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Periodontal disease and pregnancy

Dentaid
Dentaid

During pregnancy, women undergo the greatest hormonal and physiological changes of their lives, some of which can affect their mouths.

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PERIODONTAL 
DISEASE AND 
PREGNANCY 
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT DENTAID
ORAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY 
During pregnancy, women undergo the greatest 
hormonal and physiological changes of their lives, 
some of which can affect their mouths. 
These changes may include: 
 An increase in cariogenic and periodontopathogenic 
bacteria from changes in diet, in dental hygiene and in 
salivary composition 
 Changes in gingival tissue from increased vascular 
permeability 
 Increased sex hormones: estrogen and progesterone
ORAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY 
The main oral impacts include: 
 Periodontal disease (pregnancy gingivitis) 
 Tooth mobility 
 Caries 
 Epulis gravidarum (pregnancy tumour/granuloma) 
 Dental erosion 
 Xerostomia 
 Tooth sensitivity 
 Halitosis
DEFINITION 
 Pregnancy or gestational gingivitis 
Is defined as gingival inflammation initiated by oral biofilm and exacerbated 
by the increase in endogenous sex hormone levels 
If left untreated, it can progress to become periodontitis 
GINGIVITIS PERIODONTITIS
 GINGIVITIS 
 Redness 
 Inflammation of the gums 
 Bleeding 
 Reversible 
 PERIODONTITIS 
 Gingival recession 
 Tooth mobility 
 Bone loss 
 Possible loss of teeth 
SIGNS
EPIDEMIOLOGY 
 60-75% prevalence of pregnancy gingivitis1 
 50% of pregnant women with gingivitis BEFORE 
pregnancy can become periodontitis2 
 25% of pregnant women have periodontitis3 
1. American Dental Association Council on Access, Prevention and Interprofessional Relations. Women’s oral health issues. 
American Dental Association, 2006. 
2. Silk et al. Oral health during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:1139-44 
3. Encuesta de Salud Oral en España 2005. RCOE 2006;11(4):409-456
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Periodontal disease and pregnancy

  • 1. PERIODONTAL DISEASE AND PREGNANCY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT DENTAID
  • 2. ORAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, women undergo the greatest hormonal and physiological changes of their lives, some of which can affect their mouths. These changes may include:  An increase in cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria from changes in diet, in dental hygiene and in salivary composition  Changes in gingival tissue from increased vascular permeability  Increased sex hormones: estrogen and progesterone
  • 3. ORAL HEALTH DURING PREGNANCY The main oral impacts include:  Periodontal disease (pregnancy gingivitis)  Tooth mobility  Caries  Epulis gravidarum (pregnancy tumour/granuloma)  Dental erosion  Xerostomia  Tooth sensitivity  Halitosis
  • 4. DEFINITION  Pregnancy or gestational gingivitis Is defined as gingival inflammation initiated by oral biofilm and exacerbated by the increase in endogenous sex hormone levels If left untreated, it can progress to become periodontitis GINGIVITIS PERIODONTITIS
  • 5.  GINGIVITIS  Redness  Inflammation of the gums  Bleeding  Reversible  PERIODONTITIS  Gingival recession  Tooth mobility  Bone loss  Possible loss of teeth SIGNS
  • 6. EPIDEMIOLOGY  60-75% prevalence of pregnancy gingivitis1  50% of pregnant women with gingivitis BEFORE pregnancy can become periodontitis2  25% of pregnant women have periodontitis3 1. American Dental Association Council on Access, Prevention and Interprofessional Relations. Women’s oral health issues. American Dental Association, 2006. 2. Silk et al. Oral health during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:1139-44 3. Encuesta de Salud Oral en España 2005. RCOE 2006;11(4):409-456
  • 7. PERIODONTAL DISEASE - PREGNANCY Existing studies suggest that periodontal disease in pregnant women is an added risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes such as5,6,7:  Preterm delivery (labour before 37 weeks)  Low birth weight (<2500 g)  Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension, elevated levels of protein in urine) 5. Agueda A, Ramón JM, Manau C, Guerrera A, Echeverría JJ. Periodontal Disease as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes: a prospective cohort study. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Jan;35(1):16-22. 6. Marin C, Segura-Egea JJ, Martínez-Sahuquillo A, Bullón P. Correlation between infant birth weight and mother’s periodontal status. J Clin Periodontol. 2005 Mar;32(3):299-304. 7. Madianos PN, Bobetsis YA, Offenbacher S. Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) and periodontal disease: pathogenic mechanisms. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40 (Suppl. 14): S170–S180.
  • 9. RECOMMENDATIONS Important: Prevention of periodontal disease before and during pregnancy - If you are pregnant or if you plan to become pregnant , consult your dentist for an oral health diagnosis - Schedule a dental check-up for each trimester during pregnancy to keep your oral health in check
  • 10. RECOMMENDATIONS Physical control of oral biofilm in the dental office: - Professional tartar removal: removal of supragingival plaque and calculus - Scaling and root planing: removal of subgingival plaque and calculus
  • 11. RECOMMENDATIONS Physical control of oral biofilm at home: - Manual or electric brushing : 2-3 times per day, at least, 2 minutes - Interdental hygiene: interproximal brushes and dental floss/tape - Oral irrigation
  • 12. RECOMMENDATIONS Chemical control of oral biofilm: - Prevention of Periodontal Disease: Daily use antiseptic with Cetylpyridinium chloride - Treatment of Periodontal Disease : Antiseptic that combines Chlorhexidine and Cetylpyridinium chloride
  • 13. CONCLUSIONS  During pregnancy the probability of developing periodontal disease increases  Periodontal disease may have an impact on pregnancy and foetus  It is vital to prevent this disease to avoid pregnancy complications  Regular dental check-ups before and during pregnancy are basic for controlling oral health and to have time to react if necessary
  • 14. For more information visit: www.vitis.es/embarazo-encias/vas-a-ser-mama

Editor's Notes

  1. Scaling and root planing: removal of subgingival plaque and calculus