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Air Force New Media Manual


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Air Force New Media Manual

  1. 1. New Media a nd The Air Force Air Force Public Affairs Agency Emerging Technology Division
  2. 2. New Media aNd the air Force ta B L e o F c o N t e N t S PurPoSe ....................................................................................... 1 New Media aNd PuBLic aFFairS .............................................. 2 New Media BackgrouNd ........................................................... 3 gLoBaL New Media treNdS ...................................................... 5 gLoBaL New Media iNForMatioN FLow ................................. 6 guidaNce ...................................................................................... 7 BLoggiNg ...................................................................................... 8 iNduStry PracticeS .................................................................. 9 guideLiNeS For PoPuLar SiteS ............................................. 10 PoPuLar SociaL Media weBSiteS ......................................... 12 airMeN New Media MetricS ................................................... 13 toP PuBLic BLoggiNg SiteS .................................................... 14 airMeN eNgage with New Media .......................................... 15 toP 10 tiPS For New Media ..................................................... 17 eXaMPLeS iN actioN ................................................................. 18 curreNt ProductS .................................................................. 20 MeaSureMeNt ............................................................................ 22 coNcLuSioN ............................................................................... 23 gLoSSary ....................................................................................... i Credits Larry Clavette Director, Air Force Public Affairs Agency Capt. David Faggard Chief, Emerging Technology division Paul F. Bove Senior Web Developer and Digital Media Strategist Joseph S. Fordham Public Web Policy and Emerging Technology Strategist Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - i
  3. 3. PurPoSe aNd iNtroductioN This guide provides Air Force Public In the past, the Air Force did not Affairs professionals with basic officially engage blogs or other new media knowledge needed forms of new media. Now, to maneuver in the online Air Force leaders realize the information battlespace broad reach—both positive and the basic-level tactics and negative—these forms explained here should of communication have on be used to compliment the Airmen and society, as well as traditional forms of Public Affairs, the value of maintaining a presence to include internal communication, in this information domain. While community relations and media communication with media and the relations. public has traditionally been the responsibility of Public Affairs, today This is not a comprehensive guide for all Airmen are communicators. The conducting new media campaigns. It intent of this guide is to educate and provides exposure to entry-level tools empower the PA Airmen who are the Airmen may use to communicate trainers for Airmen communication the Air Force story to broader programs. All Airmen are encouraged audiences on the Web. As new to use new and social media to media is always growing, Airmen communicate about topics within should stay informed through blogs, their areas of expertise, or their independent learning, wikis and other interests. participatory Web 2.0 tools such as those described in this book. Tr a d i t i o n a l , v e r t i c a l communication is critical Research shows for the Air Force, but traditional journalism new technologies may be shifting and give Airmen now uses Web as a the opportunity primary resource to horizontally for information. inform the media, Air Force Public the public and A f f air s mus t each other. be proactive, ensuring the truthful If the Air Force does representation of the not tell its own story, Air Force is conveyed someone else will. online. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 1
  4. 4. New Media aNd PuBLic aFFairS Public Affairs professionals are Together with the joint services, Air responsible for researching, Force Public Affairs professionals preparing, conducting and assessing work to collaborate and develop communication operations in the messages, conversations and information battlespace and they must positions to engage online use all available communications means to fulfill this communities. The dynamic role. joint fight extends to the Internet, and as New media allows such, the Air Force’s messages to potentially strategic position spread far grater than makes the entire ini t ially in t e n d e d Department of Defense (hence the term, “viral more accessible and marketing”), and tools like blogs, YouTube, transparent for Internet Twitter and Facebook audiences. provide instantaneous communication with vast The Air Force provides audiences. Understanding a unique skill set and incorporating these for America that tools will allow Public compliments the other Af fairs to provide services and it’s the a broader range of role of Public Affairs converged products offices worldwide to and become better educate audiences on communicators. the Air Force’s mission We now fight wars on multiple in air, space and cyberspace. fronts; one of which is the information front. Joint Doctrine Note: For the purposes of this book, new states, “Information is an media, social media, digital media and emerging media will connote the same instrument of national power overarching communication principles based and has complex components on Web 2.0 (Internet) applications. with no single center of control. Information itself is a strategic resource vital to national security and allows communicators to shape the information battlefield.” Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 2
  5. 5. New Media BackgrouNd Web 2.0 is a term first coined by O’Reilly Media in 2004 to describe blogs, wikis, social networking sites and other Internet-based services that emphasize collaboration and sharing, rather than less interactive Web publishing (Web 1.0). It is associated with the idea of the Internet as a platform. IntroductIon to new MedIa New media is constantly changing and growing. Wikipedia defines new media as, “The emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communication technologies; while social media defines the various activities that integrate technology, social interaction, and the construction of words, pictures, videos and audio.” This guide changes the way the Air MaInstreaM MedIa Force employs social media and CNN and web 2.0 Web 2.0 technology, and positions and the Air Force well to communicate MSNBC Traditional media outlets leverage transparently with online audiences. new and social media, taking actively PA professionals can help change advantage of the Web 2.0 workspace. engage The Washington Post alone oversees the way the Air Force uses these audiences dozens of internal blogs, many of quickly developing, and evolving, trends. Blogging is now considered through which are moderated by section mainstream; bloggers often scoop RSS editors who previously wrote reporters and upload video, images feeds, exclusively for the printed version. and content. Reporters may mine blogs, News organizations actively engage blogs for information providing and new their audiences through RSS feeds, relevance to mainstream Web sites. endeavors blogs and online reporting features As a result, Airmen bloggers are such as such as, a service quickly becoming Airmen journalists, launched in 2008 that allows users iReport. propelling their work from new media to submit their own video footage. to the front page of the media. CNN regularly uses YouTube videos and blogs as a primary source of information to present to viewers and online visitors. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 3
  6. 6. MaInstreaM MedIa aIr Force and the new MedIa world Mainstream media reports a shift to digital media. “At larger papers, In an effort to manage resources 57 percent of those surveyed say more effectively, the Air Force issued ‘Web technology offers the potential 57% a policy to end its long-standing for greater-than-ever journalism of those tradition of producing printed and will be the savior of what we surveyed base newspapers in lieu of online once thought of as newspaper say web publications. This action provides a newsrooms’,” said Mark Glaser, technology good start for the Air Force to take contributing author of MediaShift. offers the advantage of disseminating its news To see more of his article visit potential via Web 2.0 avenues. for Progress is being made toward Virginian-Pilot Editor Dennis Finley greater- helping Airmen engage each other said, “I feel I’m being catapulted than-ever- across the social media spectrum— into another world…I don’t really real-time with a higher goal of transparently understand. It’s scary because journalism. reaching out to industry leaders, other things are happening at the speed agencies and the general public. The of light. The sheer speed (of change) U.S. Air Force is currently creating an has outstripped our ability to official, and active, presence in the understand it all.” Visit the following larger world of social media. With Web site for more information: the help of Airmen communicators, ht t p: // w w / that presence will grow and flourish. node/11961 Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 4
  7. 7. gLoBaL New Media treNdS According to a December 2008 and effective communications survey from World Internet Usage globally. Statistics News and Population Stats, approximately 1.5 billion As a result, there is another task people currently use the Internet accomplished by teaching new out of approximately 6.7 billion media to Airmen. The Air Force globally (www.internetworldstats. needs to turn all of its Airmen, com/stats.htm). corporate and especially it’s front-line research Public Affairs specialists, into The study also states that Internet shows, communicators who combat use in North America has grown 1.5 negative influence of enemy 129.6 percent since 2000, whereas billion propaganda, misinformation it jumped to 1,296 percent people and misrepresentation. We are in the Middle East, and 1,100 use training world-class Airmen to act percent in Africa, with only a the as our communicators who can moderate increase in Europe at internet. successfully wage an information 271 percent and 469 percent in media war against our detractors. Asia, comparatively. Syria has the highest percentage of Internet growth usage in the Middle East at 11,466 percent, followed closely by Iran at 9,100 percent, and then by Saudi Arabia at 3,090 percent. Even media outlets in non-democratic parts of the world, such as Al Jazeera, employ blogs and other Web 2.0 technology in order to disseminate news content. Though there is a mass movement to new and emerging media by the mainstream media, the American public and the military, these resources continue to be infiltrated by insurgents and terrorists using new media tools to counter our messages, intelligence Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 5
  8. 8. Global New Media iNFoRMaTioN Flow The online conversation is a fluid and dynamic space with many factors shaping media, messages and products. This chart reflects how new media products are possibly influenced by multiple factors, both from individuals and mass media. New media allows for the social interaction between a messenger and receiver. Web 2.0 uses online tools like social networking sites, blogs, wikis, folksonomy and video-sharing Web sites. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 6
  9. 9. guidaNce Strong new media policies and the UCMJ. Even if Airmen state they guidance are necessary to actively are not representing the Air Force, engage Web 2.0 applications and The Air other audiences may not interpret Internet audiences. The guidance Force the information that way. allows Air Force communicators respects to understand what is and is not the rights Airmen, by the nature of the business, allowed, thereby setting expectations. of Airmen are always on the record and must always represent the core values, Good policies can also help protect to use people from getting in trouble. even on the Web: integrity first, blogs as service before self and excellence It is up to the Public Affairs a medium in all that is done. professionals at each level to teach of self- and enforce Air Force new media expression. policy, by training and educating every Airman on the proper use and techniques for engaging in new media. Security is critical and is at the source. All policies will be reviewed by Air Force officials to ensure that legal and ethical problems are addressed. Airmen should note that anytime they engage in social media, they are representing the Air Force, and therefore should not do anything that will discredit themselves or the Air Force. In general, the Air Force views personal Web sites and blogs positively, and it respects the rights of Airmen to use them as a medium of self-expression. However, Airmen must abide by certain restrictions to ensure good order and discipline. All Airmen are on duty 24-hours a day, 365-days a year and all actions are subject to Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 7
  10. 10. BLoggiNg guidelines assist Airmen in engaging online conversations. n No ClAssiFied iNFo Do not for post classified or sensitive information “Nobody details). (for example, troop movement, force size, weapons details, etc.). If in doubt, talk to would blog n tRAdeMARks – doN’t except for bReACh Do not use any words, logos your supervisor or security manager. or other marks that would infringe upon the very n ReplACe eRRoR with FACt, the trademark, service mark, certification senior mark, or other intellectual property rights Not ARguMeNt When you see misrepresentations made about the Air people. I of the owners of such marks without the Force in social media, you may certainly wondered permission of such owners. use your blog, their’s, or someone else’s why not? n doN’t violAte pRivACy to point out the error. Always do so with Well, Do not post any information that would respect and with the facts. When you they had infringe upon the proprietary, privacy or speak to someone with an adversarial basically personal rights of others. position, make sure that what you say ordered is factual and is not disparaging. Avoid n Avoid eNdoRseMeNts arguments. their Do not use the Air Force name to people not endorse or promote products, opinions n AdMit MistAkes Be the first to blog. or causes. to respond to your own mistakes. If you make an error, be up front about your I said, n No iMpeRsoNAtioNs Do not mistake and correct it quickly. If you choose ‘Well, forge or otherwise manipulate identifiers to modify an earlier post, make it clear your in your post in an attempt to disguise, that you have done so (such as by using choice is impersonate or otherwise misrepresent the strikethrough function). to be fired your identity or affiliation with any other or get person or entity. n use youR best judgMeNt Remember there are always consequences them to n use disClAiMeRs Identify to to what you write. If you’re still unsure, and blog’.” readers of a personal social media site or the post is about the Air Force, discuss post that the views you express are yours your proposed post with your supervisor. Then Lt alone and that they do not necessarily Ultimately, however, you have sole Gen James reflect the views of the Air Force. Use a responsibility for what you choose to post to disclaimer such as: “The postings on this your blog. Cartwright site are my own and don’t necessarily at US represent Air Force positions, strategies n Avoid the oFFeNsive Do Strategic or opinions.” not post any defamatory, libelous, vulgar, obscene, abusive, profane, threatening, Command n stAy iN youR lANe Discussing racially and ethnically hateful, or otherwise issues related to your AFSC or personal offensive or illegal information or material. experiences is acceptable but do not discuss areas of expertise for which you n Avoid CopyRight Do not have no background or knowledge. post any information or other material protected by copyright without the n liNk You may provide a link from your permission of the copyright owner. site to an Air Force Web site. Also, consider using a Creative Commons license to protect your own work (see Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 8
  11. 11. iNduStry PracticeS Most new media Web sites have excerPts FroM their own policies that users must “Youtube GuIdelInes” Air Force follow. The Air Force policies policies n Don’t post pornography. incorporate and expand upon the expand industry practices and both sets n Don’t post videos showing upon must be followed. Always consult illegal activities. industry your local legal office on terms of rules. n Don’t upload videos you didn’t use agreements with civilian sites. make, or use content in your Following are guidelines from some videos that someone else owns popular social media Web sites: the copyright to, such as music tracks, snippets of copyrighted n Youtube programs, or videos made by community_guidelines other users, without necessary n twitter http://twitter.zendesk authorizations. com/forums/26257/entries n Don’t post hate speech (which n Facebook http://www.facebook. attacks, demeans groups based com/terms.php?ref=pf on race or ethnic origin, religion, disability, gender, age, veteran aIr Force bluetube status, and sexual orientation/ PolIcY and Procedures gender identity). These guidelines set the expectations for submitting videos to the Air Force’s YouTube presence, known as Air Force BlueTube ( com/AFBlueTube). Air Force BlueTube is the official and only approved Air Force site on Youtube for Airmen to share their stories with other Airmen and the public through the use of video. Informative, humorous, exciting or fun videos are all welcome. Specific YouTube guidelines should be followed before sending a video. Some of their basic common-sense rules follow (you can read the full details at www. Air Force-specific guidelines follow. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 9
  12. 12. guideLiNeS For PoPuLar SiteS aIr Force bluetube wIkIPedIa Air Force BlueTube videos Wikipedia ( represent the Air Force. Videos Do not is a resource for conducting that discredit the Air Force won’t cross research and a community of be posted. the line people with similar interests between who help shape and guide what n It is OK to want to tell the is posted under entries online. Air Force story, but classified funny and distasteful. Wikipedia has a strong set of rules or sensitive information (for for editing entries. Airmen can’t example, troop movement, post a statement such as, “The force size, weapons details, Air Force is the biggest, best Air etc.) will not be posted. Force in the world.” That would n Be cautious of how something constitute opinion and bias. If there can be interpreted by the is a reference to back up your public. If there is any concern information, be sure it’s included. on how it will be interpreted, Posting entries to Wikipedia it will not be posted. can be achieved by visiting: n Do not cross the line between Wikipedia:About#Contributing_ funny and distasteful. to_Wikipedia Wikipedia Policy is Follow the rules: available at http:// your video will be reviewed and Wikipedia:About rejected if it violates the guidelines and Wikipedia’s Law the rules of common of Unintende d sense and decency. Consequence states, Do not put the Air “If you write in Force in a situation Wikipedia about that may result in yourself, your group, account termination. your company, or Remember that these your pet idea, once rules apply to all the article is created, videos you upload you have no right to on your own to YouTube. control its content, and no right to delete it outside our normal channels. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 10
  13. 13. Content is not deleted just because other GuIdelInes somebody doesn’t like it. If there is are avaIlable at: anything publicly available on a topic that you would not want included in an article, it will probably find its way there eventually. Therefore, don’t As indicated in the guidelines, create promotional or other articles the corporate policies are taken lightly, especially on subjects you seriously on social media sites. care about.” Inappropriate posting and copyright infringement are two of the most Photo sharInG serious infractions. Ensure posts don’t endorse one product. Keep Two popular social photo-sharing in mind, these policies are not written Web sites, Flickr and Picasa, allow to restrict postings, rather they are users to post pictures that are written to protect people and help generally visible and available to keep Airmen out of trouble. everyone else, because anybody can view and download these photos. It is important to abide by the community guidelines and be cautious of what you upload. Guidelines are available at www. and Always check the Terms of Use. socIal networks Airmen are advised to be careful of the details, text, photos and video posted to profiles on MySpace and Facebook and other social networks. Employers and adversaries can search these sites and there are numerous examples of people losing a job due to their photos or comments. It is highly recommended that users set privacy settings to “private” so that only your ‘friends’ can see profile specifics. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 11
  14. 14. PoPuLar SociaL Media weBSiteS dIGG newsvIne Digg is a social bookmarking Newsvine is a collection of Web site that allows people to “The newest news from all over the world, share and view content from all computer contributed and controlled entirely over the Web. All material is user can merely by users. The community can post submitted, and then is voted upon compound, and read material from established by visitors. The more Diggs (votes) media, such as AP, as well as at speed, the individual contributors from all a story receives, the higher up it goes, ultimately heading to the oldest problem around the world. Anyone can front page for maximum coverage. in the relations contribute. Viewers can also bury a story. between human beings, technoratI delIcIous and in the Technorati is an Internet search Delicious is a social bookmarking end the engine specific to blogs. In June service that allows users to tag, communicator 2008, Technorati indexed 113 save, manage and share Web will be million blogs and over 250 pages from a centralized source. million pieces of tagged social confronted media. Its tools are useful and Users post links to stories or other media, write a brief description, with the can be retained as a bookmark and include tags that help when old problem, and source of research. It’s a somebody searches for a topic. of what to recommended product when say and how determining ‘authority’ of a blog Facebook site for proactive engagement. to say it.” A free, social media and Youtube net working site, allows commentaries, virtual gifts Edward R. A site where users can upload, exchanged between friends, and Murrow, view and share videos. Keywords, photos posted with captioning Journalist tags, drive the search function and and commentaries. Facebook it is highly recommended the tag had approximately 133 million fields of all videos be populated visitors in June 2008, and ranks with useful keywording. YouTube 5th in terms of popularity and had 79 million users and about usage/traffic. 3 billion viewed videos. The Air Force presence on YouTube is Air MYsPace Force BlueTube. Similar to the Facebook network, MySpace had 117 million users *Always consult the Terms of Use agreements. in June 2008. MySpace overall ranking dropped to 14th. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 12
  15. 15. airMeN New Media MetricS How does Airmen use of social ON INFO WARS media affect the public perception “In this battlefield, of the Air Force? Nearly 70 percent Airmen of Airmen use YouTube to load popular perceptions using their videos and share others, and rumor are more YouTube nearly 50 percent use Facebook, influential than facts and more powerful and 75 percent of enlisted Airmen than a hundred tanks.” use MySpace. Fifty percent of Airmen want the Air Force to take 70% a more active role in social media. David Kilcullen, Fundamentals of Public opinion and institutional Company-Level standing are evaluated daily Counterinsurgency. Airmen using through social media postings Facebook by Airmen. Now the Air Force is meeting this challenge and The rapid pace by which Public engaging online discussions by committing each Airman to act as Affairs is impacted by new media 50% a communicator to be the voice of outlets is staggering. Today’s social media metrics will morph into the Air Force in the blogosphere something completely new. and in their social media outlets. The addition of new blogs, to Airmen the tune of nearly a 185,000 using per day shows there is no one MySpace person at the helm of any of these conversations, and that public perception is directly 75% derived by the participants in the blogosphere. Mainstream media currently mines the blogosphere to capture the latest news with more than 50 percent of current reporters using blogs to derive new content. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 13
  16. 16. toP PuBLic BLoggiNg SiteS toP ten bloGs toP ten MIlbloGs For a USAF-specific blog, check out: According to For a full list of milblogs, visit: or Technorati You can search by a number of criteria. 1 1 There are 365 and a wakeuP the huFFInGton Post 112.8 million blogs and over 2 250 million 2 pieces of a soldIer’s PersPectIve enGadGet tagged social media online. 3 3 blackFIve-the ParatrooPer oF love techcrunch There are 175,000+ 4 blogs created every day. 4 one MarIne’s vIew GIZModo New blogs are 5 updated regularly at 5 1.6 million MIchael Yon boInG boInG http://www.michaelyon- posts per day, or over 18 6 updates per second. 6 oFFIcIal GooGle bloG aFGhanIstan wIthout a clue 62% of 7 reporters said blogs play a 7 lIFehacker significant FroM MY PosItIon…on the waY! role in the 8 “tone of discussion” 8 ars technIca in traditional the MudvIlle GaZette news http://www. reporting. 9 daIlY kos 52% of 9 reporters say soMe soldIer’s MoM they use blog 10 search engines http://somesoldiersmom. bloGGInGstocks like Google Blog Search. 10 wordsMIth at war http://www.wordsmithatwar. Source: Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 14
  17. 17. airMeN eNgage with New Media aIr Force socIal MedIa use surveY MIlItarY data n “90 percent of people in the n 60 percent of enlisted Airmen Blogosphere don’t care about said they use MySpace. your message, nor will they 46% of E-2s and ever read it. 9 percent will read n 21 percent of officers said they 60% of 2nd Lts it, but will not engage you or use Facebook. use Facebook act on your product/service/ n 71 percent – 96 percent of E-2s stance. 1 percent will read it through E-6s use YouTube. and actively engage you on the 75% of E-2s n 51 percent of Airmen surveyed and E-5s subject you’re writing about.” said they might use Social use MySpace (Metrics expert, K.D. Paine) with 43% using Media, “depending on what it several times n Once a YouTube video receives is offered”, while 40 percent a day, most 50,000 views, it’s moved to the said “they won’t use it.” likely from front page. (YouTube Guidelines cell phones or for usage). n Airmen stationed overseas said home-based they would use new media computers n Asia has 14 percent of its n 69 percent of Airmen use population connected (World YouTube; 48 percent said they Internet Usage Statistics News 49% of Airmen use MySpace; 15 percent said want more of and Population Stats). they use Blogger and 8 percent an Air Force n Internet use in the Middle East social media said they use Facebook. presence grew 1,176 percent since 2000 IndustrY data (World Internet Usage Statistics News and Population Stats). n 55 percent of all adult 62% of Americans have a high-speed reporters said internet connection at home blogs play a significant role (Pew Research Center, July in the “tone 2008). of discussion” in traditional n 30.6 percent of 18–24 year olds news reporting. and 19.3 percent of Hispanics are cell phone only users (Pew 52% of Research, May 2008). reporters say n 62 percent of all Americans they use blog search engines are part of a wireless, mobile like Google population that participates Blog Search. in digital activities away from home or work (Pew Research Center, March 2008). Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 15
  18. 18. IndustrY IMPortance shIFtInG trends n 75 percent of respondents, n 65 percent of the general ages 35 – 64, are more likely U.S. population still views to believe what they see or major network television news hear about a company or programs as their source of product if another person information, while 61% view “like them” mentioned it to Tech/net the local news as their source them (Edelman’s 2008 Trust influencers of information (University of Barometer). spend nearly Southern California/Ketchum 10 hours Communications study). n 78 percent of consumers trust other consumers “like them” per week n 62 percent of people in the (Nielsen’s Trust in Advertising). using the web United States say their local for personal newspaper is a credible n 66 percent of Internet reasons. source of information (USC/ users under 30 are Social Ketchum Communications Networkers (Stelter, NY study). Times). n 61 percent of Americans rank n 70 percent of Americans 15 word- of-mouth as a credible to 34 are actively involved source of information (USC/ with social networks (Mike Ketchum Communications Spataro in PR Week). study). n 500,000 – The number of Tech/net influencers are a powerful people joining MySpace and group defined by three key attributes Facebook daily. - They have at least 75 friends - They respond almost every day, - They spend more than 10 hours per week using the Internet for personal reasons. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 16
  19. 19. toP 10 tiPS For New Media 1 7 don’t GIve classIFIed InFo. be aware oF the IMaGe You Present. Don’t divulge classified, FOUO or sensitive materials, photos or video. OPSEC is crucial If using a visual medium, don’t let your to our mission, think before you speak or message get overshadowed because the film—if you’re not sure, ask someone! viewer’s attention is drawn to your improperly A harmless video of an Airman dancing worn uniform or something occurring in the on the flightline could be sensitive if it’s a background. The image you present will set deployed environment showing bombers the tone for your message and often mean the on the flightline. Be smart. Security is at difference of whether or not people listen to the source. your message. Your tactical representation could have strategic and international consequences 2 for the Air Force and the nation. staY In Your lane. 8 If you’re an aircraft mechanic, you’re well use coMMon sense! suited to communicate messages about aircraft maintenance. If you’re an aircraft This is the bottom line. If you wouldn’t say mechanic blogging about legal issues— it in front of your mother, you probably reconsider your blog. shouldn’t say it on YouTube. Realize that your words and images will go out to 3 thousands and possibly millions of people around the world instantly and once it’s don’t lIe. out there, it’s out there for good. Your Credibility is critical, without it, no one cares unit public affairs shop should always be what you have to say…it’s also punishable a source of advice and guidance in this by the UCMJ to give a false statement. medium. Also, be careful what personal information you divulge, such as address, 4 phone numbers or any information that GIve Your oPInIon! could aid identity thieves or the enemy. Yes, tell them what YOU think…just make sure you state that this is your opinion and 9 not that of the organization. Also, be sure don’t be aFraId to take to identify what is your opinion and what calculated rIsks. is factual. Military life often deals in ambiguity: In order 5 to make the best decision, it’s recommended to take in as many variables as possible in alwaYs IdentIFY YourselF. order to make the most accurate decision. Identification makes your post more credible. 10 6 the eneMY Is enGaGed. saFetY. The enemy is engaged in this battlespace Videos that get widespread attention, or and you must engage there as well. become “viral,” feature death-defying stunts or acts that are considered “extreme” in nature. Don’t let the desire to get your message across compromise your consideration for safety. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 17
  20. 20. eXaMPLeS iN actioN aIr MobIlItY coMMand Air Mobility Command, Public Affairs took the initiative to develop a narrated video, “Portraits in Courage,” which was posted to their public Web site. Collaborating with the public affairs and new media team, it was also loaded to CNN’s iReport, YouTube and other social media sites, resulting in hundreds of hits and comments. Internet MedIa enGaGeMent converGence: naMe oF the GaMe A traditional media’s Internet blog, targeted towards military readers A converged product employed by New in Florida, actively blogged about the Air Force Public Affairs Agency Media has issues of importance to family was a collaboration of internal given the members and offers a discussion and external print, photos and Air Force a board for families and active- new media efforts. It highlighted new voice to duty servicemembers. The blog an impromptu memorial in the communicate specifically focused on MacDill Area of Responsibility (AOR) for a effectively AFB and Central Command fallen Soldier, who was the brother with their Headquarters’ readers. The of an Air Force U-2 crew chief. command submissions usually don’t appear in Photos were e-mailed to AFPAA and the print but receive many comments. and were posted on various Web public they Air Force recommended Public sites, including CNN’s iReport. serve. Affairs offices and leaders in The photos and story were then Florida engage the bloggers. posted to Reddit, LinkedIn, StumbleUpon, Delicious, Digg suPPorters and other social media sites, with or detractors the whole process taking three hours. In less than a week it had Supporters or detractors of been viewed hundreds of times. U.S. military members now The photo was eventually the lead have the ability to speak out in photo for support of, or against, any issue. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 18
  21. 21. For example, a video showing digital technology to target deplorable conditions at Fort online audiences in order to Bragg, originally filmed, edited educate them on the benefits When and posted on YouTube April 28, of the Alaskan exercises. Alaska Hurricane 2008, by Ed Frawley, the father of Command’s Public Affairs Office Dolly struck Sgt Jeff Frawley at Fort Bragg, NC, focused efforts to educate the the Gulf Coast, social-media environment by the Air Force dual-purposing traditional public leveraged affairs products while populating coverage sites like MySpace, YouTube, by releasing iReport, Discovery Channel photos and online, Wikipedia, Flickr and stories to other communication venues CNN’s iReport. on the Internet. They achieved 287 MySpace visits; two favorite photos on Flickr from 31 photos posted; and 1,737 views of 17 videos on YouTube with 6 rated 4 out of 5 stars. has been viewed 476,000 times as watch the news of February, 2009. It urges viewers to “call Senators, Congressmen With Hurricane Dolly fast- and the media,” and has received approaching the Gulf Coast, it video responses from people all seemed inevitable that the Air over the world, including the U.S., Force would assist with rescue and Canada, Australia, Germany and evacuation efforts and traditional South Korea. PA coverage would follow. It has influenced hundreds of Air Force public affairs leveraged traditional news stories in print coverage of the Air Force story and broadcast, and has received through the local media to direct responses from the Fort create “bounce” from the other Bragg commander and Secretary reporters’ stories, both internally of the U.S. Army. It’s received and externally. Once a story and 4.5 of 5 stars on YouTube’s rating photos were released to AF Link system. it was quickly loaded to CNN’s iReport, and in two days it was alaska coMMand viewed hundreds of times. Link The 2008 Northern Edge to the story: exercise used new media and docs/DOC-48720. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 19
  22. 22. curreNt ProductS The Air Force currently engages in with the wikis on the CoP and basic Web 2.0 and is researching share your knowledge. Also, since ways to leverage more of what On Wiki the Air Force does not own its is available. When thinking Wikipedia entry, anyone can make about using digital technology, “We fully changes to the page. If you see remember that the primary goal understand something incorrect, let your PAO of social media is to engage in all of the know about it so they can make conversations with others. The information the changes. secondary goal is to use a new may not be 100 percent Photo sharInG sItes voice to tell the Air Force story correct all and share it with the public, and of the time other Airmen. Below is a broad Flickr and Picasa are photo-sharing and it may Web 2.0 tools that the Air Force list of products the Air Force uses. not initially provide us is using to tell its story by sharing aIr Force lInk with perfect imagery. Airmen and the public can solutions. view Air Force photos through tags Air Force Link is the primary That’s OK. that are placed on each picture. public Web site of the Air Force. Military The site offers news stories, commanders vIdeo sharInG sItes photos, video, Podcasts, shared are used to dealing with The Air Force has a presence on technology and RSS feeds. These ambiguity….if YouTube, called AirForceBlueTube features are the most basic of Web we wait for ( 2.0 offerings. They allow for a perfect afbluetube). Air Force BlueTube simple multimedia experience. information focuses on everything Air Force. All news stories and photographs that plods It is a place for Airmen to share have the ability to be linked on through the their videos and stories ranging hundreds of other online social old Napoleonic from funny, to poignant, and media sites using the “share“ tab. structure, we risk being everything in between. Become wIkI technoloGY irrelevant in part of the video conversation by today’s world.” creating and submitting videos Most pages on the Air Force to AirForceBlueTube. Family and Communities of Practice (CoP) General friends are welcome to submit as employ a wiki. The wiki allows you Robert Kehler, well. Public affairs recommends to collaborate with other Airmen Commander, submitting all videos to Air and share your wisdom with them. US Air Force Force BlueTube and not creating There is also an Air Force entry in Space additional unit-level YouTube Wikipedia ( Command channels. wiki/US_Air_Force). Get involved Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 20
  23. 23. socIal networkInG also via the “share” button on Create a base PA Profile The Air Force has created on the sites listed above and profiles in Facebook for media share information with your engagement and a platform for colleagues at your local base. testing, called Hap Arnold: (http:// Make a simple username and password so anyone from your php?id=1409442190). This is a unit can post and share a story place to share information and of interest. interact with Airmen from all over the world. Consider creating recoMMendatIons a Facebook page for your local For Future research wing or base to collaborate with your colleagues. Invite Moblogging allows a user to unit members to join. Use the create a blog entry from mobile Air Force Facebook page as a phones and post on the Web. And in Microblogging allows short text template. Follow the reference in the approved Air Force the end the updates to be published and Instruction. communicator sent to friends immediately. The will be most popular service is Twitter Podcasts & vodcasts confronted ( Social with the networking Websites Facebook, There are currently five Podcasts MySpace and LinkedIn use or vodcasts (video Podcasts) being old problem micro-blogging with their “status produced by the Air Force. Pod- and of what update” features. vodcasts are a great way to tell to say a story using voice and/or video. and how Products to Focus on Visit to say it. for a list of available Podcasts Engage Blog gers. These and instructions on subscribing applications are shaping the to them. Turn local interviews or way people across the world stories into There is simple plug communicate, influence and play software that is available traditional media thus reaching for creating a Podcast, and it costs a larger audience allowing the nothing to upload. Consider sites Air Force message to be told with like to start less resources, thus saving the an Internet radio station for free. taxpayers money and PA office time. To engage others, focus socIal bookMarkInG on top-ranked blogs, YouTube, Facebook, MySpace, Flickr The Air Force is proactively and Picasa. bookmarking news stories on Digg, Delicious, Reddit, Newsvine, and other sites, and Always consult terms of use with JAG. Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 21
  24. 24. MeaSureMeNt Measurement and evaluation are effectiveness of a communication part of all Air Force communication program. Simple analytics like campaigns. Counting is easy, counting hits, viewers and positive yet measuring the success of Any and all and negative comments are easy communication efforts is not. communication ways to show how new media Effective measurement drives programs can help define your story and evaluation and resources; potential can and will help your leadership see the steps to measuring campaigns should be value of what, and how, you’re are to: measured and communicating. n Perform a communication evaluated. Resources on measurement audit across all products to include Icerocket, Technorati, understand the perception of Google analytics, Blogpulse, and the information consumer and CustomScoop. identify inconsistencies; n D e f in e m e a s u r e m e n t ask: How much coverage was benchmarks through detailed generated and how much of that and achievable qualitative and was in non-traditional formats? quantitative metrics; Did the right target markets get the message? Were command n Communicate the economic messages in the product? Did impact to leadership; and third-party spokespeople carry n Study the success of past those messages to other venues? measurement programs. How many bloggers quoted your article? Were they considered Any and all communication useful? How many visitors read programs can and should be your blog? Learn more about measured or evaluated: new media measurement at: http://www. is no different. The impact of target markets, advocacy movements and php/Main/HomePage?pagename stakeholder engagement should =PRMeasurement.HomePage. be tracked and followed up on to ensure adequate resources are being allocated per project. Determining the effect/effects to be achieved and how to measure the success of achieving those effects should be planned well before execution; thus, the success of the plan and measurement will shape future engagements, planning and budgeting. There is no one-size- fits-all approach to measuring Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 22
  25. 25. coNcLuSioN This guide does not advocate the voice of the organization, PA a major shift in resources from has the responsibility to tell the Air traditional media to new media. Force story in a thoughtful, engaging Rather it endorses the belief that and exciting manner—by taking digital communication provides a advantage of the same popular new toolset that commanders can Web 2.0 tools and services used use to achieve military objectives. There is a by corporate and industry leaders. Results from the University of paradigm shift The Air Force Public Affairs Agency Southern California and public taking place now will assist in many ways. First, this relations company Ketchum with more book gives you a brief overview of indicate major network and local communication how to navigate through some of the network news programs, and local becoming a Web 2.0 offerings, a list of Web 2.0 newspapers, are still ranked very high two-way street products and services (and where as a credible source of information. instead of a to find them on the Internet), and a However, in the report, Ben Smith, message pushing glossary of social media and Web a blogger with Politico newspaper, process. 2.0 terminology. Second, guidance “I only have a fraction of blog readers outlines how to communicate in this than print-readers; however, I know space and how new media can assist my readers are reading my story, the Air Force in leveraging Web 2.0 in not skimming to the sports section.” order to tell the Air Force story. Lastly, And Teri Daley, senior vice president education is planned for individuals with Ketchum’s Wireless Technology across the communication spectrum, division, notes there’s a paradigm starting at the formal level in the shift taking place now with more and Defense Information School, for more communication becoming a those beginning their career in PA, two-way street instead of a message- and ongoing and continuing formal pushing process. education in the form of Webinars and teleconferences available to There are movements within DoD to Public Affairs offices. explore a broader, more aggressive and holistic approach that must be developed and employed in order to integrate communicators. The rules of the game have clearly changed. Until now, the Air Force has not had an official stance on engaging bloggers, social media and Web 2.0 initiatives. However, by being a part of this trend, PA is embarking into a new world of communication for the Air Force. Because Airmen are Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - 23
  26. 26. gLoSSary advocacy avatarS bloggers. Items — called Creating a movement of Graphical images representing posts—may have keyword net-fluencers to influence people within the new media tags associated with them, are conversation, actions or motives arena. You can build a visual usually available as feeds and in support of one’s objective. character with the body, often allow commenting. clothes, behaviors, gender aggregatioN and name of your choice. BLogoSPhere Gathering and remixing content This may or may not be an A term used to describe the from blogs and other Web sites authentic representation of totality of blogs on the Internet, that provide RSS feeds; typically yourself. (View and the conversations taking displayed in an aggregator like for more information.) place within that sphere. Bloglines or Google Reader, or directly on your desktop avi — (audio video BLogroLL using software (often also called iNterLeaved) A list of sites displayed in the a newsreader). Beneficial for A Microsoft Corporation sidebar of a blog, showing who breaking news. CNN and multimedia video format. It the blogger reads regularly. OASD/PA have effective tools uses waveform audio and like these. digital video frames (bitmaps) BookMarkiNg to compress animation. Saving the address of a Web aLertS site or item of content, either Search engines, like Google, Back chaNNeL in your browser, or on a social allow you to specify words, coMMuNicatioNS bookmarking site like Delicious. phrases or tags that you want Are private e-mails or other If you add tags, others can easily checked periodically, with messages sent by the facilitator find your research too, and results of those searches or between individuals during the social bookmarking site returned to you by e-mail. public conferencing. They can becomes an enormous public have a significant effect on the library. archive way that public conversations go. May refer to topics from an BrowSer online discussion that has BaNdwidth The tool used to view Web been closed but saved for later The capacity of an electronic sites, and access all the content reference. On blogs, archives line, such as a communications available there onscreen or by are collections of earlier items network or computer channel, downloading. (e.g., Microsoft usually organized by week or to transmit bits per second (bps). Explorer, Firefox and Chrome.) month. You may still be able to comment on archived items. BLog coNtroL BuLLetiN BoardS Social networking is difficult to The early vehicles for online autheNticity control because if people can’t collaboration, where users The sense that something or say something in one place connected with a central someone is “real.” Blogs enable they can blog or comment computer to post and read people to publish content, and elsewhere. That can be email-like messages. engage in conversations, that challenging for hierarchical show their interests and values, organizations used to centrally categorieS and so help them develop an managed Web sites. Pre-specified ways to organize authentic voice online. Airmen content—for example, a set should always be transparent BLogS of keywords that you can use and authentic while online. Web sites with dated items of but not add to when posting content in reverse chronological on a site. order, self-published by Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - i
  27. 27. chaMPioNS use the technology and develop preferences. People can set In order to get conversations useful conversations. up their browsers to accept or started in an online community, not accept cookies. you need a group of enthusiasts oNLiNe willing and confident to get coNFereNce coPyright things moving by posting Happens in a Web forum: it Sharing through social media messages, responding and is the conversations of those is enhanced by attaching a helping others. involved, organized around Creative Commons license topics, threads, and a theme specifying, for example, that chat or subject. content may be re-used with An interaction on a Web site, attribution, provided that a with a number of people adding coNStructiveS similar license is then attached text items one after the other The science of applying new by the new author. This work into the same space at (almost) media viral mapping to a is under that type of license - the same time. A place for chat, specific public affairs issue Creative Commons Attribution a chatroom, differs from a forum to determine a projected Share-Alike 2.5 License. because conversations happen outcome—educating readers in “real time,” similar to face on projected paths. crowdSourciNg to face. Crowdsourcing refers to coNteNt harnessing the skills and coLLaBoratioN Text, pictures, video and any enthusiasm of those outside Social media tools from other meaningful material that an organization who are e-mail lists to virtual worlds is on the Internet. prepared to volunteer their offer enormous scope for time contributing content and collaboration. Low-risk activities coNteNt solving problems. like commenting, social MaNageMeNt bookmarking, chatting and creative SySteMS blogging help develop the trust coMMoNS Software suites offering the necessary for collaboration. Creative Commons is a not-for- ability to create static Web pages, document stores, blogs, profit organization and licensing coMMeNtS wikis and other tools. system that offers creators Blogs may allow readers to the ability to fine-tune their add feedback comments under copyright, spelling out the ways coNverSatioN posts, and may also provide a in which others may use their Through blogging, commenting feed for comments as well as works. For more information, or contributing to forums, is the for main items. visit: currency of social networking, which puts the “social” in this learning-center/topic/law/ oNLiNe form of media. A popular creative-commons. coMMuNitieS perception of bloggers is of Online communities are groups people ranting on a virtual cyBercuLture of people communicating soapbox without knowing who A collection of cultures and mainly through the Internet. is listening. cultural products that exist on View a Second Life community, and/or are made possible by Huffman Prairie, at www. cookie the Internet, along with the Information (in this case URLs, stories told about these cultures Web addresses) created by and cultural products. Visit coMMuNity a Web server and stored BuiLdiNg on a user’s computer. This edu/rccs/. The process of recruiting information lets Web sites the potential community or network user visits keep a history of a decoNStructiveS participants, helping them to user’s browsing patterns and Systematically working back find shared interests and goals, Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - ii
  28. 28. from a specific issue to identify postbox to any number of values. They are bounded: you influencers through viral subscribers, and for them to are in a group, or not. They mapping. respond. differ from networks, which are dispersed, and defined by deMocracy eMBeddiNg nodes and connections. Social networking and media The act of inserting video or are potentially attractive to photo to a Web site or e-mail. hyPerLiNk those who want to revive Text, images or graphics that, representative democracy, and Face-to-Face when clicked with a mouse those who promote participative Used to describe people (or activated by keystrokes), approaches or both. Social meeting offline. will connect the user to a new media offers politicians and Web site. The link is usually their constituents another FaciLitator obvious, such as underlined communication channel. It also Someone who helps people text or a “button” of some type, offers a wide range of methods in an online group or forum but not always. for people to discuss, deliberate manage their conversations. and take action. iNStaNt FeedS MeSSagiNg (iM) digitaL Story The means by which you can Chatting with one other person A digital story is a short personal read, view or listen to items from using an IM tool like AOL nonfiction narrative that is blogs and other RSS-enabled Instant Messenger, Microsoft composed on a computer, sites without visiting the site, Live Messenger or Yahoo often for publishing online or by subscribing and using an Messenger. The tools allow publishing to a DVD. They aggregator or newsreader. you to indicate whether or not are told from the narrator’s you are available for a chat, and point of view and the subject FLaSh if so can be a good alternative is generally about something Animation software used to to e-mails for a rapid exchange. the maker experienced develop interactive graphics Problems arise when people in personally. For example, see for Web sites as well as desktop a group are using different IM Center for Digital Storytelling: presentations and games. tools that don’t connect. (, Creative Narrations (http:// ForuMS LiSteNiNg Discussion areas on Web In the blogosphere, the art of sites, where people can skimming feeds to see what doMaiN NaMe post messages or comment topics are bubbling up, and A method of identifying on existing messages also setting up searches that computer addresses. Your asynchronously—that is, monitor when an organization e-mail address has a domain independently of time or place. is mentioned. address. If there is an “.edu” at the end of your e-mail address FrieNdS LiStServ that means your account is On social networking sites, A list of e-mail addresses of affiliated with an educational contacts whose profile you people with common interests. institution. A “.com” extension link to in your profile, thereby Software enables people who means the account is business creating your network. On some belong to a list to send messages related and a government sites people have to accept the to the group without typing account has a “.gov” suffix. link, in others, not. a series of addresses into the message header. e-MaiL LiStS grouPS Important networking tools Collections of individuals with LurkerS offering the ability to “starburst” some sense of unity through People who read but don’t a message from a central their activities, interests or contribute or add comments Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - iii
  29. 29. to forums. The 1 percent rule-of- Peer-to-Peer information, this may include thumb suggests that 1 percent Refers to direct interaction personal and business interests, of people contribute new between two people in a a “blurb” and tags to help content to an online community, network. In that network, each people search for like-minded another nine percent comment, peer will be connected to other people. and the rest lurk. peers, opening the opportunity for further sharing and learning. reMiXiNg MaShuPS Social media of fers the Mixes of technology, audio, PerMaLiNk possibility of taking different video and maps combining The address (URL) of an item items of content, identified by several tools to create a new of content, for example a blog tags and published through Web service. See www.popfly. post, rather than the address of a feeds, and combining them in com for free development. Web page with lots of different different ways. items. You will often find it at NetworkS the end of a blog post. rSS Structures defined by nodes and Shor t for Really Simple the connections between them. PhotoShariNg Syndication. This allows In social networks, the nodes Uploading images to a Web subscribers to receive content are people, and the connections site like Flickr or Picasa, adding from blogs and other social are the relationships that they tags and offering people the media sites and have it delivered have. Networking is the process opportunity to comment or through a feed. by which you develop and even re-use your photos if you strengthen those relationships. add an appropriate copyright Shockwave license. A three dimensional (3D) NewSgrouP animation technology/format. Internet “site” centered around PodcaSt a specific topic or course. Some Audio or video content that can ShariNg newsreader software can be downloaded automatically Offering other people the use of “thread” discussion so there through a subscription to a Web text, images, video, bookmarks can be various topics centered site so you can view or listen or other content by adding tags, around a central theme. offline. and applying copyright licenses that encourage use of content. NewSreader PoSt Web site or desktop tool that Item on a blog or forum. SMartMoB acts as an aggregator, gathering When users get together for an content from blogs and similar PreSeNce oNLiNe activity or event as a result of an sites using RSS feeds so you Has (at least) two aspects. One online connection or network. can read the content in one is whether you show up when place, instead of having to visit someone does a search on your SociaL Media different sites. name. The second is whether Tools and platforms people you use tools that show you are use to publish, converse and oPeN-Source available for contact by instant share content online. The tools SoFtware messaging, voice over IP, or include blogs, wikis, podcasts Software that is available under other synchronous methods and sites to share photos and a license that permits users to of communication. bookmarks. study, change and improve the software, and to redistribute ProFiLeS SociaL it in modified or unmodified Information that users provide NetworkiNg form. It is often developed in about themselves when signing Online places where users up for a social networking site. can create a profiles, and then a public, collaborative manner. As well as a picture and basic socialize with others using a Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - iv
  30. 30. range of social media tools and they can’t be banned from whiteBoardS including blogs, video, images, posting things on their own blog Online are the equivalent of tags, lists of friends, forums and that point back to your site. glossy surfaces where one messages. can write with an appropriate urL marker pen and wipe off later. StreaMiNg Media Unique Resource Locator is They are tools that enable one Video or audio that is intended the technical term for a Web to write or sketch on a Web to be listened to online but not address like page, and as such are useful stored permanently. in collaboration online. uSer-geNerated tagS coNteNt wiki Keywords added to a blog post, Text, photos and other material A Web page — or set of photo or video to help users produced by people who pages—that can be edited find related topics or media. previously just consumed. See collaboratively. The best content. known example is Wikipedia, threadS an encyclopedia created by Strands of conversation. virtuaL worLdS thousands of contributors across Online places like Second the world. Once people have trackBack Life, where you can create a appropriate permissions —set A facility for other bloggers representation of yourself (an by the wiki owner—they can to leave a calling card avatar) and socialize with other create pages and/or add to and automatically, instead of residents. Basic activity is free, alter existing pages. commenting. Blogger A may but you can buy currency (using write on blog A about an item real money) in order to purchase XML on blogger B’s site, and through land and trade with other (Extensible Markup Language) the trackback facility leave a residents. Second Life is being System for organizing and link on B’s site back to A. The used by some organizations to tagging elements of a document collection of comments and run discussions, virtual events so that the document can be trackbacks on a site facilitates and fundraising. transmitted and interpreted conversations. between applications and weB 2.0 organizations. Human readable traNSPareNcy A term coined by O’Reilly Media XML tags defines “what it is,” Enhances searching, sharing, in 2004 to describe blogs, wikis, and HTML defines “how it self-publish and commenting social networking sites and looks.” XML allows designers across networks, makes it easier other Internet-based services to create their own tags. to find out what’s going on in that emphasize collaboration any situation where there is and sharing, rather than less online activity. interactive publishing (Web 1.0). It is associated with the troLL idea of the Internet as platform. A hurtful, but possibly valuable, person who, for whatever widgetS reason, is both obsessed Stand-alone applications, that by and constantly annoyed can be embedded in other with, and deeply offended by applications, like a Web site or everything you write on a blog. a desktop, or viewed on a PDA. One may not be able to stop the These may help accomplish commenting of trolls on your missions like subscribe to a feed, blog, but you can’t ban them do a specialist search or even from commenting on other sites make a donation. and pointing back to the blog, Ne w Media a nd the Air Force - v
  31. 31. to see our Air Force videos visit: to read our blogs visit: to visit our online New Media dashboard go to: For more information, call AFpAA at 703-696-1158