The Effects of Road Salt (NaCl) on the Survivorship of Two Vernal Pool-Breeding Amphibians: <br />The Wood Frog (Rana sylv...
“Why should we care if they all 	die? They are gross anyway!”<br />-BW student<br />
Well… Good Question<br />http://www.fishingfury.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/record-halibut.jpg<br />
Algae<br />http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/images/wsci_01_img0017.jpg<br />http://doctorswithoutborders.org/images/news/m...
So… What is going on?<br />E.O. Wilson says:<br />Habitat destruction<br />Invasive species<br />Population<br />Pollution...
What is a Vernal Pool??<br />Temporary<br />Form from melting snow and spring rains<br />Dry mid to late summer<br />Unpre...
Vernal Pool (cont.)<br />Contain one or more of four indicator species<br />Blue-spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma laterale)<...
Wood Frog <br />(Rana sylvatica)<br />http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/recreati/uvd/UVD_amphibians/uvdwoodfrog.html<br />http...
Wood Frog: Reproduction<br />
Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum)<br />http://www.vernalpool.org/images/21_ys_a.jpg<br />http://www.grizzlyrun.com/...
Spotted Salamander: Reproduction<br />
Egg Masses<br />http://www.vernalpool.org/images/115-js-ys-wf.jpg<br />
Salts as De-Icing Agents<br />NaCl most common<br />5 million tons/yr in Canada<br /> 10-15 million tons/yr in US<br />(En...
Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)<br />DomenicoSanzo, Stephen J. Hecnar 2003<br /...
Objective<br />Determine the effect of road salts, if any, on amphibians at environmentally relevant field concentrations<...
Study Location<br />Thunder Bay, Canada<br />Lakehead University Environmental Laboratories<br />http://www.lib.utexas.edu...
Field Concentrations<br />Water analysis of 59 wetlands<br />2 water samples from opposite ends of each<br />Analyzed in u...
Results: Field Concentration<br />Range in NaCl from 0.39 to 1030.00 mg/l<br />Seawater ~ 3.5% NaCl ( 19,400 mg/l)<br />Na...
Materials and Methods:Acute Toxicity<br />Experiment time 96 hours<br />
Methods cont.<br />Death defined: “… no response to continued prodding with a glass rod.”<br />
Results: Acute Toxicity<br />
Results: Acute Toxicity (cont.)<br />
Methods:Chronic Toxicity<br />30 tadpoles to each tank<br />
Methods (cont.)<br />
Results: Chronic Toxicity<br />
Mean time to Morph vs. Chronic Treatment concentrations<br />
Discussion<br />
Conclusions<br />Road salts have a negative impact<br />Chloride in roadside pools much higher than woodlands<br />Support...
Sara J. Collins, Ronald W. Russell 2006<br />Environmental pollution<br />Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians<...
Objective<br />“…examine how chloride concentrations in ponds, due to application of road salt, influence amphibian commun...
Nova Scotia<br />April-Sept. 2006<br />26 ponds<br />http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united_states/united_states_wall_2002_...
Field Methods<br />Water samples collected for lab analysis<br />May-September<br />
Chloride Concentrations<br />
Results: Species Richness<br />
Methods:Acute Toxicity<br />Larvae of 5 amphibian species:<br />Spotted Salamander<br />Spring Peeper<br />Wood Frog<br />...
Methods (cont.)<br />
Species Abundance vs. Chloride Concentrations<br />
Results: Acute Toxicity Tests<br />
Conclusions<br />Spotted Salamanders and Wood Frogs were most sensitive to NaCl<br />Road salt concentrations affected com...
Interpretation<br />		Exposure to road salts can affect amphibian community structure and species richness by excluding sa...
Overall Conclusions<br />At environmentally realistic concentrations, road salt caused physiological issues and decreased ...
This is not new information!<br />In 1859 Charles Darwin noted that “nearly all amphibians and their spawn were killed by ...
http://kornorstone.com/db3/00225/kornorstone.com/_uimages/BubbleBoy1.jpg<br />
Alternatives<br />Potassium Acetate               -76˚F                   $700-800/ton           Less toxic; less 								...
Future Studies<br />Why do higher salt concentrations cause tadpoles to metamorphose faster?<br />Why was there a spike in...
“We now face an extinction episode on this planet comparable to that which marked the end of the dinosaurs about 65 millio...
Thank You!!<br />BW Faculty:<br /><ul><li>Dr. Bumbulis
Dr. Barratt
Dr. Stanton</li></ul>Family:<br /><ul><li>Grandma Jojo
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Senior Seminar Presentation

  1. 1. The Effects of Road Salt (NaCl) on the Survivorship of Two Vernal Pool-Breeding Amphibians: <br />The Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica) and Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum)<br />Denise M. Roth<br />Baldwin-Wallace College<br />Department of Biology<br />May 1, 2009<br />
  2. 2. “Why should we care if they all die? They are gross anyway!”<br />-BW student<br />
  3. 3. Well… Good Question<br />http://www.fishingfury.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/record-halibut.jpg<br />
  4. 4. Algae<br />http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/images/wsci_01_img0017.jpg<br />http://doctorswithoutborders.org/images/news/malaria/malaria_header_550x367.jpg<br />
  5. 5. So… What is going on?<br />E.O. Wilson says:<br />Habitat destruction<br />Invasive species<br />Population<br />Pollution<br />Over-harvesting<br />http://farm1.static.flickr.com/123/330811704_282ee8a597.jpg<br />
  6. 6. What is a Vernal Pool??<br />Temporary<br />Form from melting snow and spring rains<br />Dry mid to late summer<br />Unpredictable<br />Naturally occurring<br />Shallow (4ft &gt; deep)<br />Impermeable substrate on bottom<br />Free of predatory fish<br />http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/amherst/images/vernalpool.jpg<br />
  7. 7. Vernal Pool (cont.)<br />Contain one or more of four indicator species<br />Blue-spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma laterale)<br />Fairy Shrimp (Anostraca)<br />Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica)<br />Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) <br />http://www.umaine.edu/wetlands/VPecology.htm<br />
  8. 8. Wood Frog <br />(Rana sylvatica)<br />http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/recreati/uvd/UVD_amphibians/uvdwoodfrog.html<br />http://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/commons/7/7f/Rana-sylvatica_Range.gif<br />
  9. 9. Wood Frog: Reproduction<br />
  10. 10. Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum)<br />http://www.vernalpool.org/images/21_ys_a.jpg<br />http://www.grizzlyrun.com/Files/Images/Image_Gallery/spotted_salamander_Range.gif<br />
  11. 11. Spotted Salamander: Reproduction<br />
  12. 12. Egg Masses<br />http://www.vernalpool.org/images/115-js-ys-wf.jpg<br />
  13. 13. Salts as De-Icing Agents<br />NaCl most common<br />5 million tons/yr in Canada<br /> 10-15 million tons/yr in US<br />(Environment Canada Website)<br />Lower freezing point of water! <br />melts at lower temperatures<br />Cheap <br />~$30/ton<br />Effective<br />Above ~ 15˚F<br />
  14. 14. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)<br />DomenicoSanzo, Stephen J. Hecnar 2003<br />Environmental pollution<br />
  15. 15. Objective<br />Determine the effect of road salts, if any, on amphibians at environmentally relevant field concentrations<br />Hypothesis:<br />Road salts have a negative effect on amphibians.<br />
  16. 16. Study Location<br />Thunder Bay, Canada<br />Lakehead University Environmental Laboratories<br />http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united_states/united_states_wall_2002_us.jpg<br />
  17. 17. Field Concentrations<br />Water analysis of 59 wetlands<br />2 water samples from opposite ends of each<br />Analyzed in university lab<br />Expected to see:<br />Salt concentrations negatively correlated with increasing distance of a wetland from the nearest road<br />Negative correlation between salt concentrations and species richness<br />
  18. 18. Results: Field Concentration<br />Range in NaCl from 0.39 to 1030.00 mg/l<br />Seawater ~ 3.5% NaCl ( 19,400 mg/l)<br />NaCl decreased with increasing distance from nearest road <br />Species richness negatively correlated with NaCl and <br />positively correlated with increasing distance to nearest road <br />
  19. 19. Materials and Methods:Acute Toxicity<br />Experiment time 96 hours<br />
  20. 20. Methods cont.<br />Death defined: “… no response to continued prodding with a glass rod.”<br />
  21. 21. Results: Acute Toxicity<br />
  22. 22. Results: Acute Toxicity (cont.)<br />
  23. 23. Methods:Chronic Toxicity<br />30 tadpoles to each tank<br />
  24. 24. Methods (cont.)<br />
  25. 25. Results: Chronic Toxicity<br />
  26. 26. Mean time to Morph vs. Chronic Treatment concentrations<br />
  27. 27. Discussion<br />
  28. 28. Conclusions<br />Road salts have a negative impact<br />Chloride in roadside pools much higher than woodlands<br />Supports hypothesis <br />Species richness negatively correlated with NaCl concentrations<br />Fewer tadpoles metamorphose with higher concentrations<br />Does this relate to other amphibians? and is the evidence conclusive?<br />
  29. 29. Sara J. Collins, Ronald W. Russell 2006<br />Environmental pollution<br />Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians<br />
  30. 30. Objective<br />“…examine how chloride concentrations in ponds, due to application of road salt, influence amphibian community structure and richness in roadside wetlands of Nova Scotia.”<br />Hypothesis:<br />Elevated Chloride concentrations affect amphibian populations<br />
  31. 31. Nova Scotia<br />April-Sept. 2006<br />26 ponds<br />http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united_states/united_states_wall_2002_us.jpg<br />
  32. 32. Field Methods<br />Water samples collected for lab analysis<br />May-September<br />
  33. 33. Chloride Concentrations<br />
  34. 34. Results: Species Richness<br />
  35. 35. Methods:Acute Toxicity<br />Larvae of 5 amphibian species:<br />Spotted Salamander<br />Spring Peeper<br />Wood Frog<br />Green Frog<br />American Toad<br />
  36. 36. Methods (cont.)<br />
  37. 37. Species Abundance vs. Chloride Concentrations<br />
  38. 38. Results: Acute Toxicity Tests<br />
  39. 39. Conclusions<br />Spotted Salamanders and Wood Frogs were most sensitive to NaCl<br />Road salt concentrations affected community structure<br />Sensitive species were absent from high chloride concentrated ponds<br />Acute toxicity results supported field observations<br />Behavioral changes could result in reduction of species fitness<br />
  40. 40. Interpretation<br /> Exposure to road salts can affect amphibian community structure and species richness by excluding salt-sensitive species from high chloride environments<br />
  41. 41. Overall Conclusions<br />At environmentally realistic concentrations, road salt caused physiological issues and decreased survivorship in amphibians.<br />Acute toxicity results of both studies showed high rates of mortality<br />Chronic exposure caused physiological differences<br />
  42. 42. This is not new information!<br />In 1859 Charles Darwin noted that “nearly all amphibians and their spawn were killed by sea water”<br />(Origin of Species) <br />
  43. 43. http://kornorstone.com/db3/00225/kornorstone.com/_uimages/BubbleBoy1.jpg<br />
  44. 44. Alternatives<br />Potassium Acetate -76˚F $700-800/ton Less toxic; less corrosive; can cause %50 solution irritation if inhaled <br />
  45. 45. Future Studies<br />Why do higher salt concentrations cause tadpoles to metamorphose faster?<br />Why was there a spike in survival from 7500-9000 mg/l?<br />Possible mutagenic effects of developing tadpoles<br />Effects of other road salts on these two species<br />Reasons for salt tolerance seen in the American Toad<br />Long term effects on community structure<br />How chemical runoff affects people<br />
  46. 46. “We now face an extinction episode on this planet comparable to that which marked the end of the dinosaurs about 65 million years ago”(Planet Earth Episode 1)<br />
  47. 47. Thank You!!<br />BW Faculty:<br /><ul><li>Dr. Bumbulis
  48. 48. Dr. Barratt
  49. 49. Dr. Stanton</li></ul>Family:<br /><ul><li>Grandma Jojo
  50. 50. Parents</li></ul>Friends… all of you!<br />
  51. 51. Questions?<br />
  52. 52. Function of Chloride<br />Chloride: membrane function and water absorption<br />In the body reacts with potassium<br />Helps maintain osmotic equilibrium by creating concentration gradient<br />through ATP either goes in to the cell or leaves the cell ~ based on solute concentration in the water vs. solute in the cell<br />Moves from high to low concentrations<br />Helps maintain pH<br />Kidney function: co-transport proteins<br />Na+, K+, Cl -<br />

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