Gsm rf-optimization[1]

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Gsm rf-optimization[1]

  1. 1. GSM Network RF Optimization Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservedde No.1 Lucent Technologies RF Optimization Workshop Macro Cell Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Micro Cells
  2. 2. AGENDAAGENDA IntroductionIntroduction Single Band Optimization PhilosophySingle Band Optimization Philosophy Network Optimization ProcessNetwork Optimization Process Optimization PhasesOptimization Phases Lucent BSS Optimization ParametersLucent BSS Optimization Parameters Cell Selection/ Cell ReselectionCell Selection/ Cell Reselection Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservedde No.2 Lucent Technologies Power ControlPower Control –– ProceduresProcedures HandoverHandover –– ProceduresProcedures Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Drive Test EquipmentDrive Test Equipment Single Band Optimization PhilosophySingle Band Optimization Philosophy Network Optimization ProcessNetwork Optimization Process Lucent BSS Optimization ParametersLucent BSS Optimization Parameters Cell Selection/ Cell ReselectionCell Selection/ Cell Reselection Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction What is Optimization ? - Activity of achieving and maintaining the required quality as designed Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservedde No.3 Lucent Technologies Why Optimization ? - Deviations between plan and reality Activity of achieving and maintaining the required Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Deviations between plan and reality
  4. 4. What is Optimization ?What is Optimization ? Design Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservedde No.4 Lucent Technologies Optimization Implementation What is Optimization ?What is Optimization ? Design Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Planning Implementation
  5. 5. Why Optimization ?Why Optimization ? • Inaccuracy of radio planning - Statistical variations in the path loss characteristics - Finite terrain database resolution • Implementation - Antenna radiation pattern and effective radiated power Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservedde No.5 Lucent Technologies - Antenna radiation pattern and effective radiated power - Antenna pattern distortion • Environment - Seasonal environmental changes, e.g trees, leaves - Environmental changes such as new highways, new buildings Inaccuracy of radio planning Statistical variations in the path loss characteristics Finite terrain database resolution Antenna radiation pattern and effective radiated power Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Antenna radiation pattern and effective radiated power Seasonal environmental changes, e.g trees, leaves Environmental changes such as new highways, new buildings
  6. 6. Single Band Optimization PhilosophySingle Band Optimization Philosophy Coverage - Good signal level across the whole cell, coverage holes within a cells service area must be minimized. Interference - A reasonable level of interference must be contained at cells service area in order to provide a quality air Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservedde No.6 Lucent Technologies service area in order to provide a quality air Handover Behavior - The quality of the air to handover behavior is good, no unnecessary handovers, Rxquality at acceptable level, BTS & MS use minimum transmit power. Traffic Distribution - The quality of the air to traffic distribution is good, maximum amount of traffic can be handed. Single Band Optimization PhilosophySingle Band Optimization Philosophy Good signal level across the whole cell, coverage holes within a cells service area must be minimized. A reasonable level of interference must be contained at cells service area in order to provide a quality air-interface. Lucent Technologies - Proprietary service area in order to provide a quality air-interface. The quality of the air-interface in a cell with respect to handover behavior is good, no unnecessary handovers, Rxquality at acceptable level, BTS & MS use minimum transmit power. The quality of the air-interface in a cell with respect to traffic distribution is good, maximum amount of traffic can be handed.
  7. 7. Optimization PhasesOptimization Phases Initial Optimization Primary Optimization c •Site Audit •Proper Parameters use •Verify Neighbors list •Reviewing Frequency Plan •Verify existing coverage, site design objectives •Analysis & Identification of Problem areas/cells •from PMS & drive test statistics, •customer complaints Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservedde No.7 Lucent Technologies Primary Optimization Maintenance Optimization c •customer complaints •Prioritization of problems •Identify Solution and Implement •Retest the problem areas •Consistency Check of the OMC database •Fine-tuning of parameters •On going process, weekly optimization • Database maintenance and consistency audits Proper Parameters use Verify Neighbors list Reviewing Frequency Plan Verify existing coverage, site design objectives Analysis & Identification of Problem areas/cells from PMS & drive test statistics, customer complaints Lucent Technologies - Proprietary customer complaints Prioritization of problems Identify Solution and Implement Retest the problem areas Consistency Check of the OMC database tuning of parameters On going process, weekly optimization Database maintenance and consistency audits
  8. 8. BSSBSS parameters related to Optimizationparameters related to Optimization CELL (RE) SELECTION POWER CONTROL Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservedde No.8 Lucent Technologies HANDOVER CONTROL parameters related to Optimizationparameters related to Optimization Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
  9. 9. BSSBSS parameters related to Optimizationparameters related to Optimization Areas of improvement : Minimization of interference Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservedde No.9 Lucent Technologies Minimization of interference Handover behavior improvement Traffic distribution parameters related to Optimizationparameters related to Optimization Areas of improvement : Minimization of interference Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Minimization of interference Handover behavior improvement
  10. 10. Cell (Re)SelectionCell (Re)Selection ? Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.10 Lucent Technologies ? 2 cell (re)selection criteria: C1 & C2 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
  11. 11. Cell (Re)SelectionCell (Re)Selection C1 Criteria Used for cell selection and re Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.11 Lucent Technologies C2 Criteria Used in a hierarchicalhierarchical selection only Used for cell selection and re-selection Lucent Technologies - Proprietary hierarchicalhierarchical cell structure for re-
  12. 12. Cell (Re)SelectionCell (Re)Selection C1 = (A- where: A = Received Level Average B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.12 Lucent Technologies B = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH Criteria met if C1> 0. MS will camp on to the cell with the highest C1 value. -Max(B,0)) = Received Level Average - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - max.output power of the MS Lucent Technologies - Proprietary = MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - max.output power of the MS Criteria met if C1> 0. MS will camp on to the cell with the highest
  13. 13. Cell Reselect HysteresisCell Reselect Hysteresis LAC 1 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.13 Lucent Technologies Cell Reselect HysteresisCell Reselect Hysteresis LAC 2 Location Update 1 Location Update 2 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
  14. 14. Cell Reselect HysteresisCell Reselect Hysteresis LAC 1 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.14 Lucent Technologies Cell Reselect HysteresisCell Reselect Hysteresis LAC 2 Reselect Hysteresis LAC Reselect Hysteresis LAC Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
  15. 15. Power ControlPower Control Signal Level Range (in dBm) 0 1 2 3 Rxlevel < -110 < Rxlevel < -109 < Rxlevel < Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.15 Lucent Technologies 3 .. .. .. .. .. 62 63 -108 < Rxlevel < -49 < Rxlevel < Rxlevel > SIGNAL LEVELSSIGNAL LEVELS Range (in dBm) Rxlevel < -110 110 < Rxlevel < -109 109 < Rxlevel < -108 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary 108 < Rxlevel < -107 .. .. .. .. .. 49 < Rxlevel < -48 Rxlevel > -48 SIGNAL LEVELSSIGNAL LEVELS
  16. 16. Power ControlPower Control Signal Quality Range (in BER) 0 1 2 BER < 0.2 0.2 < BER < 0.4 0.4 < BER < 0.8 Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.16 Lucent Technologies 2 3 4 5 6 7 0.4 < BER < 0.8 0.8 < BER < 1.6 1.6 < BER < 3.2 3.2 < BER < 6.4 6.4 < BER < 12.8 BER > 12.8 SIGNAL QUALITY LEVELSSIGNAL QUALITY LEVELS Range (in BER) BER < 0.2 0.2 < BER < 0.4 0.4 < BER < 0.8 Lucent Technologies - Proprietary 0.4 < BER < 0.8 0.8 < BER < 1.6 1.6 < BER < 3.2 3.2 < BER < 6.4 6.4 < BER < 12.8 BER > 12.8 SIGNAL QUALITY LEVELSSIGNAL QUALITY LEVELS
  17. 17. Handover ControlHandover Control TYPES OF HANDOVERS Mandatory HO RXQUAL RXLEVEL Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.17 Lucent Technologies DISTANCE Power Budget HO Duration of stay counter (Hierarchical Cell) Preprocessing to support the following handover types: Internal Intra-Cell Handover (BSC- controlled) Internal Inter-Cell Handover (BSC- controlled) Lucent Technologies - Proprietary controlled) External Inter-Cell Handover (MSC- controlled) Inter Cell Handover may occur from: SDCCH to SDCCH SDCCH to TCH (directed retry) TCH to TCH
  18. 18. Handover ControlHandover Control ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rxlevel (received by MS) SERVER Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.18 Lucent Technologies ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- NEIGHBOR Power Budget Handover MarginPower Budget Handover Margin HO_MARGIN ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lucent Technologies - Proprietary ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------- Handover Time Power Budget Handover MarginPower Budget Handover Margin
  19. 19. Handover ProceduresHandover Procedures HO Process BTS measures the UL and DL measurements every 480 ms. RXLEV-XL RXQUAL-XL RXLEV-NCELL(1-6) Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.19 Lucent Technologies RXLEV-NCELL(1-6) DIST (timing advance) BTS reports measurements to BSC. BSC calculates the averaged parameters using a sliding window: AV-RXLEV-HO AV-RXQUAL-XL-HO AV-RXLEV-SCELL AV-RXLEV-NCELL(I) AV-DIST BSC decides the HO execution by comparing with threshold values. Handover Algorithm Basic Steps – HO Measurement Averaging (Preprocessing) – HO Threshold Comparisons Lucent Technologies - Proprietary – HO Target Cell Identification – HO Decision (BSC internal or MSC) – HO Execution (BSC internal or MSC)
  20. 20. BSS Optimization ParametersBSS Optimization Parameters Performance Determinants Coverage Interference Handover Behaviour Traffic Distribution Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.20 Lucent Technologies Optimization Solutions Enable/Disable GSM features BSS parameters Neighbour cell lists Antenna tilt, height & azimuth Frequency changes BSS Optimization ParametersBSS Optimization Parameters Discontinuous Transmission Decreases interference level Saves battery power (uplink) Frequency Hopping Decrease interference Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Decrease interference Suppress Rayleigh Fading Power Control Saves battery power Decrease interference level
  21. 21. Network Parameter andNetwork Parameter and Performance DeterminantsPerformance Determinants Performance Determinants Enable GSM BSS meters Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.21 Lucent Technologies GSM Features meters Coverage Interference HO Behavior Traffic Distribution Network Parameter andNetwork Parameter and Performance DeterminantsPerformance Determinants Adjustments Para- meters N'bour Cell List Antenna Tilt, etc Frequency Change Lucent Technologies - Proprietary meters Cell List Tilt, etc Change
  22. 22. Network Parameter andNetwork Parameter and Performance DeterminantsPerformance Determinants Performance Determinants Enable GSM BSS meters Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.22 Lucent Technologies GSM Features meters Coverage * * Interference * * HO Behavior * Traffic Distribution * Network Parameter andNetwork Parameter and Performance DeterminantsPerformance Determinants Adjustments Para- meters N'bour Cell List Antenna Tilt, etc Frequency Change Lucent Technologies - Proprietary meters Cell List Tilt, etc Change * * * * * * * * * * *
  23. 23. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis • Trouble Ticket - Is a document by which various problems reported by customers are passed along through the organization - Must reply upon experience and knowledge to Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.23 Lucent Technologies - Must reply upon experience and knowledge to determine which option to overcome the problem - Different scenarios can be followed to solve the problem, such as drive testing, parameters changes, antenna adjustment, etc….. - To verify if the problem is not related to MS itself Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Is a document by which various problems reported by customers are passed along through the Must reply upon experience and knowledge to Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Must reply upon experience and knowledge to determine which option to overcome the problem Different scenarios can be followed to solve the problem, such as drive testing, parameters changes, antenna adjustment, etc….. To verify if the problem is not related to MS itself
  24. 24. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis • Air Interface Information - RXLEVEL - RXQUALITY Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.24 Lucent Technologies - BCCH, BSIC of the serving cell - BCCH, BSIC and RXLEVEL of the 6 best neighbours - TIMING ADVANCE - GSM BEST SERVER Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Air Interface Information Lucent Technologies - Proprietary BCCH, BSIC of the serving cell BCCH, BSIC and RXLEVEL of the 6 best neighbours
  25. 25. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis • Drive Testing - Propagation Measurements Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.25 Lucent Technologies - Mobile Network Performance Monitoring •Quality Assessment •Optimization Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Propagation Measurements Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Mobile Network Performance Monitoring
  26. 26. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis • Drive Tests for Optimization - Initial network coverage verification and benchmarking - Verification before and after changes Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.26 Lucent Technologies - Verification before and after changes - Locating and measuring interference - Locating areas where traffic problems exist - Locate coverage holes - Preventive maintenance - Simultaneous measurements of the other networks Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Drive Tests for Optimization Initial network coverage verification and Verification before and after changes Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Verification before and after changes Locating and measuring interference Locating areas where traffic problems exist Simultaneous measurements of the other networks
  27. 27. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Drive Test Data Collection - CELL ID including BSIC, LAC, and time slot - RXLEVEL for the serving and the neighbour cells - RXQUALITY for the serving cell Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.27 Lucent Technologies - RXQUALITY for the serving cell - BCCH, BSIC for the serving and the neighbour cells - TIMING ADVANCE - TRANSMIT POWER - GPS POSITION DATA - TIME STAMPS Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Drive Test Data Collection CELL ID including BSIC, LAC, and time slot RXLEVEL for the serving and the neighbour cells RXQUALITY for the serving cell Lucent Technologies - Proprietary RXQUALITY for the serving cell BCCH, BSIC for the serving and the neighbour cells
  28. 28. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Drive Test Route Planning - Primary route(street level) Includes all major roads,highways and wide thoroughfares - Secondary route(street level) Includes all streets, subdivisions and compounds when Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.28 Lucent Technologies Includes all streets, subdivisions and compounds when accessable - Miscellaneous routes (in-building and special locations) Includes golf courses, beach resorts, shopping mails, department stores, convention centers, hotels and resorts Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Drive Test Route Planning Includes all major roads,highways and wide thoroughfares Secondary route(street level) Includes all streets, subdivisions and compounds when Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Includes all streets, subdivisions and compounds when building and special locations) Includes golf courses, beach resorts, shopping mails, department stores, convention centers, hotels and resorts
  29. 29. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Performance Problems that often encountered: - Cell Dragging - Dropped Calls Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.29 Lucent Technologies - Dropped Calls - Ping-Ponging - System Busy - Handover boundary Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Performance Problems that often encountered: Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
  30. 30. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Cell DraggingCell Dragging -- Calls may drag a cell beyond the desired handover boundary. This might result dropped calls or bad Rxquality. Suggestions: • Create an appropriate neighbour cell list Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.30 Lucent Technologies • Create an appropriate neighbour cell list • Change HO parameters such as thresholds, margin, cell baring, etc • Check serving cell’s cell identifier in the neighbour cell’s neighbour list • Check neighbour cell’s BCCH, BSIC, LAC, Cell ID, etc Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Calls may drag a cell beyond the desired handover boundary. This might result dropped calls or bad Create an appropriate neighbour cell list Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Create an appropriate neighbour cell list Change HO parameters such as thresholds, margin, cell Check serving cell’s cell identifier in the neighbour cell’s Check neighbour cell’s BCCH, BSIC, LAC, Cell ID, etc
  31. 31. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Dropped CallsDropped Calls -- Caused by either RF environments or incorrect system parameters Suggestions: • Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.31 Lucent Technologies • Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined • Check HO parameters • Existing or new coverage holes • Interference, Co-channels, Adjacent channels or External interference • Serving cells might go down, coverage smaller as before • Abnormalities such as call setup failure Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Caused by either RF environments or Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Existing or new coverage holes channels, Adjacent channels or External Serving cells might go down, coverage smaller as before Abnormalities such as call setup failure
  32. 32. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Ping PongingPing Ponging -- Serving keep changing and as a result of bad audio quality Suggestions: • Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.32 Lucent Technologies • Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined • Check HO parameters • Interference, Co-channels, Adjacent channels or External interference • Lack of dominant server • Poor coverage • Not optimal antenna configuration Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Serving keep changing and as a result of Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined channels, Adjacent channels or External Not optimal antenna configuration
  33. 33. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis System BusySystem Busy -- System busy on several call attempts and site appears consistently on the traffic report Suggestions: Short Term • Reduce the traffic on the congested cell/site. However, the Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.33 Lucent Technologies • Reduce the traffic on the congested cell/site. However, the proposed changes MUST NOT create any unacceptable problems such as coverage holes, dropped calls, etc Shot term solutions are re-design the antenna configuration, Add additional RTs, Change BTS configuration Long Term • Build a new cell site to off-load traffic Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis System busy on several call attempts and site appears consistently on the traffic report Reduce the traffic on the congested cell/site. However, the Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Reduce the traffic on the congested cell/site. However, the proposed changes MUST NOT create any unacceptable problems such as coverage holes, dropped calls, etc design the antenna configuration, Add additional RTs, Change BTS configuration load traffic
  34. 34. Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Handover BoundaryHandover Boundary -- Handovers do not occur at the desired HO boundary, the result is an imbalance in traffic distribution across the system Suggestions: • Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.34 Lucent Technologies • Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined • Check HO parameters • Inappropriate antenna configurations of the serving and neighbour cells • Interference, Co-channels, Adjacent channels or External interference • No TCH available (neighbour cells congestion) Drive Testing and AnalysisDrive Testing and Analysis Handovers do not occur at the desired HO boundary, the result is an imbalance in traffic distribution across the system Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Check if an appropriate neighbour cell list is defined Inappropriate antenna configurations of the serving and channels, Adjacent channels or External No TCH available (neighbour cells congestion)
  35. 35. Drive Test EquipmentDrive Test Equipment Typical example of drive test equipment components: • Test Mobile phone • Scanning receiver • Transceiver system • Antennas • GPS Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.35 Lucent Technologies • GPS • Visual display unit • Microphone • Loudspeaker box • Laptop computer Typical example of drive test equipment components: Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
  36. 36. Drive Test EquipmentDrive Test Equipment ERICSSON TEMS 900/1800 Test 2 Network simultaneously Full Layer 2 & 3 decoding Control of Layer 3 msg Forced selection of idle and dedicated mode Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.36 Lucent Technologies dedicated mode Filtering msg streams Rxqual in idle mode Sending SMS SIM card information COMARCO WIRELESS Test 4 networks simultaneously GSM 900/1800, ETACS, AMPS Partial Layer 2 & 3 decoding Fast scanning receiver, GSM RF Spectrum Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Spectrum Ability to display adjacent channel interference screen Noise measurements SAFECO WALKABOUT In-building coverage
  37. 37. Drive Test EquipmentDrive Test Equipment AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES(HP) Test 4 networks simultaneously Fast scanning receiver, UL & DL Frequency Hopping Table Spectrum Analysis Lucent Technologies Proprietary Use Pursuant to Company Instructions - All Rights Reservede No.37 Lucent Technologies Channel Power CW Measurement Interference Measurement GSM Broadcast Channel Analysis QVOICE98 Test 4 networks simultaneously Evaluate measurement both way Good Presentation Capable on measuring MOS, Speech Quality, Rxquality, Rxlevel Lucent Technologies - Proprietary Speech Quality, Rxquality, Rxlevel

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