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Patologia parodontale e gravidanza

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Durante la gravidanza, si verificano i principali cambiamenti ormonali e fisiologici nella vita di una donna, e alcuni possono incidere sulla bocca.

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Patologia parodontale e gravidanza

  1. 1. PATOLOGIA PARODONTALE E GRAVIDANZA MEDICAL DEPARTMENT DENTAID
  2. 2. Durante la gravidanza, si verificano i principali cambiamenti ormonali e fisiologici nella vita di una donna, e alcuni possono incidere sulla bocca. Questi cambiamenti possono includere:  Aumento dei batteri cariogeni e patogeni parodontali per cambiamenti nell’alimentazione, nell’igiene orale e nella composizione della saliva  Cambiamenti nei tessuti gengivali per aumento della permeabilità vascolare.  Incremento degli ormoni sessuali: estrogeni e progesterone SALUTE ORALE E GRAVIDANZA
  3. 3.  Patologia parodontale (gengivite da gravidanza)  Mobilità dentale  Carie  Épulis gravidarum (tumore/granuloma da gravidanza)  Erosione dentale  Xerostomia  Sensibilità dentale  Alitosi Le principali conseguenze a livello della cavità orale sono: SALUTE ORALE E GRAVIDANZA
  4. 4.  La gengivite da gravidanza o gestazionale Si definisce come una infiammazione gengivale iniziata per biofilm orale e aggravata da un aumento dei livelli di ormoni sessuali endogeni Se non curata può evolvere in parodontite DEFINIZIONE GENGIVITE PARODONTITE
  5. 5.  GENGIVITE  Arrossamento  Infiammazione delle gengive  Sanguinamento  Reversibile  PARODONTITE  Recessioni gengivali  Mobilità dentale  Perdita di osso  Possibile perdita del dente CENNI
  6. 6.  60-75% di percentuale di gengivite da gravidanza1  50% delle donne in gravidanza con gengivite PRIMA della gravidanza possono evolvere in parodontite2  25% delle donne in gravidanza soffrono di parodontite3 1. American Dental Association Council on Access, Prevention and Interprofessional Relations. Women’s oral health issues. American Dental Association, 2006. 2. Silk et al. Oral health during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:1139-44 3. Indagine sulla salute orale in Spagna 2005. RCOE 2006;11(4):409-456 EPIDEMIOLOGIA
  7. 7. Esistono studi che suggeriscono che la patologia parodontale nelle donne in gravidanza è un fattore di rischio aggiunto nelle alterazioni durante la gravidanza come 5,6,7 :  Parto prematuro (parto prima della 37ª settimana)  Basso peso alla nascita (<2500 g)  Preeclampsia/eclampsia (ipertensione indotta durante la gravidanza, alti livelli di proteine nell'urina) 5. Agueda A, Ramón JM, Manau C, Guerrera A, Echeverría JJ. Periodontal Disease as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes: a prospective cohort study. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Jan;35(1):16-22. 6. Marin C, Segura-Egea JJ, Martínez-Sahuquillo A, Bullón P. Correlaton between infant birth weight and mother’s periodontal status. J Clin Periodontol. 2005 Mar;32(3):299-304. 7. Madianos PN, Bobetsis YA, Offenbacher S. Adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) and periodontal disease: pathogenic mechanisms. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40 (Suppl. 14): S170–S180. PATOLOGIA PARODONTALE - GRAVIDANZA
  8. 8. MECCANISMO BIOLOGICO DELLA RELAZIONE
  9. 9. Importante: Prevenzione delle patologie parodontali, prima e durante la gravidanza -Consulti il suo dentista se è incinta o se sta pianificando una gravidanza, allo scopo di effettuare una diagnosi della salute orale -Programmare una visita dal dentista ogni trimestre durante la gravidanza per avere un controllo della salute orale SUGGERIMENTI
  10. 10. Controllo fisico del biofilm orale in clinica: -Detartasi professionale: rimozione della placca e tartaro sopragengivale -Raschiamento e levigatura radicolare: rimozione della placca e del tartaro subgengivale SUGGERIMENTI
  11. 11. Controllo fisico del biofilm orale a casa: -Spazzolamento manuale o elettrico: 2-3 volte al giorno per almeno 2 minuti -Igiene interdentale: spazzole interdentali SUGGERIMENTI
  12. 12. Controllo chimico del biofilm orale: - Prevenzione: Prodotti di uso quotidiano con Cloruro di Cetilpiridinio - Cura: Clorexidina e Cloruro di Cetilpiridinio SUGGERIMENTI
  13. 13. CONCLUSIONI  In gravidanza aumentano le probabilità di sviluppare le patologie parodontali  Le patologie parodontali possono incidere sulla gravidanza e sul feto  È di vitale importanza prevenire queste patologie per evitare complicazioni durante la gravidanza  La visita periodica dal professionista del cavo orale prima e durante la gravidanza è essenziale per controllare la salute orale ed agire nel caso fosse necessario

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