Tanzanian media position in framing crime issues

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The major objective of this study was to assess the role of Tanzanian media in framing crime issues. The study was guided by specific objectives; to find out the framing progressions of crime stories reported by TBC 1 and to ascertain how TBC 1’s images can directly affect the public perception about crime.
The study was guided by framing theory which is an extension of agenda setting theory by Walter Lippmann and later extended by Maxwell McCombs. The theory states that media doesn’t tell people what to think rather what to think about.
The researcher used interviews and questionnaires to collect data. The findings show there are framing practices which are persisting in TBC 1's operations due to various influences among others, the power of technocrats. The findings also show that not every crime is framed but rather there are some categorizations according to the type of crime.

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Tanzanian media position in framing crime issues

  1. 1. ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIAFaculty of Social Sciences and CommunicationsTanzanian media position in framing crime issuesA case of TBC 1Research Report on Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Award of BachelorDegree of Art in Mass Communication Submitted to the Department of Journalism andMass Communication of SAUTMary KimitiJune, 2013
  2. 2. DeclarationI, Mary Kimiti, declare that this research is my original work and has not been presentedin any other University for similar award.Signature: _________________________Date:________________________________________________________________Denis Mpagaze (research supervisor)Date: ______________________________i
  3. 3. CopyrightThis research report is a copyright material protected under the Berne Convection Act of1999 and the other international and national enactments, on that behalf of the intellectualproperty. It may not be reproduced by any means, in full or in part, except for shortextracts in fair dealing, for research or private study, critical scholarly review ordiscourse with acknowledgement, without written permission of author or dean offaculty, head of department, or supervisor of this research on behalf of the author and theSt Augustine University of Tanzania.ii
  4. 4. DedicationThis work is dedicated to my late and lovely parentsiii
  5. 5. iv
  6. 6. AcknowledgmentFirst of all, I would like to thank the Almighty God for giving me the gift of life, strengthand wisdom to carry out this research.Special thanks go to my major supervisor, Mr. Denis Mpagaze, for her patience,understanding, guidance, and most of all the encouragement he has given me during thiswork. May the Almighty God bless you with happy and healthy life all the time. I wouldalso like to thank all special people to me especially Sr. Immaculate Lekule ,RichardRupia, Eva Kimiti ,Paul Nyoni for their advice, encouragement and moral supportVery special thanks go all those people for their love, understanding and financial supportduring my undergraduate studies at SAUT. Mentioning you all by names wouldn’t bepossible.Thank you.v
  7. 7. AbstractThe major objective of this study was to assess the role of Tanzanian media in framingcrime issues. The study was guided by specific objectives; to find out the framingprogressions of crime stories reported by TBC 1 and to ascertain how TBC 1’s imagescan directly affect the public perception about crime.The study was guided by framing theory which is an extension of agenda setting theoryby Walter Lippmann and later extended by Maxwell McCombs. The theory states thatmedia doesn’t tell people what to think rather what to think about.The researcher used interviews and questionnaires to collect data. The findings showthere are framing practices which are persisting in TBC 1s operations due to variousinfluences among others, the power of technocrats. The findings also show that not everycrime is framed but rather there are some categorizations according to the type of crime.vi
  8. 8. ContentsDeclaration......................................................................................................................................iCopyright........................................................................................................................................iiDedication......................................................................................................................................iiiAcknowledgment............................................................................................................................vAbstract..........................................................................................................................................viContents........................................................................................................................................viiCHAPTER ONE.................................................................................................................................1Problem setting ..............................................................................................................................11.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................11.2 Background of the study.......................................................................................................11.3 Statement of the problem....................................................................................................21.4 Research objectives .............................................................................................................21.4.1 Main Objective...................................................................................................................21.4.2 Specific objectives..............................................................................................................21.5 Research questions...............................................................................................................21.6 Significance of the study.......................................................................................................21.7 Limitations of the study........................................................................................................31.8 Acronym Definition of key terms..........................................................................................3CHAPTER TWO ...............................................................................................................................4Literature Review............................................................................................................................42.1 Theoretical argument...........................................................................................................42.2 Theoretical framework..........................................................................................................62.2.1.Framing. Framing theory....................................................................................................62.3 Empirical Literature...............................................................................................................72.4 Research Gap........................................................................................................................8CHAPTER THREE............................................................................................................................10Research Methodology.................................................................................................................103.0 Introduction........................................................................................................................103.1 Research design..................................................................................................................10vii
  9. 9. 3.2 Population of the study.......................................................................................................113.3 Area of the study.................................................................................................................113.4 Sampling technique............................................................................................................113.5 Sample size.........................................................................................................................113.6 Methods of data collection.................................................................................................113.7 Methods of data analysis ...................................................................................................12CHAPTER FOUR.............................................................................................................................13Findings.........................................................................................................................................134.0 Introduction........................................................................................................................13CHAPTER FIVE...............................................................................................................................20Discussion.....................................................................................................................................20Recommendations ...................................................................................................................23REFERENCESReferences ...............................................................................................................25Appendix One...............................................................................................................................27Questionnaire for TV audience.....................................................................................................27viii
  10. 10. CHAPTER ONEProblem setting1.1 IntroductionThis chapter presents background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives ofthe study research question, significance of the study and limitations of the study anddefinition of the terms.1.2 Background of the studyNews and stories about crimes are prominent in all media. While there is an evidence ofthe increase of the attention to crime in some parts of the media, overall it has beenfascinating throughout media history. The risk of crime as it is portrayed by most of themedia is both quantitative and qualitatively although the media underplay the currentprobabilities of victimization by property crime (Duorkin, 2005).According to Crime has become one of the few enduring news topic together withdisasters and politics, both academic and public attention focused in media image ofcrime.VictimPolitics. Victim of crime reporting with their families and friends often are foundthemselves in the subject of the media coverage, regardless whether they agree toparticipate directlyectctly or not and this is against human rights.1
  11. 11. 1.3 Statement of the problemAt the heart of crime reporting there must be an intensive consultation and participationof audience on what to be viewed and what not to be viewed due to some notable impactswhich are directed to them, somethem. Some advantages of doing so are inclusive inofproduction of lesser aggressive contents which would not distort moral values of thesociety. Therefore the focus of the present1.4 Research objectives1.4.1 Main ObjectiveTo assess Tanzanian media position in framing crime issues1.4.2 Specific objectives• To find out the framing progressions of crime stories reported by TBC 1• To ascertain how TBC 1’s images can directly affect the public perception aboutcrime1.5 Research questions• What are the framing progressions of crime stories reported by TBC 1?• How TBC 1’s images can directly affect the public perception about crime?1.6 Significance of the studyThe major significance of this study is to create awareness to the society, government andmedia men about crime reporting, chiefly on its practices and effects in the country. Theknowledge from this research will enable lead media practitioners to monitor their2
  12. 12. reportingage values by reducing aggressive and violent contents in their daily reportingwhich in larger contexts affects some members in the society negatively.1.7 Limitations of the studyThe study was is limited to one television station that is Tanzania BroadcastingCorporation (TBC 1) because it wasill be easy to get relevant required information ratherthan involving many television stations. also, among other reasons TBC 1 is one amongthe prominent television stations which covers different stories including crime news incomprehensive ways.1.8 Acronym Definition of key termsTBC 1- refers to Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation channel.3
  13. 13. CHAPTER TWOLiterature Review2.1 Theoretical argumentThe public concern and fear of crime iscrime is influenced by different sources. It wasinvestigated that most of the public do not have direct contact with serious crimes.Instead, the public is exposed to crime and criminal justice processes from vicarioussources of information, such as news media. Newspapers, television and radios areamong the best influential sources used by public to develop opinions about crime andcriminal justice system. (Haines, 2007)An important challenge to news media is to report on crime about victims withoutvictirevialimizing themthem. It should be understood that it, is important for as well thatvictims who wanted to tell their stories had right respresented with the assurance that theywould still receive fair treatment. Giving victims a chance to feel their stories can helptheir recovery (Mc Fadden, 1990)4
  14. 14. Baran (2001) arguesd that most of the crimes are not reported, not recorded, and notfollowed through or not able to be proved.ButProved. But on his side Leon (2002)’s previous research shows that crime storiescompose a plurality of stories in local television news broadcasts, in addition as a publicissue, crime is covered more often than all other public issues combined.Crime is sensationalized, with important implications for the fear of crime among certainsections of the population. This fear was heightened by the way in which crime was seento be random in nature, with any one and every one a possible target for victimization.(Rainer, 2005)Many subsequent studies show that the role of the media to is shapeing the boundaries ofcriminality by creating new categories of offence, or by changing perceptions andsensitivities, leading to fluctuations in apparent crime.Victims of crime reporting with their families and friends often are found themselves thesubject of media coverage, regardless whether they agree to participate directly.Frame settingFrame setting refers to the interaction between media frames and individuals’ priorknowledge and predispositions. Frames in news may affect learning, interpretation, andevaluation of issues and events.Moreover Iyengar (2005) examined the use of episodic (event-based) and thematic(issue-based) forms of presentation in news production on people’s responsibility5
  15. 15. attribution on each issue. He found that the types of responsibility for crime and terrorismfell into three categories: individual, punitive and societal responsibilities.He also argued that opinions and attitudes on crime issues are more vulnerable to theeffects of the news than to political leanings. However, he suggested that an expandedlook at crime stories in local television news would be appropriate, considering therelatively strong effects of framing in crime stories on national news (Iyengar Ibid, 2005).2.2 Theoretical framework2.2.1.Framing. Framing theoryFraming theory was an extension of Agenda setting theory which primarily developed byWalter Lippmann and later patented by Maxwell McCombs as it states that media doesn’ttell us what to think but rather what to think about, Howeverabout. However, the framingtheory is more focused. , Baran and Davis (2009) explain that the framing theory“examines the idea about how people use expectations to make sense of everyday life”.The basis of framing theory is that the media focuses attention on certain events and thenplaces them within a field of meaning. This field of meaning can have an effect onaudiencesaudience’s beliefs, attitudes, and behavioursbehaviors by connecting aparticular meaning on interpretation on an issue.The framing theory refers to not only how audience is influenced and interprets what ispresented to them by the media, but also refers to the media ability to persuade itsaudiences to accept one meaning of a concept over another (Ibid,Baran, 2009)Framing a news story regarding the public issue creates a slant or spin that may affect theway news consumer understands the issue, as well as the policies they prefer as a remedy.6
  16. 16. Framing is inherently a part of news construction, certain fact exists for each issue orevent reported in the news, and newsmakers must choose which facts to include orexclude in their reporting.The researcher appliedy this theory as a building block of the entire study whichestablished the basis for defining the practices and influences of media in projecting thecomposed sets of messages to audience. Theory will guided the researcher to study aboutthe position of Tanzanian press in framing crime stories.2.3 Empirical LiteratureMedia coverage of crime had long been the focus of researchers in the field of masscommunication. The empirical studies of crime news reporting process suggested that thedeterministic implications of hegemonic model require qualification. They did notoverthrow its fundamental implications, however criteria leading to the selection ofparticular types of stories and perspective (Greer, 2007)Gant and Dimmick (2006) asserted that althoughthat although media shaped ourperceptions of reality of crime around us .Such media cratesd reality influencinge peoplewho express their opinion that crime is the most important problem facing the society.Broadcast news generally devoted more attention to crime reports than newspapers.There arewere also variations in the proportion of crime news items between differentmarkets. Commercial of crime news stories overall than the BBC, although the latercarried more reports about crime in general and criminal justice, crime news was morefrequent than any other category for every medium at each market level (Cumberbatch,2005).7
  17. 17. Crime news exhibits remarkably similar patterns in studies conducted at many differenttimes and places. From earliest studies example (Harris 1932) onwards, analyses of newsreports have found that crimes of violence are featured disproportionately compared totheir incidence in official crime statistics. Indeed a general finding has been the lack ofrelationship between patterns and trends in crime news and crime statistics.Crime reporting has been a major issue in the world today .The culture of crime reportingis an interesting phenomenon. This is supported by (Friedman, 2006) crime andpunishment in America, Crime reporting has risen by 700 percent since 1970, even thenation’s crime rate has declined by 4 percent during that same period.In Tanzania the study conducted by “Tanzania Crime News” showed that mostly innational news crime is reported involving celebrities and world leaders, crime of unusualnature, trials of crime which challenge the law and set precedents, crime that presentstrends of national concern. The reporters yet do not know the type of crime to be shownto the audience since when they report about a particular crime, they do not show theviewer discretion to warn the audience about a particular crime story which may beharmful to some people like children and old people (Tanzania Crime News, 2010)2.4 Research GapDifferent research concerning crime reportage in media had tried to look at the negativeside effects of crime reporting such as aggressive behavioursbehaviors. i.e. (Friedman,2006), “Crime and punishment in America”. Greer (2007) in his research argued thattelevision networks are essential sources of increasing aggressive behavioursbehaviors tothe audience due to the kind of crime news they showed. But they had failed to show the8
  18. 18. practices of it which led to media people to produce news which had criminology contentwith viewer discretion.Also some studies have indicated that children are the mostly affected group when itcome to crime coverage (Yankey, 2006) while, there are other affected people like oldpeople and other minor groups. This research will filled out the gap by providingnecessary information about crime reporting on its practices and effects.9
  19. 19. CHAPTER THREEResearch Methodology3.0 IntroductionThis chapter discusses included research design, population of study, area of the study,sampling techniques, sample size, methods of data collection and methods of dataanalysis.3.1 Research designResearch design is defined as the arrangement of conditions for collecting and analysis ofthe data, aiming to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure(Kothari, 2004,p.: 31). It is therefore a framework for the data collection and analysisrelating them to the research objectives. The design helps the researcher to get relevantdata to achieve the objective of the study.The researcher used case study research design, which gaveives the directions andsystematizes the research and concern with qualitative phenomena. relating or involvingquality or kind. The researcher obtained data by studying the general public viewers andmedia professionals working in TBC 1. The research design was useful for testingwhether scientific theories and models could were actually work in real world,world; alsoit provided more realistic responses than purely statistical survey.A case study is in depth study of a particular situation rather than a sweeping statisticalsurvey. It is a method that is used to narrow down a very broad field of research into oneeasily researchable topic. (Martyn, 2008)10
  20. 20. 3.2 Population of the studyThe targeted population of the study wasis the media professionals who are working atTBC 1 in Dar-es-salaam and other ordinary viewers of TBC 1 news. A researchpopulation is generally a large collection of individuals or objects that is the movingfocus of a scientific query.3.3 Area of the studyThe study was carried out in Dar es Salaam region where TBC 1 television headquartersis located. , thisThis is the mediuma which broadcast news and programmes throughoutthe country, Itcountry. It also functions as educative and informative tool of Tanzaniansociety.3.4 Sampling techniqueThe research was conducted using purposive sampling technique because it will helpedher to increase the utility of the findings and it is also it is less costly. Therefore thissampling waswill be more convenient to the researcher to accomplish the main objectiveof the study.3.5 Sample sizeThe study included 25 respondents from the total population whereby 20 respondentswere will be the viewers of TBC 1 news programmes and 5 respondents will be theweremedia professionals who are working at TBC 1 Television.3.6 Methods of data collectionThe researcher employed questionnaires and interviews. According to Kothari (2004)questionnaires and interviews are useful when the research does not take time to be11
  21. 21. conducted when an observation method can be used. Also Cohenel et al (2000)discourage the use of only one technique as it ownowns distant the reality of what theresearcher is investigating, the study employed two instruments for data for datacollection which are questionnaires and interviews as indicated before..The researcher used both structured and unstructured questions to the respondents fromwhich the structured or pre-determined questions provides limited response from therespondents and some few unstructured questions which gave the freedom to respondentsto give further elaborations about the study.3.7 Methods of data analysisThe researcher used qualitative and quantitative method in analyzing and interpreting theinformation obtained in the field. Both primary and secondary data werewas presentedand analyzed using quantitative method where percentages and tables were was usedeffectively, while qualitative method used the elaborations and descriptions of facts.Moreover data displayed enabled, the researcher to organize and assemble the data topermit drawing of conclusions and actions. The data collected was be codedwere coded,decoded and analyzed using percentages and tables.12
  22. 22. CHAPTER FOURFindings4.0 IntroductionThis chapter presents findings collected through questionnaires and interviews on thestudy conducted in Dar es salaamSalaam city. The study aimed at assessing Tanzaniamedia in framing crime issues with the case of TBC 1. The data have been analyzed andpresented by using objectives of the study which are to assess Tanzanian media positionin framing crime issues, to find out the progressions of crime stories reported by TBC 1,and to ascertain how TBC 1’s images can directly affect the public perception aboutcrime.4.1 Demographic characteristicsAll tTwenty five questionnaires distributed were filled out and returned to the researcher.Out of 25 filled out questionnaires, 20 respondents were TBC1 viewers (audience),hestudy was conducted using (25) questionnaires which were distributed and returned filledfrom respondents whereby (20) were filled by viewers of TBC 1, and the remaining (5)were given to media experts. This can be illustrated in table 4.1.the following figure:-Table 4.1 characteristics of respondentsRespondents Male FemaleTBC 1Mediamen 3 2TBC I Viewers 12 8Total 15 10Source: Researcher 201213
  23. 23. 4.2. FindingsObjective One: To find out framing progressions of crime stories reported by TBC 1The respondents under this objective were asked to fill out questionnaires whichmagnified the essence of the study as follows;.4.2 .1. State of crime news framingQuestion MeasurementResponse PercentageAre there any attemptsthat show framing ofthe crime stories?Yes 19 76%No 6 24%Total 25 100%Source: Field data 2012The above findings shows that (19) respondents equals to 76% said there are attemptswhich show framing of the crime stories while (6) respondents equals to 24% denied thatthere are no any attempts that show framing of crime stories. Among the respondents (4)respondents from TBC 1 corresponding to 16% denied that there is any news framingelement.4.2.23 Genres which observes framing crime newsQuestion Measurement ResponsePercentageIn which element ofTBC 1 reports do youthink the crime storiesNews stories 15 60%Documentaries 4 16%14
  24. 24. can be framed?Interviews 1 4%Non among mentioned 5 20%Total 25 100%Source: Field data 2012According to findings presented in Table 4.2.2. (15) respondentsRespondentscorresponding to 60% noted that framing can be done in TBC 1’s news stories, (4)respondents equal to 16% said it can occur in documentaries, (1) noted it can occur iniInterview and (5) rejected the possibility of news framing in TBC 1’s elements.4.2.3.4 Influence of framing newsQuestion Measurement Response PercentageAmong these whichcan be a possibleinfluence behind thecrime news framingin TBC 1?Authoritarianpower10 40%Self-censorship 8 32%Ethicalimplications5 20%All mentionedfactors2 8%Total 25 100%Source: Field data 2012The Table 4.2.3.figure above illustrates the responses showing possible influences ofnews framing from which (10) respondents equals to 40% cited authoritarian power asthe influence behind news framing, (8) respondents the same to 32% mentioned self-censorship, (5) respondents equals to 20% cited ethical implication and (2) correspondingto 8% said all mentioned factors can influence news framing.15
  25. 25. Objective two: to ascertain how TBC 1’s images can directly affect the publicperception about crime.16
  26. 26. 4.2.4.5 The public perception over news facts produced by TBC 1Question MeasurementResponsePercentageHow do youregularly perceivenews from TBC 1?Unframed 9 36%Framed 11 44%Neutral 5 20%Total 25 100%Source: Field data, 2012The findings revealed that (9) respondents equal to 36% perceive TBC 1’s news asunframed while (11) respondents equivalent to 44% perceived the station’ news asframed and (5) respondents equal to 20% perceived TBC 1’s news as neutral.4.2.5.6 Correlation between TBC 1’s presentations and publics’ experience of crimeQuestion MeasurementResponse PercentageDoes TBC 1 reportsappealing to yourpersonal experienceof crimesYes 13 52%No 12 48%Total 25 100%Source: Field data, 2012The findings indicated that (13) respondents equal to 52% said TBC 1s presentations areappealing to their personal experience of crime while (12) respondents the same to 48%noted that the reports are not appealing to their experience of crime issues.17
  27. 27. 4.2.6.7 Relevance of TBC 1’s crime stories to social groupsQuestion MeasurementResponse PercentageDoes TBC 1’s imagesof crime storiesrelevant to all groupsYes 18 72%No 7 28%Total 25 100%Source: Field data, 2012According to above table (18) respondents equivalent to 72% said the images of crimestories given by TBC1 are relevant to all groups while (7) respondents equals to 28% saidthat the images of crime stories are not relevant to all groups.4.2.67 Critics for relevance of TBC 1’s images on crime storiesAccording to Table 4.2.6figure 4.7, 28% of respondents argued that the images of crimestories are not relevant to all social groups giving out some reasons to defend their claimas outlined below:-• The mode of presentation was characterized by unethical practices such aspresenting images showing grief or bloodsheds for example killings of suspects,accidents,• Suspects are presented by the station as if they are innocent and not attached toany crime scandals. For example the framed events of fundraising and social18
  28. 28. responsibility are covering some corrupt leaders as if they are good figures andhence making us forget about their corrupt nature.• Most of events are narrated out of the reality, journalists of TBC 1 are regularlyproducing delayed crime events and sometimes without pictures. They are usuallyon their interpretations rather than freshness of the facts.19
  29. 29. CHAPTER FIVEDiscussion5.1 IntroductionThis chapter presents discussions and analysis of the findings which were presented inthe previous chapter based on research specific objectives. Further in this chaptersummary and recommendations will be discussed accordingly.5.2 Objective oneThe first specific objective to be discussed in this study was to find out the framingprogressions of crime stories reported by TBC 1 whereby the findings shows that thereare outstanding news framing in TBC 1 where by 76by 76% affirmed that there are some20
  30. 30. notifications which shows framing practices, while 24% among them 16% were TBC 1smedia men disagreed with the existence of framing in TBC 1. While identifying themajor areas where crime issues are framed 60% cited news programs, 16% mentioneddocumentaries 4% interviews and 20% cited nothing among mentioned.On the influence of crime news framing, 40% of respondents cited authoritarianinfluence, 32% self censorship, 20% ethical implications and 8% said all the mentionedtenets influences crime news framing. Beyond such description the issue of crime newsframing has mentioned for a long time as undisclosed and operated in a highlyconfidential manner, but according to responses it seems that some of crime issues areintentionally framed or misrepresented in order to serve personal interests. Someresearches done in Tanzania indicates that public responses over media messagesconcerning corruption is less, and therefore the findings of this study shows thatindividuals are aware of framing and priming and therefore such understanding might beamong the factors for less response in crime reports especially corruption scandals.5.3 Objective twoThe second and last specific objective of this study was to ascertain how TBC 1’s imagescan directly affect the public perception about crime. The findings presented in previouschapter indicates that 44% respondents label TBC 1s images as framed, 36% perceivedthem as unframed and 20% perceive them as neutral. In other research question thefindings shows that 52% of respondents perceive TBC 1s images as appealing to their21
  31. 31. personal experience while 48% asserted that crime images presented by TBC 1 are notappealing to their personal experience of crimes. 72% of respondents said TBC 1simages are relevant to all social groups while 28% said images are not relevant.Respondents who said that the images are relevant did not give out more attributes ofhow relevant are the images but in contrast respondents who rejected that the images arerelevant pointed out that presentations are sometimes characterized by unethical practicessuch as presenting images showing grief or bloodsheds likefor example killings ofsuspects, Also they added that suspects are presented by TBC 1 as if they are innocent and notattached to any crime scandals. For example events of fundraising and socialresponsibility are covering some corrupt leaders as if they are good figures and hencemaking us forget about their corrupt nature.In addition to above descriptions the issue of crime news framing has less impact inchanging the way individuals view crimes since individuals are aware of news framingand the influence behind the framing.5.4 SummaryThe research came out with observations which responded to research questions where asthe responses indicated that crime news faming is progressively conducted in TBC 1sprograms whereby news category was cited as most framed genre than others. All thesewasthese were done with a relatively sensitive awareness of audience.22
  32. 32. However, the influence from authoritative technocrats of TBC 1 has been cited as themajor reason for crime news framing whereas major crime issues which are restructuredbefore presented were explicitly mentioned as corruption and violence committed byindividuals who are possessing high reputation in the state.In other dimension, respondents created the paradox on their identification concerningcrime news framing and relevance of respective images. theyThey have asserted that theyknow that images are framed but at the same time responded that such images arerelevant to all groups of people. Such assertion reveals the kind of audience who tends toagree with media messages despites that they have noted some manipulative elementsbehind such messages.RecommendationsFollowing the findings and analysis of this research, the researcher would like to makethe following recommendations:-First, because news framing is a core aspect in media operation, crime news framing inTBC 1 has to observe ethical implication than any influence whether backed byinstitutions or individuals. If the goings-on will be tolerated more people will lose trust inimages and reports produced by not only TBC 1 but also entire media in Tanzania.Second, eExpanding the scope of crime news reporting, Tanzanian media has to expandthe conception of crime news so that to indicate more hidden incidences which are likelyto occur regularly without public awareness.For example TBC 1 has to report public embezzlement issue as among the hilting crimesand not like scandalized materials. Bbroadening the scope went hand in hand with23
  33. 33. increasing investigative techniques which might reveal undisclosed crimes informationhappening among individuals as well as within private and public institutions.Third, regulative organs have to become sensitive over extreme framing and priming ofcrime images which in greater context they tend to mislead the audience from the truthand cause chaos, hatred and grief.Fourth, since TBC is operating in a society which has less response to sensitive issues ithas to frame issues in a way that could stimulate the public-debate on how to combatcrimes at every societal level.24
  34. 34. REFERENCESReferencesHaines.(. (2007).Crime and Regulation in the international Library of criminology.Friedman,(2006).Crime and punishment in AmericaThe study conducted by Tanzaniaby Tanzania crime news(news (2010)Yankees.(. (2006). News, crime and court.Semekto,H.A, And Valkenburg P.M(2006).Framing European politics: content analysisof press and television news. Journal of communiationcommunication, pg 30,93-109Overview of agenda setting research in journal of communication(communication(1993).Symposium: agenda setting revisited43(revisited43 (2),58-127Fairhurst,G&Star,R.(1996).The art of framing. Sanfrancisco Josse-BassBenjamin I.(. (2006).’Who Deliberates? Mass Media in modern democracy’’.ChicagoUniversity of Chicago PressBraham.(. (2007),’’Media, knowledge and Power’’,London, London,Groom, GroomHelm.Curran,JCurran.(. (2006)” Mass Media and society”,Bloomsburt,England, Bloomsburt,England.Ditton,J, J.(. (2005),”Fear of Crime and the Media;AssessingMedia; Assessing thelackylack of Relation,Crime,Media,Culture, Crime, Media, Culture”,News, News YorkUSA.Howwit,C, C.(. (2007)”Media made CrriminalityCriminality”,MacMillan, MacMillanInc,USA, USA.John,C, C.(. (2009),”Psychology of Television”,Hillsdale,New, Hillsdale, New York.Wincup,E, E.(. (2005),’’ Criminology’’,Oxford, Oxford;Oxford; Oxford UniversityPress,Uk, Uk.Patton,M.Q, (M.Q (2005)’’Qualitative Evaluation and Research methods’’2ndEd,Newbury, Newbury Park:SagePark: Sage.25
  35. 35. Papke.D.R,(, (2007),’’Framing the Criminal:Crime,Cultural: Crime, Cultural work andthe loss of Critical perspectives’’.Hamdenperspectives’’. Hamden,CT:Shoe, CT: ShoeString Press.Livingstone,ELivingstone.(. (2005),’’Making Sense of Television’’,London,Pergamon,London, Pergamon.Levi,M, M,(, (2005),’’White Collar Crime in the News”,cullompton,UK, cullompton,UK.Kothari,R.C, R.C.(. (2004) Research Methodology.MethodsMethodology. Methods andTechnique,India.New, India. New Age International(International (p) Ltd26
  36. 36. Appendix OneQuestionnaire for TV audiencePLEASE TICK THE ANSWERS OF YOUR CHOICE ([S) AND MENTION OR GIVE SUGGESTION WHEREAPPROPRIATE1.Sex1. Sexa)MaleA) Male ( ) b)Female) (Female ( )2.Education2. Education levela)PrimaryA) Primary level ( ) b)Secondary) Secondary level ( ) c) c)University) Universitylevel(level ( )3.Do3. Do you watch news that being reported by TBC1?a)YA) Y es ( ) b) No ( )4.Do you understand the concept of crime reported by media?a)YesA) Yes ( ) b)No) No ( )5.To5. To what extent does television shows high rated crime stories to the viewrsviewers?a) Low(Low ( ) b) Average(Average ( ) c)High) (High ( ) d)Highest) Highest ( )6.Does6. Does crime reported by media affect you in one way or another?a) Yes ( ) b)No) No ( )7.Have7. Have you ever been a victim of crime reported by media?a)YesA) (Yes ( ) b)No) (No ( )8.Do8. Do you approve of the way TBC1 report crime news?a)YesA) (Yes ( ) b) b)No) (No ( )9.By9. By your understanding,whichunderstanding, which group in the society is mostlyvictimized with crime reporingreporting by televiosiontelevision?a) Women ( ) b)Children) (Children ( ) c)Men) (Men ( ) d)Old) Old people(people ( )Gives reasons to the account;…………………………………………………………………………account …10.Do. Do you think television’s owners are aware of the kind of crime stories which are beingreported by their stations lead to victimization and effect to the audienceaudience?27
  37. 37. a)YesA) (Yes ( ) b) No) (No ( )Gives reasons to the account;……………………………………………………………………………..account…28

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