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#Gamification through the Application of Motivational Affordances for Physical Activity Technology


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Age-differentiated motivational affordances conducive to designing physical activity technology apps for different age groups. this research was presented at CHIPLAY 2017 and can be downloaded from the folowing websites:

Published in: Technology
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#Gamification through the Application of Motivational Affordances for Physical Activity Technology

  1. 1. Gamification through the Application of Motivational Affordances for Physical Activity Technology Dennis L. Kappen, Dr. Pejman Mirza-Babaei, Dr. Lennart E. Nacke Twitter: @3D_ideation 1 Technology for Active Living Human-centric Gamification
  2. 2. When I feel like exercising, I lie down until the feeling passes - Robert M. Hutchins Image credit – Pete-Nowicki –
  3. 3. 1. Motives for participation in physical activity (PA) 2. Differentiating gamification elements and feedback elements 3. Age-differentiated guidelines 3 Takeaways
  4. 4. 4 “Everything for everybody is nothing for nobody” - Philip Kotler Motivation for Research Image credit - David-Marcu–
  5. 5. 5 Research Questions • Are there differences in motivation to participate in PA between adults from different age groups? Image credit – Terrell Woods– • Does the choice of motivational affordances change with age between the groups?
  6. 6. 6 Survey study • N=150 • Four age categories - PEW research on gaming technology • 18-29 (G1 - younger adults), • 30-49 (G2 - middle aged), • 50-64 (G3 - older adults), • 65+ (G4 - Seniors) • Exercise Motivation Inventory-2 (EMI-2, 51 Item, 14 dimensions)(Markland et al., 1999) Image credit – Julie Macey–
  7. 7. 7 Results Ill Health Avoidance and Health Pressures Significant difference between the groups in these two dimensions Image credit -
  8. 8. 8 Results Types of Feedback Older adults (50-64), and seniors (65+) preferred step counts, distance travelled and time taken as opposed to calories heart-rate preferred by younger and middle-aged adults Image credit -
  9. 9. 9 PA Motivation Older adults (50-64), and seniors (65+) were motivated by the steps completed, distance travelled compared to badges, and progression by younger adults, and calories and progression for middle-aged adults Results Image credit -
  10. 10. 10 Continuance of PA Older adults (50-64) preferred goals and distance travelled, Seniors (65+) preferred feedback and progression information, compared to badges and goals and feedback of time taken by younger and middle-aged adults Results Image credit – Curtis Macnewton –
  11. 11. 11 Facilitating Goals for PA While all four age-groups wanted specific goals, distance travelled and challenges were favoured by older adults (50-64) and seniors (65+) Results Image credit – Curtis Macnewton –
  12. 12. 12 Motivational Elements Gamified motivational affordances (Intrinsic elements) Goals, Challenges, Progression, Achievements, Choice/options, Quests, Social sharing Gamified motivational affordances (Extrinsic elements) Badges, Rewards, Points, Incentives, Leaderboards Feedback elements (Quantification elements) Calorie tracker, Step-counters, Distance travelled, Daily notifications, Time spent, Heart rate, Breathing rate, Sleep cycle, Sound inputs, Weight loss indicator, Physical form-checker, Gait/posture- checkerImage credit – Curtis Macnewton –
  13. 13. Age Category Design Guidelines for PA Technology 18-29 Combine goals and progression with a reward system Facilitate accomplishments through challenges Opportunity to earn badges and rewards while reaching goals 30-49 Combine feedback elements with progression and social sharing Provide a platform for achieving long-term goals Visual representation of progression and achievements 50-64 Incorporate daily, weekly and monthly progression elements Provide for benchmarked physical activity markers Autonomy with goal selection and types of feedback 65+ Indicators for progress or improvement Integrate choice of exercise types and intensity Continuous feedback loops providing validation of efforts
  14. 14. •Tailoring gamification elements to: •Address needs and wants of the demographic •Provide for customization and personalization •Age-differentiated motivational affordances 14 Conclusion
  15. 15. 11/2/2017 Dennis L. Kappen 15 .com Thank You Don’t Sit Still – Be Active @3D_ideation Imagecredit-Scott-Webb–