Meeting the Energy Demands: What 
             Options?
               Dr. Adeoye Adefulu
              Odujinrin & Adeful...
Outline 
                       Outline
•   Nigeria’s Electricity Industry
•   Gas as a fuel of choice
•   Renewable Energ...
Nigeria s Electricity Industry
                 Nigeria’s Electricity Industry
200                                        ...
Electricity Fuel Mix
Electricity Fuel Mix
                       • 67 percent of installed 
                         capac...
Gas as Nigeria s electricity fuel
      Gas as Nigeria’s electricity fuel
•   Nigeria has an estimated 182 tcf 
          ...
The case for Gas as Nigeria s electricity fuel
The case for Gas as Nigeria’s electricity fuel

  • Most of the planned pow...
Cost of electricity production from 
           different sources cents per Kwh
           diff                           ...
What is Renewable Energy?
         What is Renewable Energy?
•   Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that a...
Forms of Renewable Energy 
          Forms of Renewable Energy
•   Wind energy ‐ Ki i
    Wi d            Kinetic energy p...
Fuel shares of world electricity generation 
                  2004
             Non-Renew.
                Waste     Nucl...
RE resource base in Nigeria 
       RE resource base in Nigeria
Energy Source               Capacity
Small Hydro          ...
Nigeria s RE Plans
               Nigeria’s RE Plans

• EPSRA
    – Section 88(9) – RE seen mainly in the light of Rural 
...
Nigeria s RE Plans  Hydropower 
  Nigeria’s RE Plans ‐ Hydropower

• Policies 
  – The nation shall fully harness the hydr...
Nigeria s RE Plans  Hydropower (contd.)
Nigeria’s RE Plans – Hydropower (contd.)

• Objectives 
  – To increase the percen...
Nigeria s RE Plans  Hydropower (contd.)
Nigeria’s RE Plans – Hydropower (contd.)

• Strategies 
   – Establishing and main...
Nigeria s RE Plans 
            Nigeria’s RE Plans – Solar
•   Policies 
      l
     – The nation shall aggressively purs...
Nigeria s RE Plans  Solar (contd.)
    Nigeria’s RE Plans – Solar (contd.)
•   Strategies 
     – (i) Intensifying R&D in ...
Nigeria s RE Plans 
        Nigeria’s RE Plans – Biomass
Policies 
  l
     – The nation shall effectively harness non‐fue...
Nigeria s RE Plans  Biomass (contd.) 
    Nigeria’s RE Plans – Biomass (contd.)
•   Strategies 
     – Developing extensio...
Nigeria s RE Plans  Wind 
           Nigeria’s RE Plans – Wind
•   Policies 
      l
     – The nation shall commercially ...
Nigeria s RE Plans  Wind (contd.)
    Nigeria’s RE Plans – Wind (contd.)
•   Strategies 
     – Encouraging R&D in wind en...
The case for RE 
                    The case for RE
• Abundant RE resources
• Energy demand
   – Population projected to ...
Issues to address
                   Issues to address
• Creation of a Renewable Energy Agency or extension of the 
  mand...
Thank you

 Odujinrin & Adefulu
 1st Floor, Church House
 29, Marina,
 29 Marina Lagos
 enquiries@odujinrinadefulu.com

  ...
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Meeting The Energy Demands What Options

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A review of the alternative energy options for Nigeria

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  • it sure will the turbines is much safer than those noisy generators
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  • Yes, there's another option and that is using wind turbines to replace those expensive generators in providing us electricity. The source is costless and unlimited. We are assured that the supply will gonna last to provide us an everlasting energy.
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Meeting The Energy Demands What Options

  1. 1. Meeting the Energy Demands: What  Options? Dr. Adeoye Adefulu Odujinrin & Adefulu Barristers, Solicitors & Notaries Public Barristers  Solicitors & Notaries Public Lagos – Abuja – Port‐Harcourt
  2. 2. Outline  Outline • Nigeria’s Electricity Industry • Gas as a fuel of choice • Renewable Energy Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  3. 3. Nigeria s Electricity Industry Nigeria’s Electricity Industry 200 1600 • Installed capacity of just over  ll d f 180 6000 mw with average generation  1400 160 capacity of about half  1200 140 • Only 40% of the population has  1000 120 access to electricity 100 800 • Per capita consumption of  Per capita consumption of 80 600 electricity is 100kWh compared  60 400 to South Africa – 4500kWh, Brazil  40 200 – 1934kWh d Chi 1934kWh and China – 13791379  20 kWh 0 0 Ukraine South Africa Brazil Pakistan Nigeria g • 66% of the country lives in rural  y Population (Million) Generating Capacity (GW) GDP (Million) areas Adapted from: Oando Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  4. 4. Electricity Fuel Mix Electricity Fuel Mix • 67 percent of installed  capacity is thermal and  the rest is hydro based • A large part of Nigeria’s  RE component is in SHP  Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  5. 5. Gas as Nigeria s electricity fuel Gas as Nigeria’s electricity fuel • Nigeria has an estimated 182 tcf  h d f of proven natural gas reserves  and is 7th largest natural gas  reserves holder in the world • Nigeria flares 40 per cent of  annual natural gas production  annual natural gas production and accounts for 12.5% of the  natural gas flared in the world • The country is estimated to lose  Th i i d l between US$2.5 – 6 billion  annually to gas flaring Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  6. 6. The case for Gas as Nigeria s electricity fuel The case for Gas as Nigeria’s electricity fuel • Most of the planned power plants are based  g on gas • Gas flaring in Nigeria is sufficient to power half  of Africa for a year! of Africa for a year! • Gas for electricity – Cheap(er) – Available – Reduce environmental pollution by reducing  flaring Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  7. 7. Cost of electricity production from  different sources cents per Kwh diff h 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Mini Solar PV Biomass Wind Natural Coal Hydro Gas • Adapted from the Nigerian Renewable Energy Policy and Kovacs, UN Statistics  Division Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  8. 8. What is Renewable Energy? What is Renewable Energy? • Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly or indirectly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is energy generated from solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, hydropower and ocean resources, and biofuels , , ,g , y p , and hydrogen derived from renewable resources. (IEA) • Renewable energy resources: Energy resources that are naturally replenishing but flow-limited. They are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time. Renewable energy resources include: biomass, hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, ocean thermal, wave action, and tidal action. (EIA) • “Renewable electricity” refers to electric power obtained from energy sources whose utilization does not result in the depletion of the earth’s resources. Renewable electricity also includes energy sources and technologies that have minimal environmental impacts, such as less intrusive hydro and certain biomass combustion. These sources of electricity normally will include solar energy, wind, biomass co-generation and gasification, hydro, geothermal, tide, wave and hydrogen energy. ( i i Renewable Energy Policy) h d (Nigeria bl li ) Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  9. 9. Forms of Renewable Energy  Forms of Renewable Energy • Wind energy ‐ Ki i Wi d Kinetic energy present in wind motion that can be converted to mechanical  i i d i h b d h i l energy for driving pumps, mills, and electric power generators. • Solar ‐ Solar energy is the sun’s rays (solar radiation) that reach the earth. Solar energy can  be converted into other forms of energy, such as heat and electricity. be converted into other forms of energy such as heat and electricity • Hydropower ‐ Hydro energy is simply energy that is taken from water and converted to  electricity. Hydro energy can be obtained by using many methods of capture. The most  common method of using energy from water is a hydroelectric dam, where water coming  g gy y g down through an area causes turbines to rotate and the energy is captured to run a  generator. • Biomass ‐ Organic non‐fossil material of biological origin constituting a renewable energy  source. • Geothermal energy ‐The heat that is extracted from hot water or steam that is mined from  geothermal reservoirs in the earth’s crust. Water or steam can be used as a working fluid for  geothermal heat pumps, water heating, or electricity generation, and then is reinjected back  geothermal heat pumps water heating or electricity generation and then is reinjected back into the earth. • Ocean energy ‐ Energy conversion technologies that harness the energy in tides, waves, and  g thermal gradients in the oceans. Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  10. 10. Fuel shares of world electricity generation  2004 Non-Renew. Waste Nuclear Gas 0.3% 0 3% Other Other** 15.7% 19.6% 0.8% Oil Renewables Hydro 6.7% 17.9% 16.1% Renewable Coal Combustible 39.8% 39 8% s and Waste 1.0% Source: IEA Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  11. 11. RE resource base in Nigeria  RE resource base in Nigeria Energy Source Capacity Small Hydro 734 mw Animal waste 61 million tonnes/yr y Crop residue 83 million tonnes/yr Solar radiation 3.5-7.0 kWh/m2 - day Wind 2-4 m/second Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  12. 12. Nigeria s RE Plans Nigeria’s RE Plans • EPSRA – Section 88(9) – RE seen mainly in the light of Rural  ( ) y g Electrification • National Energy Policy National Energy Policy • Renewable Energy Policy • Renewable Energy Action Plan • Renewable Energy Master Plan  Renewable Energy Master Plan Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  13. 13. Nigeria s RE Plans  Hydropower  Nigeria’s RE Plans ‐ Hydropower • Policies  – The nation shall fully harness the hydropower potential available in  the country for electricity generation  h f l – The nation shall pay particular attention to the development of the  mini and micro hydropower schemes  y p – The exploitation of the hydro power resources shall be done in an  environmentally friendly manner  – Pi Private sector and indigenous participation in hydropower  d i di i i i i h d development shall be actively promoted  Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  14. 14. Nigeria s RE Plans  Hydropower (contd.) Nigeria’s RE Plans – Hydropower (contd.) • Objectives  – To increase the percentage contribution of hydro electricity to the  total energy mix  l – To extend electricity to rural and remote areas, through the use of  mini and micro hydro power schemes  y p – To conserve non‐renewable resources used in the generation of  electricity  – T di To diversify the energy resource base  if h b – To ensure minimum damage to the ecosystem arising from  hydropower development  y p p – To attract private investments into the hydropower sub‐sector  Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  15. 15. Nigeria s RE Plans  Hydropower (contd.) Nigeria’s RE Plans – Hydropower (contd.) • Strategies  – Establishing and maintaining multilateral agreements to monitor and regulate the use of  water in international rivers flowing through the country  g g y – Ensuring increased indigenous participation in the planning, design and construction of  hydropower stations  – Providing basic engineering infrastructure for the production of hydropower plants,  equipment and accessories  – Encouraging private sector, both indigenous and foreign, in the establishment and  operation of hydropower plants  – Encouraging private sector, both indigenous and foreign, for the local production of  hydropower plants and accessories  – Ensuring that rural electricity boards incorporate small‐scale hydropower plants in their  development plans  development plans – Promoting and supporting R&D activities for the local adaptation of hydropower plant  technologies  – Initiating and updating data on the development of the hydro potential of our rivers and Initiating and updating data on the development of the hydro potential of our rivers and  identifying all possible locations for dams  Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  16. 16. Nigeria s RE Plans  Nigeria’s RE Plans – Solar • Policies  l – The nation shall aggressively pursue the integration of solar energy  into the energy mix  gy – The nation shall keep abreast with worldwide developments in solar  energy technology  • Objectives  Obj i – To develop the nation’s capability in the utilization of solar energy  – To use solar energy as a complimentary energy resource in the rural To use solar energy as a complimentary energy resource in the rural  and urban areas  – To develop the market for solar energy technologies  – To develop solar energy conversion technologies locally  Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  17. 17. Nigeria s RE Plans  Solar (contd.) Nigeria’s RE Plans – Solar (contd.) • Strategies  – (i) Intensifying R&D in solar energy technology  – (ii) Promoting training and manpower development  ( ) g g p p – (iii) Providing adequate incentives to local manufacturers for the production of  solar energy systems  – (iv) Providing adequate incentives to suppliers of solar energy products and (iv) Providing adequate incentives to suppliers of solar energy products and  services  – (v) Introducing measures to support the local solar energy industry  – ( i) S tti (vi) Setting up extension programs to introduce solar technology into the  t i t i t d l t h l i t th energy mix  – (vii) Providing fiscal incentives for the installation of solar energy systems  – (viii) Setting up and maintaining a comprehensive information system on  available solar energy resources and technologies  Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  18. 18. Nigeria s RE Plans  Nigeria’s RE Plans – Biomass Policies  l – The nation shall effectively harness non‐fuelwood biomass energy  resources and integrate them with other energy resources  g gy – The nation shall promote the use of efficient biomass conversion  technologies  • Obj i Objectives  – To promote biomass as an alternative energy resource especially in the  rural areas  – To promote efficient use of agricultural residues, animal and human  wastes as energy sources  – T d To reduce health hazards arising from combustion of biomass fuel  h l hh d ii f b i f bi f l Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  19. 19. Nigeria s RE Plans  Biomass (contd.)  Nigeria’s RE Plans – Biomass (contd.) • Strategies  – Developing extension programs to facilitate the general use of new  biomass energy technologies  gy g – Promoting R&D in biomass energy technology – Establishing pilot projects for the production of biomass energy  conversion devices and systems  i d i d – Providing adequate incentives to local entrepreneurs for the  p production of biomass energy conversion systems  gy y – raining of skilled manpower for the maintenance of biomass energy  conversion systems  – D l i Developing skilled manpower and providing basic engineering  kill d d idi b i i i infrastructure for the local production of components and spare parts  for biomass systems  Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  20. 20. Nigeria s RE Plans  Wind  Nigeria’s RE Plans – Wind • Policies  l – The nation shall commercially develop its wind energy resources and  integrate this with other energy resources into a balanced energy mix  g gy gy – The nation shall take necessary measures to ensure that this form of  energy is harnessed at sustainable costs to both suppliers and  consumers in the rural areas  consumers in the rural areas • Objectives  – To develop wind energy as an alternative energy resource  p gy gy – To develop local capability in wind energy technology  – To use wind energy for provision of power in rural areas and remote  communities far removed from the national grid  ii f df h i l id – To apply wind energy technology in areas where it is technically and  economically feasible  y Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  21. 21. Nigeria s RE Plans  Wind (contd.) Nigeria’s RE Plans – Wind (contd.) • Strategies  – Encouraging R&D in wind energy utilization  – Developing skilled manpower for provision of basic engineering Developing skilled manpower for provision of basic engineering  infrastructure for local production of components and spare parts of  wind power systems  – Intensifying work in wind data acquisition and development of wind  if i ki i dd iii dd l f i d maps  – Training of skilled craftsmen to ensure the operation and maintenance  g p of wind energy systems  – Providing appropriate incentives to producers, developers and  consumers of wind energy systems  consumers of wind energy systems – Developing extension programs to facilitate the general use of wind  energy technology Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  22. 22. The case for RE  The case for RE • Abundant RE resources • Energy demand – Population projected to double – Energy demand to triple • Environment – Fossil fuel emissions – CDM  C • Security of supply – Non‐renewable nature of fossil fuel – Security of pipeline infrastructure • An alternate/additional source of power Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  23. 23. Issues to address Issues to address • Creation of a Renewable Energy Agency or extension of the  mandate of the Rural Electrification Agency • RE l ? RE law? – Feed‐in vs. Renewable Portfolio Standard • Comprehensive mapping of RE resources Comprehensive mapping of RE resources  • Initiation of pilot projects on commercial basis • Introduction of appropriate incentives Introduction of appropriate incentives – Is pioneer holiday sufficient? – Abolition/suspension of import duties? / p p • Appropriate tariff regime & PPAs Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972
  24. 24. Thank you Odujinrin & Adefulu 1st Floor, Church House 29, Marina, 29 Marina Lagos enquiries@odujinrinadefulu.com Odujinrin & Adefuluestd. 1972

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