could also be course was such a success that theThis is a multi-year effort to collect used for additional research tasks Center presented it again in 2009 inseeds and other material from species identified in recovery plans and serve California, and is hoping for a thirdfound on DoD mainland installations. as a source material for possible offering in North Carolina in the nearField biologists from the Center out-planting efforts by DoD natural future.and its partner institutions, such resources botanical gardens, arboreta, and (Opposite page): Ute ladies’-tresses (Spiranthesuniversities, are now working with In addition to collecting data and diluvialis). Photo by Bekee Hotze, USFWS.natural resource managers at military material that could one day helpinstallations to collect material for the recover rare plants on military (This page): Golden paintbrush (Castilleja levisecta). Photo by Ted Thomas, USFWS.20 highest priority species and will installations, DoD is also providingcollect additional species in the coming training for its natural resourcesyear. Scientists will store collection managers in topics that relateinformation in the Center’s central specifically to plant conservation. Indatabase to track various attributes 2007, the Center used funding from the(propagule counts, age, location, etc) DoD Legacy Program to tailor theirof ex-situ material for future research plant conservation training course Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin 1
  18. 18. Connecting Landscapes forBiodiversityHabitat Conservation On and Around DoD Landsby Aaron MoodyH abitat fragmentation due lands to preserve is challenging, to land-use changes near especially for multiple species that military bases poses major vary in their abilities to dispersechallenges for wildlife conservation through different natural, managed, oron Department of Defense (DoD) developed habitats (Ricketts 2001).lands. Fragmentation isolates speciespopulations, thereby increasing their Historically, lands have been selectedexposure to risks from demographic, using expert opinion on a species-by-genetic, and environmental factors species basis (Beier et al. 2009). More(Gilpin and Soule 1986). This recently, computational approachespotentially undermines the wildlife have been developed to reducerecovery efforts on installations by subjectivity and automate the processDoD land managers. of quantifying the value of land for habitat connectivity (Calabrese andFort Bragg, situated in the Sandhills Fagan 2005). For most species, theseecoregion of North Carolina, is approaches are limited by a lack ofemblematic of this situation. One information about how landscapeof the largest and most active U.S. features affect movement behavior andmilitary bases, Ft. Bragg is an island by the persistence of a single-speciesof nearly intact forest surrounded focus for connectivity agriculture and development. Asa result of fire management that Study species include not only the USFWSmimics natural processes, Fort Bragg red-cockaded woodpecker and Saintcontains some of the most extensive Francis’ satyr but also two amphibian The Saint Francis’ satyr survives only on Fort Bragg.high-quality long-leaf pine habitat species, the eastern tiger salamanderfor the endangered red-cockaded (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) andwoodpecker (Picoides borealis). It Carolina gopher frog (Rana capitofully encompasses the known range capito), both of which are listed byof an endangered butterfly, the Saint accommodating the base’s military North Carolina as threatened at theFrancis’ satyr (Neonympha mitchellii readiness mission. state level. The team collected detailedfrancisci). Fort Bragg also is home to data on movement behavior for thesethree other endangered species and One approach to offsetting the isolating species using multiple methods,approximately 70 species of concern. effects of fragmentation is to preserve including radio-telemetry, in-situOur research team is working on behalf connections among protected habitats (on site) observations, experimentalof DoD’s Strategic Environmental (Beier Noss 1998, Tewksbury et releases of captive-bred animals andResearch and Development Program al. 2002). The DoD has accelerated translocated animals into differentto determine how to conserve habitat land acquisition around some bases to landscape types and at landscapeconnectivity between on- and off-base enhance connectivity among existing boundaries, tracking movement pathshabitats where multiple species must habitats for rare species (Herring using fluorescent dye powder, andbe managed simultaneously, while also 2004). However, identifying the best pit-trapping for amphibians near1 Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  19. 19. breeding ponds. The team is linking open areas, these habitats may serve as Calabrese JM and Fagan WF. 2004.these data with detailed environmental dispersal barriers. A comparison-shoppers guide tomaps derived from field data, satellite connectivity metrics. Fron. Ecol.remote sensing, and aircraft-based To streamline the process of developing Environ. 2: 529-536.light detection and range (LiDAR), and integrating connectivity models,which uses a laser pulse return to map the team developed a user-friendly Gilpin ME and Soule ME. 1986.the 3-D structure of the land surface, software package called “CONNECT” Minimum viable populations: Processesto understand how different landscape that operates seamlessly with of species extinction. In: ME Soule (ed.)features affect animal movement mainstream geographic information Conservation Biology: The Scienceand dispersal and to map habitat software (ESRI ArcGIS 9.3). of Scarcity and Diversity. Sinauerconnectivity. The goal is to provide CONNECT combines habitat data Associates. Sunderland. Mass.information on the habitat connectivity and resistance surfaces (maps thatvalue of each land parcel that might be depict how difficult it is for animals Herring H (2004 -winter) Room toacquired for conservation. to move through the landscape) to maneuver. Nature Conservancy. 54: generate likely dispersal corridorsThe team developed statistical models and habitat networks. CONNECT Ricketts T (2001) The matrix matters:of habitat connectivity for the red- also allows combining connectivity effective isolation in fragmentedcockaded woodpecker by using radio- models for multiple species to identify landscapes. Am. Nat. 158: 87-99.telemetry data from dispersing juvenile the highest value locations for multi-females as they searched for breeding species connectivity. CONNECT Tewksbury JJ, Levey DJ, Haddadsites. Dispersing birds avoided open makes it easy for users to incorporate NM, Sargent S, Orrock JL, Weldonand developed areas and preferred to animal movement models into larger A, Danielson BJ, Brinkerhoff J,disperse through forested landscapes, work flows and to explore the affects Damschen EI, and Townsend P (2002)including forest types that are not of alternate land management, Corridors affect plants, animals,used for nesting. The research team conservation, and restoration scenarios and their interactions in fragmentedused the data to measure the relative on regional-scale habitat connectivity landscapes. PNAS 99: 12923-12926.resistance of the landscape to dispersal for wildlife conservation.and to map those lands that promotedispersal. Our research team is using data, Aaron Moody, Department of models, and CONNECT to address Geography Curriculum for theFor the Saint Francis’ satyr, models questions relevant to wildlife Environment and Ecology, Universityof habitat connectivity are based on conservation on and around of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, can bethe simulated dispersal of butterflies DoD installations. The Sandhills contacted at aaronm@email.unc.eduthrough a virtual representation Conservation Partnership, a multiple- or 1--0.of Fort Bragg and surrounding stakeholder group that coordinateslandscapes. The simulation is based conservation activities in the Sandhillson movement behaviors observed from ecoregion, can use the informationbutterflies in their natural habitats and and methods developed through thisbutterflies experimentally translocated project to set land acquisition prioritiesand released into different types of in order to benefit both the base andnatural and developed habitats. To the fauna and flora of the habitat connectivity, the teamrecorded the frequency with which References:simulated butterflies passed througheach grid cell in the virtual landscape. Beier P Majka DR, and Newell SL. ,Interestingly, butterflies make longer, 2009. Uncertainty analysis of least-straighter movements in upland cost modeling for designing wildlifeforests, suggesting that this may be linkages. Ecol. App. 19: 2067-2077.important dispersal habitat. Butterflybehavior at riparian forest edges Beier P and Noss RF. 1998. Do habitatindicated that these lands also function corridors really provide connectivity?as dispersal corridors. In contrast, Cons. Biol. 12:1241-1252.because butterflies rarely enter Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin 1
  20. 20. The Readiness and conserve their habitat on lands off the military base. Installations can accrue credits and alleviate restrictionsand by contributing to a species’ recovery on these non-DoD lands. Similarly, installations can receive credits forEnvironmental protecting off-post habitat, which can be applied to mitigate construction or other on-post habitat uses.Protection While a number of REPI projectsInitiative have preserved valuable habitats and allowed DoD missions to continue, the project at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida illustrates the mutually beneficial relationship between species conservation andConserving Off-base DoD’s readiness efforts.Habitat Opens Defense Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is theLands to Military Use only U.S. space launch site capable of placing satellites into geosynchronous orbit (an orbit that places a satellite stationary over a given spot). Both government and commercial space operations rely heavily on Cape Canaveral’s launch Donald George However, because Cape Canaveral AFS is a critical conservation area for the threatened Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), current launch programs are confined to their existing footprints to prevent loss of scrub habitat. The only available land for any new “heavy” launch vehicle or processing facilities is mostly scrub jay habitat, and all activities that impact scrub habitat on the base incur a 4:1 mitigation requirement to offset the habitat loss.O ne of the core purposes of for species migration, and provides Since the Station is only 15,800 the U.S. Department of greater opportunities for adapting to, acres (about 6,395 hectares) and Defense’s (DoD) Readiness and mitigating, the effects of climate surrounded on three sides by water,and Environmental Protection change. the land available for new facilitiesInitiative (REPI) projects is to is limited. Cape Canaveral has onlyconserve such environmental assets When threatened and endangered 8,000 acres (3,240 ha) of undevelopedas wildlife in a manner that supports species are present on installation lands remaining, with 2,000 acresmilitary mission readiness and habitat, training can be severely (8,000 ha) acres of that land currentlynational security. These projects restricted. To alleviate this problem, set aside for conservation as a resultalso demonstrate a commitment installations are working with an of endangered species consultationsto landscape-level planning, which off-post local conservation entity to with the U.S. Fish and Wildlifehelps preserve biodiversity, allows promote the recovery of listed species Service (FWS). Based on the offset0 Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  21. 21. requirements, only 1,200 acres (500 successful REPI project in Air Force for alleviating training restrictions isha) on the base remain available for Space Command will allow continued being closely inspected as a model formilitary mission use. launches of satellites to support other installations. Lessons learned GPS, communications, and weather from the Army’s efforts at Camp BullisTo protect its military mission and forecasting for the entire nation. will help a number of other installationsconserve habitat, Cape Canaveral currently discussing recovery effortspartnered with Brevard County and In another example of the REPI with the FWS, such as Marine Corpsits voter-approved Environmentally program, Camp Bullis Military Base Camp Lejeune.Endangered Lands Program to Training Reservation in Texas willpreserve nearby undeveloped scrub protect off-post habitat to supporthabitat. The County acquired 188 acres the recovery of the golden-cheeked Donald George, U.S. Air Force, can be(76 ha) of scrub habitat, and the Air warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). contacted at received a conservation easement Through a consultation with the FWS or 1--.on 101 acres (40 ha) of that parcel. This under section 7 of the Endangeredproject will help protect the survival of Species Act, Camp Bullis will be able (Opposite page): Florida scrub jay.the Florida scrub-jay and, in working to clear unoccupied warbler habitat Photo by Thomas G. Barnes.with the FWS, Cape Canaveral may on post for medic field training,receive Recovery Credits to alleviate which is its primary training mission. (This page): Golden-checked warbler.future mitigation requirements Warbler habitat conserved off-post Photo by Gil Eckrich.when mission development exceeds will mitigate for the on-post loss. Thisthe1,250-acre level. This first innovative use of REPI as a new Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin 1
  22. 22. Partnershipsfrom Hawaii toNorth CarolinaThe Readiness and EnvironmentalProtection Initiativeby Nancy NatoliT he U.S. Department of for Public Land to protect the two Camp Pendleton’s conservation efforts Defense’s (DoD) Readiness locations. involving REPI aim to create and and Environmental Protection maintain linkages between San DiegoInitiative (REPI) supports public- The Trust for Public Land supports County’s North County Multipleprivate conservation partnerships that the Army with aggressive land Species Conservation Plan, California’swork on a cost-share basis. These management of these parcels, Santa Ana-Palomar Mountains Linkagemutually beneficial partnerships assisted by a large coalition of other Conceptual Area Protection Plan,succeed when a partner’s focus area partners including the FWS, the and the Mount Olympic Magee Ridgeincludes habitat for endangered species City and County of Honolulu, the Reserve Conceptual Area Protectionregulated on nearby military lands, Office of Hawaiian Affairs, and the Plan. In addition to working with theseor when partners are interested in Hawaii Department of Land and conservation efforts, Camp Pendletonareas where open space is important Natural Resources. Together, these has partnered with the Trust for Publicto maintaining the military’s ability to organizations protect endangered Land and San Diego County to pooltest and train nearby. REPI’s purpose species habitat from development, and more than $4 million to conserve nearlyis to sustain the military mission by have conserved an additional 3,004 1,300 acres (526 ha) of wildlife habitat.proactively conserving the landscape acres (1,215 hectares) of open spaceand natural infrastructure beyond adjacent to DoD lands. North CarolinaDoD owned land. For six years, this In the late 1990s, training activities atinitiative has helped protect threatened California Fort Bragg—one of the most combat-and endangered species and their Camp Pendleton, a Marine Corps ready and active military installationshabitat across the country. training base in Southern California, in the country—were heavily restricted is the largest oasis of undeveloped due to the presence of the endangeredHawaii coastal open space between Los red-cockaded woodpecker (PicoidesA biological opinion resulting from Angeles and San Diego. It is also borealis). In 2000, the Army andendangered species consultation with home to 14 threatened and endangered The Nature Conservancy initiated anthe U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service animal species including San unconventional partnership to protect(FWS) requires the Army to manage Diego fairy shrimp (Branchinecta habitat for the species on private75 pairs of ‘elepaio (Chasiempis sandiegonensis), Riverside fairy lands. Thanks to this partnership, thesandwichensis ibidis), a small bird shrimp (Streptocephalus wootori), FWS and the Army can now celebratenative to Hawaii that inhabits DoD arroyo southwestern toad (Bufo having met their goal of recoveringland. REPI funding supports the californicus microscaphus), steelhead 350 potential breeding groups ofpermanent protection of ‘elepaio salmon (Oncorhynchus mykiss), woodpeckers in the Sandhills Easthabitat at the Honouliuli Preserve and tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius Recovery unit, a core recovery areaMoanalua Valley on the island of O‘ahu. newberry), Stephens’ kangaroo rat for the species. In fact, this goal wasThe U.S. Army Garrison Hawaii has a (Dipodomys stephensi), Pacific pocket achieved in 2006, five years earliercooperative agreement with the Trust mouse (Perognathus longimembris than anticipated. Fort Bragg’s success pacificus), and seven species of birds. served as the model Congress used for Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  23. 23. creating the enabling legislation that isnow the foundation for REPI.Integrating DoD’s conservation ofendangered species into a largerlandscape through REPI allows theagency to use its own real estate moreeffectively to support the current andfuture military mission. Conservingendangered species both on and nearmilitary lands across the country is amission enabler.Nancy Natoli, the Department ofDefense Readiness and EnvironmentalProtection Initiative Coordinator, canbe reached at or0-0-10.(Opposite page): O’ahu elepaio.Photo by Eric Vander Werf of Pacific Rim Conservation.(This page): Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris).Photo by the Department of Defense Military
  24. 24. From Sea to Shining Sea Conservation and the U.S. Navy by Tammy Conkle and Lorri SchwartzT he U.S. Navy strives to species populations can thrive while cooperation with the U.S. Fish and be a good steward of the ensuring that there is a no net loss to Wildlife Service, the Navy’s coastal environment while carrying out critical training and operations. The and inland installations in this regionits primary mission of national security following examples from the Pacific work to conserve more than 40at sea. On its bases, which encompass Southwest and along the Atlantic Coast federally listed species. Two island2.1 million acres (0.8 million hectares) illustrate some of the Navy’s successful ecosystems, San Clemente Islandof land, and in surrounding areas, the INRMP-driven conservation programs. (SCI) and San Nicolas Island (SNI),Navy manages ecosystems that support highlight the Navy’s efforts. SCI hasmore than 100 federally listed species. Flagship Efforts in the Pacific the highest number of endemic speciesThese lands are distributed across Southwest of all the California Channel “Navy regions” in the United It is part of the southern CaliforniaStates. Navy lands in the Southwest contain Range Complex, a Navy range that some of the nation’s most diverse supports simultaneous ship to shore,Many of the Navy’s conservation ecosystems in terms of plant and air to ground, and ground troopsuccesses stem from using ecosystem wildlife communities. Due to massive training. The Navy’s natural resourcesprinciples as the foundation of its growth and urbanization, Navy programs have dramatically benefittedIntegrated Natural Resources lands have become some of the last the San Clemente loggerhead shrikeManagement Plans (INRMPs). remaining islands of biodiversity (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi), onceINRMPs are designed to ensure that within a sea of development. In considered the most endangered bird Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  25. 25. in North America. Its numbers have lizard (Xantusia riversiana) due to (Euphydryas editha quino), arroyoincreased from a low of 13 to about 300. recovery. toad (Bufo californicus), coastalSix of the island’s listed plants are also California gnatcatcher (Polioptilashowing trends toward recovery. Mainland resources found on Naval californica californica), least Bell’s Base Coronado, Naval Base Ventura vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus), andSan Nicolas Island supports research, County, and Naval Weapons Station Stephens’ kangaroo rat (Dipodomysdevelopment, testing, and evaluation Seal Beach are key contributors toward stephensi). The last four of theseof air weapons and associated the recovery of the California least species are managed in concert withaircraft systems while managing tern (Sterna antillarum browni). the Navy munitions storage mission attwo federally listed species and This bird’s nesting numbers have Detachment Fallbrook.four marine mammals. Some of dramatically increased in conjunctionCalifornia’s threatened southern sea with management programs began The Tortoise and the Hareotters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were in the early 1980s. In addition,translocated from coastal waters to management of beach and dune Installations in the Navy’s SoutheastSNI several decades ago to create a ecosystems as well as coastal marshes region encompass more than 130,000separate population in case the main on many Navy installations has proven acres (52,609 ha) across seven statespopulation is struck by a catastrophic effective for the western snowy plover and Cuba (Naval Station Guantanamooil spill or disease event. The SNI (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus), Bay Cuba). These properties supportpopulation now numbers 30 to 40 salt marsh bird’s-beak (Cordylanthusadults. Our management programs maritimus ssp. maritimus), and light- (Opposite page): The threatened California sea otterat both SCI and SNI have prevented footed clapper rail (Rallus longirostris is one of the rare animals found in Navy-managedthe need for federal listing of island levipes). Our management of inland waters. Photo by Lilian Carswell, (Urocyon littoralis) subspecies on ecosystems, including coastal sageNavy islands and has also supported a scrub and riparian areas, has benefited (This page): The gopher tortoise depends at least inrequest for delisting of the island night the Quino checkerspot butterfly part on Navy lands in the Southeast. Photo by U.S. Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin
  26. 26. habitat for more than 30 federally- listed species and other state-listed species. The unique plants and animals range from delicate flowers to huge whales, from Caribbean corals to ancient cactus plants, and from the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) to the lower keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri). For many of these species, Navy properties contain some of the last vestiges of their habitat. In addition to our own management efforts, partnerships (such as Southeast Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability) allow the Navy to collaborate with other interests on the recovery of listed species while supporting its military mission. Many of the Navy’s efforts in the Southeast focus on range-wide conservation and management, specifically in the native longleaf pine ecosystem. Listed species such as the endangered reticulated flatwoods salamander (Ambystoma bishopi), Mississippi gopher frog (Rana capito), and eastern indigo snake (Drymarchon corais couperi), as well as keystone species like the gopher tortoise, depend on this ecosystem. On Naval Air Station Whiting Field’s Outlying Landing Field Holley, a cooperative effort with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service allowed habitat managers to conduct a prescribed burn, which benefits fire-adapted species like the salamander. The effectiveness of restoring fire to the longleaf forest was demonstrated by the discovery of a gravid (pregnant) adult female flatwoods salamander where no individuals had been documented in 12 years. A significant portion of the lower keys marsh rabbit population can be found on Naval Air Station Key West. Navy ecosystem management strategies focus on eliminating invasive plant species, restoring native plants, Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  27. 27. prescribed burning, and predatorcontrol.The Navy’s management efforts oftenencompass estuarine and near-shoreenvironments. The West Indianmanatee (Trichechus manatus) is anendangered species that can be foundat several Navy installations in coastalwaters of Georgia and Florida. TheNavy program centers on methods toavoid manatees, such as the use of no-wake zones, manatee lookouts, manateesightings reporting, and eliminationof such human-caused attractants asfreshwater discharges.For additional information about theNavy’s natural resources programs,as well as news about energy andenvironmental initiatives, we inviteyou to explore Currents, the Navy’senvironmental magazine. It canbe found online at,or by visiting the Navy’s energy,environment, and climate changewebsite at more information pleasecontact Tammy Conkle, with theNavy Installations Command inWashington, D.C., at or 0--.Lorri Schwartz, a natural resourcesspecialist with the Naval FacilitiesEngineering Command Washington, D.C., can be reached page top): San Clemente loggerheadshrike.(Opposite page bottom): Lower Keys marsh rabbit.(This page top): Prescribed fire at OLF Field Holleymaintains habitat for species that depend on long-leaf pine forest.(This page bottom): Reticulated flatwoodssalamander. Photos by U.S. Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin
  28. 28. The Proof of Sea-level Riseis in the PloverClimate Change and Shorebirds in Floridaby I. Linkov, R. Fischer, M. Convertino, M. Chu-Agor,G. Kiker, C.J. Martinez, R. Muñoz-Carpena,H.R. Akçakaya, and M. Aiello-LammensM any of Florida’s military dependent bird species. Potential frequency and intensity, pose difficult installations are near sizeable land-cover and terrain changes, management challenges for natural coastal barrier islands that coupled with uncertain predictions for resource managers.provide habitat for many shoreline- sea-level rise and increases in storm Endangered Species Bulletin Spring 2011
  29. 29. For example, Eglin Air Force Base high-quality intertidal and near-shore balance multiple, potentially-conflictingand Tyndall Air Force Base maintain habitats for foraging. The snowy objectives.coastal areas that provide breeding and plover also needs undisturbed beachwintering habitats for the snowy plover and dune habitat for nesting. The U.S. Department of Defense’s(Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus), (DoD) Strategic Environmentalwintering habitat for the piping plover The main use of coastal beaches on Research and Development Program(Charadrius melodus), and migratory military installations is to provide provided funding to the U.S. Armystopover habitat for the red knot realistic training areas for the U.S. Engineer Research and Development(Calidris canutus). Unfortunately, Armed Forces. For example, the Center, University of Florida,all three species are imperiled at barrier island habitat on Eglin Airthe state or national scales, making Force Base is being assessed for futureany changes in habitat a matter of engineering projects (e.g., access road (Facing page, background image): The distribution ofimportance from both a policy and armoring, dune rebuilding, shoreline the snowy plover breeding/nesting areas (red dots)conservation perspective. The limited nourishment to protect infrastructure in Florida. A snowy plover male and a fledgling is athuman disturbance at these military and maintain training sites, and the top-right corner, a piping plover is below, and asites, along with the conservation of creation of seawalls and bulkheads) red knot is at the left-bottom. Photos by NASA and USFWS.other habitats on parcels of shoreline to maintain suitable conditions for (Below): Favorable nesting habitat for the snowymanaged by the National Park Service training. Land and facility managers plover: forefront dune areas comprised of fine whiteand the state of Florida, are major must meet this primary military sand and scattered debris at East Santa Rosa Island,factors contributing to the survival mission while conserving natural Florida. A snowy plover nest is shown in the inset.of these species. All three require resources to the extent possible and to Photos by M. Convertino and R.A. Spring 2011 Endangered Species Bulletin